加载中…
个人资料
724我们是一家人
724我们是一家人
  • 博客等级:
  • 博客积分:0
  • 博客访问:16,005
  • 关注人气:3
  • 获赠金笔:0支
  • 赠出金笔:0支
  • 荣誉徽章:
相关博文
推荐博文
谁看过这篇博文
加载中…
正文 字体大小:

大平衡——第三章 大平衡(上)

(2008-03-20 00:15:11)
标签:

文化

分类: 多元文化

上   篇    平衡理念
 Volume I Idea of Balance

 

第三章大平衡(上)
Chapter 3 Great Balance

 


一、大平衡——宇宙本原。自然、社会、人的根本法则。
    I. The Great Balance is the first principle of the universe, and fundamental law of nature, society and man.
    “大”, 即大自然、大社会,“大人”德高者,“大法”根本法则。“大心”内心世界,“大致、大体”相对的意思。
    “Greatness” refers to great nature, great society. “Great men” are people of good moral standing; “great laws” are fundamental ones; “great minds” are people’s inner world, and “in general” is of a relative meaning.
    “平衡”,宇宙之本原。事物发展的起点、过程、状态、终点、规律。平衡是存在的原因。既是“理”的存在、又是“物”的存在,更是“物理因果”同一的存在。
    “Balance” is the first principle of the cosmos, and the starting point, process, state, terminal and law of development. Balance is the reason for existence. It is a “being” of “reason” and of “thing” as well, and more, the same being of “matter, reason, cause and result.”
    二、以往的“平衡”:
    II. “Balance” in the past:
    “平衡”最早见于《汉书"律历志 上》“准正,则平衡而钧权矣。”① 平衡指衡器两端承受的重量相等。引申为相关方面在数量或质量上均等或大致相等。② 平衡亦称“均衡”。过去在哲学上指矛盾暂时的相对统一或协调。事物发展稳定、有序的标志之一。平衡与不平衡相对,二者相互转化、相反相成。一般分为动态平衡和静态平衡。
    “Balance” first appeared in Part One, Bibliography of Calendar, the History of Han: “With the criterion in place, it is balanced and the two ends are of the same weight.” 1. Balance refers to the weights at the two ends of the beam are equal. By extension it means related aspects are equal or roughly equal in quantity or quality. 2. Balance, also called “equilibrium,” refers to temporary relative unity or coordination of contradictions in philosophy. It is one of symbols that things develop in a steady and orderly way. Balance is opposed to imbalance; the two change into each other, oppose yet complement each other. It is generally divided into dynamic balance and static balance.
    三、以往的“平衡论”:
    III. Balance theories in the past:
    ① 东汉唯物主义哲学家王充(公元27—约公元97),他认为“天地合气,万物自生,犹夫妇合气,子自生矣”(《论衡"自然》)。是“气”的自我运动产生万物,不存在有意志的造物者。
    1. Wang Chong (27-97 A.D.), materialist philosopher of the Eastern Han Dynasty, believed that “Qi between heaven and earth produces all things on earth. It is like when Qi of parents is integrated, from which a child is born.” (Nature, Discussion about Balance) The self-movement of “Qi” produces all things, while there is no conscious Creator.
    ② 法国的孔德先生和英国的斯宾塞先生所主张的哲学方面的“平衡论”,亦称“均衡论”。其主要观点是“把事物发展的相对平衡绝对化的形而上学理论”。认为平衡、渐变是正常的,不平衡则是反常的。
    2. Auguste Comte of France and Herbert Spencer of Britain advocated the “Balance Theory” in the field of philosophy, also called “Equilibrium Theory.” Its major content is a “metaphysical theory to make absolute the relative balance of development.” It holds that balance and gradual change is normal, whereas imbalance is abnormal.
    ③ 前苏联布哈林先生提出的经济平衡和社会平衡的“动的平衡”观点。主张在过渡时期,通过强制征集粮食、实行义务劳动和平均分配等违背价值规律的不平衡手段,达到当时苏联自然经济体系的平衡。
    3. Nikolai Bukharin of former Soviet Union put forward the concept of “balance of movement” about economic balance and social balance. The concept is to achieve the balance of natural economic system of former Soviet Union by unbalanced measures against law of value in transitional periods, such as forced grain collecting, voluntary labor and equal distribution.
