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存在主义是一种人道主义part2

(2010-01-25 22:34:30)
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The word “subjectivism” is to be understood in two senses, and our adversaries play upon only one of them. Subjectivism means, on the one hand, the freedom of the individual subject and, on the other, that man cannot pass beyond human subjectivity. It is the latter which is the deeper meaning of existentialism. When we say that man chooses himself, we do mean that every one of us must choose himself; but by that we also mean that in choosing for himself he chooses for all men. For in effect, of all the actions a man may take in order to create himself as he wills to be, there is not one which is not creative, at the same time, of an image of man such as he believes he ought to be. To choose between this or that is at the same time to affirm the value of that which is chosen; for we are unable ever to choose the worse. What we choose is always the better; and nothing can be better for us unless it is better for all. If, moreover, existence precedes essence and we will to exist at the same time as we fashion our image, that image is valid for all and for the entire epoch in which we find ourselves. Our responsibility is thus much greater than we had supposed, for it concerns mankind as a whole. If I am a worker, for instance, I may choose to join a Christian rather than a Communist trade union. And if, by that membership, I choose to signify that resignation is, after all, the attitude that best becomes a man, that man’s kingdom is not upon this earth, I do not commit myself alone to that view. Resignation is my will for everyone, and my action is, in consequence, a commitment on behalf of all mankind. Or if, to take a more personal case, I decide to marry and to have children, even though this decision proceeds simply from my situation, from my passion or my desire, I am thereby committing not only myself, but humanity as a whole, to the practice of monogamy. I am thus responsible for myself and for all men, and I am creating a certain image of man as I would have him to be. In fashioning myself I fashion man.

“主观主义”具有两种意义,而我们的反对者只是接触到其中的一个而已。主观主义一方面是指个人主观的自由,另方面则指人是无法超越人类的主观性。后者才是存在主义比较深层的意义。当我们说一个人选择他自己的时候,我们的意思是指每一个人必须选择他自己。但是由此我们也意指选择他自己的时候,他也为所有的人作选择。因为实际上,在我们选择一个我们所想要做的人的时候,我们所作的种种努力,无非是在创造一个为我们认为当然的人的形象。我们在两者之中作选择时,同时也就是在肯定我们所选择的对象的价值,因为我们不能永远选择没有价值的。我们所选择的常常是较为有价值的,同时没有对我们更有价值的,除非对大家都更有价值。进言之,如果存在先于本质,而当我们存在的时候,我们也在创造我们的形象,则这个形象是适用于所有人类和我们所处的整个时代的。我们的责任因此较我们想象的更为重大,因为它关涉到人类全体。比如,假使我是一个工人,我可选择一个基督徒的工会,而不加入一个共党的工会。假如由于这个会员的资格,我要表示,为人处世最好是忍让为先,人的国度并不在这世界上,那么我并不是独自一个人归依于这个观点。忍让是我对每个人的意愿,结果,我的行动也就成为全人类的一种行为。或者,举一个较为私人性的例子,我决定结婚生子,纵然这个决定只是从我的情境,情爱,欲望中发展而出的,但在实行一夫一妻制上面,我就涉及到全人类,而不只我自己。所以,我对自己固然有责任,对别人也有责任。同时,我也塑造了某种我所希望的人的形象,我塑造我自己,我也塑造了别人。

 

This may enable us to understand what is meant by such terms – perhaps a little grandiloquent夸张的 – as anguish烦恼, abandonment孤独 and despair绝望. As you will soon see, it is very simple.

这可使我们了解下面这些名词的意义——或许有一点夸大——例如烦恼(anguish),孤独(abandonment)和绝望(despair)。你立刻可以看出,这是非常明了的。

 

First, what do we mean by anguish? – The existentialist frankly states that man is in anguish. His meaning is as follows: When a man commits himself to anything, fully realising that he is not only choosing what he will be, but is thereby at the same time a legislator deciding for the whole of mankind – in such a moment a man cannot escape from the sense of complete and profound responsibility. There are many, indeed, who show no such anxiety. But we affirm that they are merely disguising their anguish or are in flight from it. Certainly, many people think that in what they are doing they commit no one but themselves to anything: and if you ask them, “What would happen if everyone did so?” they shrug their shoulders and reply, “Everyone does not do so.” But in truth, one ought always to ask oneself what would happen if everyone did as one is doing; nor can one escape from that disturbing thought except by a kind of self-deception. The man who lies in self-excuse, by saying “Everyone will not do it” must be ill at ease in his conscience, for the act of lying implies the universal value which it denies.

首先,我们所谓的烦恼是什么意思呢?存在主义者坦白地说人是处于烦恼之中,他的解释是这样的:当一个人有所行动时,他充分地自觉他不只是选择他所意愿的,同时也是一个为全人类裁决的立法者——在这时刻,一个人就不能从一种整体与沉重的责任感中逃避开来。有许多人确实是没有这种烦恼。但是我们可以断言他们仅仅是在掩饰他们的苦闷或由其中逃避开来。必然地,有许多人会以为他们所做的事情,除了他们自己之外,和别人无关。如果你问他们,“假使每个人都这么做又曾如何呢?”他们会耸耸肩膀回答说:“不会每个人都这么做。”但是事实上,每一个人都应该问他自己假如每一个都象他一样的做时,会如何呢?一个人除了自欺之外,不可能由这种烦恼的思想中逃避开去。一种自我宽恕的人,常说“不会每一个人都这么做”。但他良心上一定会感到不安的。因为说谎的行为蕴含着它所否定的普遍性的价值。

 

By its very disguise his anguish reveals itself. This is the anguish that Kierkegaard called “the anguish of Abraham.” You know the story: An angel commanded Abraham to sacrifice his son; and obedience was obligatory, if it really was an angel who had appeared and said, “Thou, Abraham, shalt sacrifice thy son.” But anyone in such a case would wonder, first, whether it was indeed an angel and secondly, whether I am really Abraham. Where are the proofs?