    ④ 近年来人们从行业角度提出的平衡或平衡论。如:普里高金先生“耗散结构论”中的“自组织平衡”,英国学者的“自由和责任的平衡”,北京大学马寅初教授、罗豪才教授提出的“人口与资源平衡”、“行政法学平衡论”等。
    4. In recent years people put forward concepts of balance or balance theories from the industrial perspective, such as the “self-organization balance” in the “Dissipative Structure” by Ilya Prigogine, the “balance between freedom and responsibility” by British scholars, and the “balance between population and resources” and the “balance theory on administrative law” proposed by professors Ma Yinchu and Luo Haocai of Beijing University.
    以上平衡论中所谈的“平衡”基本上是静态概念。
    The concept of “balance” discussed in above balance theories is basically static.
    四、大平衡的“平衡”:宇宙之本原。一个变化的存在。事物发展的起点、过程、状态、终点、规律。平衡,即“中庸”、“中”、“和”,最高境界为“适”。平衡亦称均衡,是事物发展的状态。表现为协调、和谐、胜利、成功、关心、高兴、喜欢、幸福、尊重、有序、正常、赢利、风调雨顺、存在……。平衡与不平衡相对,二者“对立互根、融合循环、趋向同一、贯穿始终”,构成一对哲学范畴。
    IV. “Balance” in the Great Balance philosophy: “Balance” in the Great Balance philosophy is the first principle of the cosmos, a changing being. It is the starting point, process, state, terminal and law of development. Balance is “golden mean,” “middle” and “harmony,” and the highest level is “appropriateness.” Balance, also called equilibrium, is the state of development, shown as coordination, harmony, victory, success, concern, delight, love, happiness, respect, orderliness, normality, profit, favorable weather, existence… Balance and imbalance “oppose to each other, but are rooted in each other; integrate and repeat in cycles, develop into a unified one, and exist from beginning to end,” constructing a pair of philosophical concepts.
    “大平衡”既是 “理”的存在,又是 “物”的存在,更是二者的融合自因自为自然的存在。这个“存在”可以是“有”可以是“无”,还可以是“有、无”的共同存在。这个“存在”既可以“风平浪静、和风细雨、轻歌曼舞”,还可以“飞沙走石、枪林弹雨、天崩地裂”。平衡是“渐变突变、持续间断、有序无序、和谐抗争”的有机统一。是一个动态的、相对的、大致和大体的宇宙系统的存在。
    The “Great Balance” is a being of “reason” and of “matter” as well; and furthermore, it is a natural being combining the two with self cause and self conduct. The “being” can be “existence” or “nonexistence” or one combing “existence” and “nonexistence.” The “being” can “be calm and tranquil, like a gentle breeze and light rain, sing softly and dance with grace and ease;” it can also “whirl up sand and roll along stones, be roaring guns and flying bullets, and make the sky fall and the earth crack.” Balance is an organic unity of “gradual change and sudden change, constancy and interruption, order and disorder, harmony and conflict.” It is a static, relative, and general being.
    同一件事情,角度不同看法不同。有人认为它“平衡”,就有人认为它“不平衡”。有人认为它“不平衡”,就有人认为它“平衡”。这是正常现象将永远存在。但究竟“平衡与否”,最终是以老百姓和历史发展的评说为准。
    As for the same thing, people may have different views from different perspectives. Some consider it “balanced” while others believe that it is “unbalanced.” Some deem it “unbalanced” while others consider it “balanced.” This is a normal phenomenon and will exist forever. But whether it is “balanced or not” should be judged by comments from the people and historical development.
    五、今平衡与昔平衡比较:过去认为只有平静、有序、和谐、理性、相安无事才是平衡。反之就不是平衡。现在大平衡所谈的“平衡”是一个宇宙全局范围的平衡,它不同于以往物理学、化学、经济学以及过去人们一般哲学意义上的“平衡”。更不能认为平衡是一团和气、四平八稳、循序渐进、不要对抗、不要抗争。恰恰相反,“大平衡”不但不排斥抗争,而且还认为:事物在趋向自身平衡的过程中,有时的抗争是激烈的、甚至还是残酷的和难以想象的。况且,有抗争未必就是坏事,更可能是好事。事物往往就是在抗争中成长、发展和壮大起来的。“反者道之动”,平衡始于抗争,平衡往往产生于斗争之中。没有斗争就没有平衡。但斗争是为了平衡而不是为了斗争。斗争是手段、平衡是目的。