正由于他的掩饰,烦恼却反而显露了出来,这种烦恼,就是齐克果所谓的“亚伯拉罕的烦恼”。你知道这个故事的:一个天使命令亚伯拉罕牺牲他的儿子:假使真的有一位天使出现而且说:“你,亚伯拉罕,必须牺牲你的儿子。”那末服从就是义务,但是任何人,在这种情形下都会表示怀疑,首先要问它是否确实是天使,其次,我是否真正是亚伯拉罕。证据在哪里?

 

A certain mad woman who suffered from hallucinations said that people were telephoning to her, and giving her orders. The doctor asked, “But who is it that speaks to you?” She replied: “He says it is God.” And what, indeed, could prove to her that it was God? If an angel appears to me, what is the proof that it is an angel or, if I hear voices, who can prove that they proceed from heaven and not from hell, or from my own subconsciousness or some pathological condition? Who can prove that they are really addressed to me? Who, then, can prove that I am the proper person to impose, by my own choice, my conception of man upon mankind? I shall never find any proof whatever; there will be no sign to convince me of it. If a voice speaks to me, it is still I myself who must decide whether the voice is or is not that of an angel. If I regard a certain course of action as good, it is only I who choose to say that it is good and not bad.

某一个疯妇说有人打电话给她,并且还给他下命令。医生问她,“但是,对你说话的人是谁呢?”她回答说:“他说他是上帝。”事实上,能用什么对她证明他是上帝呢?假若一位天使对我显现,有什么证据可以证明他是天使呢?或者,假如我听到声音,谁能够证明这声音是来自天堂而不是来自地狱,或者是自己的潜意识,或者是某种病状?谁能够证明他们确是对我而说的呢?那么,谁能证明我是借我的选择把我对于人的概念来加诸全人类的适当人选呢?我无论如何都找不出任何证明的;也没有迹象会使我相信它。如果有一种声音在叫唤我,我仍得自己去决定这声音是否来自天使。如果我认为这样的一种行为是好的,那也只是我自己的选择,说它是好的而不是坏的。

 

There is nothing to show that I am Abraham: nevertheless I also am obliged at every instant to perform actions which are examples. Everything happens to every man as though the whole human race had its eyes fixed upon what he is doing and regulated its conduct accordingly. So every man ought to say, “Am I really a man who has the right to act in such a manner that humanity regulates itself by what I do.” If a man does not say that, he is dissembling掩饰; 假装; 隐藏真心his anguish.

没有什么证据,表示出我是亚伯拉罕,但每时每刻,我仍然被迫去扮演这些作为范例的行为。每一件发生于每一个人的事,就好象整个人类用眼睛注视着他的行为,并且为他的行为所引导。因此每一个人应当问他自己:“我真是这样的一个人吗?我的行动足以引导全人类吗?”如他不这样问他自己,那他就在掩饰他的烦恼。

 

Clearly, the anguish with which we are concerned here is not one that could lead to quietism or inaction. It is anguish pure and simple, of the kind well known to all those who have borne responsibilities. When, for instance, a military leader takes upon himself the responsibility for an attack and sends a number of men to their death, he chooses to do it and at bottom he alone chooses. No doubt under a higher command, but its orders, which are more general, require interpretation by him and upon that interpretation depends the life of ten, fourteen or twenty men. In making the decision, he cannot but feel a certain anguish. All leaders know that anguish. It does not prevent their acting, on the contrary it is the very condition of their action, for the action presupposes that there is a plurality of possibilities, and in choosing one of these, they realize that it has value only because it is chosen. Now it is anguish of that kind which existentialism describes, and moreover, as we shall see, makes explicit through direct responsibility towards other men who are concerned. Far from being a screen which could separate us from action, it is a condition of action itself.

很明显地,我们在这里所提到的烦恼不是那导致无为主义或懈怠的。这是一种为每个负有责任的人所熟知的单纯的烦恼。例如,当一个军事长官负起攻击的责任,而派一批相当数目的人去冒死时,那是他选择这样做的,并且是他一个人决定这样做的。无疑的,他是在上级的命令下这样做的,但是这命令极为泛泛,必须他来加以解释。而就在这解释上,决定了十人,十四人,或二十个人的生命。因此当他在作决定时,他不得不感到烦恼。这种烦恼是所有做领导的人都知道的。那并不阻碍他们的行动,反之,那正是构成他们行动的主要条件。因为这行动表示他们面对着许多种可能,而当他们选择其一时,他们就由此而知道它是有价值的。存在主义者描写的就是这种烦恼,同时我们可以看出,这种存在主义所说的烦恼,乃是用一种对于为它所涉及者的直接责任去解释的。它不是一块将我们和行动分隔的布幕,它是行动本身的一个条件。

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