    V. Comparison between present balance and past balance: In the past people believed that calmness, orderliness, harmony, reason or living in peace was balance; if not, it was not balance. The “balance” discussed in the Great Balance Theory is different from that in physics, chemistry, economics or some ordinary philosophical studies. Moreover, we cannot just think that balance is harmony, stability, proceeding in an orderly and gradual way, no confrontation, and no conflict. On the contrary, the Great Balance Theory not only does not exclude conflict, but also holds that during the process that things develop towards self-balance, sometimes the conflict is so violent, even ruthless and hard to imagine. Besides, conflict is not always bad; it can probably be good. Things usually grow, develop and get stronger in conflict. As “the opposite is the source of movement,” balance starts from conflict. Balance usually grows in conflict. Without conflict, there is no balance. But the goal of conflict is balance, not conflict. Conflict is the way while balance is the goal.
    总之,平衡是宇宙的本体。什么也“没有”的时候它就有,什么也有了它也在,什么也没了的“奇点”处它还在……。它们都是不同的平衡状态。平衡是有神与无神、物质与精神、存在与意识的有机统一。它们本来就是同一个东西的两个称谓。没有平衡就没有世界。“平衡”既独立存在,又寓于万物为其存否之理。所以,平衡不是绝对而是与万物个个相对。平衡又是自然、社会、人生存、发展的根本机制,万物依它芸芸而生。
    In summary, balance is the noumenon of the cosmos. When nothing came into being it was there; when things were born it was there; and even at the singularity point where all disappeared, it was still there… All are different states of balance. Balance is the organic unity of theism and atheism, matter and spirit, being and consciousness. They are two forms of address for the same thing. If there were no balance, there would be no world. “Balance” exists independently, and at the same time is present in all things as the reason for their existence. And therefore, balance is not absolute; it exists in opposition to everything in the world. Balance is the fundamental mechanism for the existence and development of nature, society, and man, and myriad of things exist in this mechanism.
    六、大平衡的研究对象依然是:自然、社会、人。目的:自我提升,保障生存。 VI. The objects for research of the Great Balance Theory are nature, society and man. The goal is to improve man himself and guarantee subsistence.
    大平衡的最高境界,始终是“天地人”和谐相宜的一个“适”字。 The highest level of the Great Balance Theory is “harmony” among the heaven, earth and man.
    大平衡的前提理念——诚信。“无诚无物”,“无信不立”。真实就是力量。 The prerequisite idea of the Great Balance Theory is “honesty and credit.” “Without honesty there would be no substance,” and “without credit, one cannot get along with the world.” Truth is power.
    七、大平衡的五个基本观点:
    VII. The five basic opinions of the Great Balance Theory:
    1、世间万物无不处在动态的平衡与不平衡之中。(总体状态)
    1. All the things in the world are always in dynamic movement between balance and imbalance. (This is the general state.)
    自然科学告诉我们:整个自然界,从小到无内的基本粒子到大到无外的宇宙天体,从原生生物到当今人类,无一不是自发地处于永恒的产生、成长、壮大、消亡、有序联动的进化与周期循环之中。
    Natural sciences tell us that all those in nature, from elementary particles as small as no inner structure to the cosmos without boundary, from primitive organism to man of today, are without exception in spontaneous and eternal evolution and periodic cycles -- emergence, growth, expansion, disappearance and orderly and successive movement.
    如自然界的日月更替、四季轮回、寒来暑往、生长收藏……;人类社会的利益争让、对抗对话、战争和平、经济人文;人的生存、健康、升学、恋爱、就业、成家、加薪、升职、快乐、幸福、荣耀与否……等等。人与自然、人与人、人与自己融汇交织,浑成一个有序联动、渗透转化、因果循环的全息场景。这个场景中充满了矛盾,矛盾的“对立统一”规律始终贯穿其中。世间万物运动就是矛盾“对立统一”规律——“理”的运动。在大平衡来看,这个运动更应当是“对立统一”的原因——“平衡与不平衡”——“物/理”的同时运动。所以,世间万物无不处在动态的平衡与不平衡之中。
    Examples include: in nature, alternation between the sun and moon, rotation of four seasons, and growth and harvest; in human society, fighting or yielding for interest, confrontation and dialogue, war and peace, economy and humanities; man’s subsistence, health, entry into schools of a higher grade, courtship, employment, marriage, pay raise, promotion, rejoice, happiness, honor, etc. Man and nature, person and person, man and himself combine and mingle to form a holographic scene of orderly and successive movement, penetrating and transformation, and of cause-and-effect cycle. The scene is full of contradictions, and permeated with law of “the unity of opposites” for contradiction. The movement of everything is the law of “the unity of opposites,” a movement of “reason.” The Great Balance Theory holds that the movement should also be movement of the cause of “unity of opposites” -- “balance and imbalance” and, “matter and reason.” And therefore, all the things in the world are without exception in dynamic movement between balance and imbalance.
    2、事物都有保持和趋向自身平衡的本性。(自因法则)
    2. Things have the nature to keep and develop towards self-balance. (This is the law of self cause.) 事物趋向自身平衡的本性,即事物与生俱来的“求生”本能。表现为事物本能地呼应规律的运动。万事万物都有追求自身平衡的本性。如太阳、月亮自然循环、地球自己公转自转;初生动物自动求食、生、长、成、亡、新陈代谢、趋利避害;植物的生、长、收、藏、光合作用,生态系统的“自净作用”。人体自身的“免疫功能”、体内水液自动调节、细胞DNA自动修复。大宇宙熵值的自动增高、自我调节。自然界食物链、相生相克链的自然循环。还有原子内电子的“自我保护”等等。所有这些都是它们“与生俱来” 的求生本能,并非“人”力所为。该本能驱使事物在不平衡时极力趋向平衡,达到平衡则竭力保持平衡,后又伺机趋向新的平衡以至无穷……。
    The nature of things developing toward self-balance is their instinct to “seek subsistence,” shown as movements instinctively following laws. All things in the world have the nature to pursue self-balance, such as the natural cycle of the sun and moon, and the revolution and rotation of the earth; newly born animals’ instinct to look for food, their birth, growth, maturity, death, metabolism, and seeking advantages and avoiding disadvantages; the birth, growth, collection and photosynthesis of plants, and “self-purification function” of ecosystem; immunity function of human body, automatic regulation of body fluid, and automatic repair of DNA in cells; automatic increase and self-regulation of the cosmic entropy power; natural cycles of food chain and the chain of producing and overcoming each other; and the “self-protection” of electrons inside the atom. All these are their inborn instinct to seek subsistence, not artificial. The instinct drives things to try hard to a balanced state when unbalanced, keep balance when reaching a balanced state, and then look for new balance till infinite…
    自然界,生态环境本身具有的“自净作用”,是大气、水、土壤等受到污染之后,自身能够通过物理、化学或生物的作用,使其组成成分逐渐“自动恢复”到原状态的功能。“趋向稳态”是构成生物、自然最基本的前提和条件,“自调”是维持这种稳态的基础保证。生物的 “新陈代谢”都具有非常“巧妙”的自动配位和自我调节的机制……
    The “self-purification function” of nature and the ecological environment is that when the air, water and soil are polluted, they can, by physical, chemical or biological actions, make their components “restore automatically” to original functions. The “trend toward a steady state” is the most fundamental premise and condition constructing creatures and nature. “Self-regulation” is a basic guarantee to maintain such a steady state. Creatures’ “metabolism” has the ingenious mechanism of automatic coordination and self-regulation…
     社会领域,生产关系本身就有适合生产力发展的一面,才能与社会协调达到一定的平衡。虽然这种动态平衡常常会被打破,但随后又会自发地追求新的平衡,否则,这种生产关系就不可能产生。上层建筑与经济基础也是如此。在商品经济中,尽管商品的价格时高时低,但总体来看,价格却总是“自发“地围绕价值上下波动趋近平衡。 I
    n the social field, relations of production fit in with the development of productive forces in one aspect, and then the two can coordinate with the society and achieve balance at a certain level. Although such dynamic balance is often broken, it then spontaneously pursues new balance. Otherwise, such relations of production cannot come into being. So are the superstructure and the economic base. In the commodity economy, although the commodity price rises and falls, in general it is always fluctuating “by itself” around the value towards balance.
    我们把以上“自我调节、自动恢复、自动配位、自净作用、自趋稳态”等等,称作 “自己运动”,而不是外力“安排”。“自己运动”即事物发展的动力在于事物内部的特性。自然界和人类社会的一切事物内部都包含着矛盾,都具有相互排斥、相互对立而又相互统一的倾向。这种“倾向”、“内因”导致了事物的“自己运动”。这个“本性”——趋向自身平衡的生存本性,有如中医讲的人体本身的“自稳平衡”能力,西医称为“人体本身具有的免疫功能”,是万物都有的生存本能。万物“自己运动”时,“外因是变化的条件,内因是变化的根据,内因通过外因而起作用”。
    We call “self-regulation, automatic restoration, automatic coordination, self-purification function, and self-tendency toward a steady state” mentioned above “self-movement,” not arranged by external forces. “Self-movement” is a characteristics of things that the impetus for development comes from inside. All the things in nature and human society contain contradictions inside, which tend to repel, oppose each other and unite. Such a “tendency” or “internal factor” causes the “self-movement” of things. And this “nature,” the nature of all things inclining to self-balance for subsistence, is something like the “self-stability and balance” of human body in Chinese medicine, which is called “immunity function of the human body itself” in Western medicine. In the case of "self-movement" of all things, "external factors are the conditions for change, internal factors are the basis for change. The internal factors function through external factors."
    亚里士多德先生说:自然界的运动有两种,一种是天然运动,一种是被迫运动。轻的东西有“轻性”,如气、火,它们天然地向上走;重的东西有“重性”,如水、土,它们天然地向下跑。这种天然运动是由它们的本性决定的。世间万物都向往它们各自的天然位置,都有各归其所的倾向……。轻的东西的天然处所在上面,重的东西的天然处所在下面,在各归其所倾向的支配下,它们自动地出自本能向上或向下运动。虽然这些运动的形式有所不同,但目的只有一个,那就是:求生——求活。如果万物没有这个“自因、自为、自然、自在” 的本能追求,只是依靠外部条件,那万物将不得生存。事物发展的动力正是源于这种趋向自身平衡的内在本性——生存。
    According to Aristotle, movement in nature is classified into two kinds: natural movement and forced movement. Light things have the “light nature,” such as gas and fire, going up naturally; heavy things have the “heavy nature,” such as water and earth, going down naturally. Such natural movements are decided by their nature. Everything in the world has its natural position and tends to go to stay at its proper place… The natural place for light things is high above while that for heavy things is down below. Controlled by the tendency to stay at the proper place, they automatically and instinctively move upwards or downwards. Although forms of movement are different, the goal is the same – to survive or to be alive. If things did not pursue instinctively “self cause, self conduct, natural presence, and self existence,” and just relied on external conditions, all things would not survive. The driving force of development originates in the nature of the tendency toward self-balance – subsistence.
    以上虽都不存在绝对的平衡,只能有相对、更佳的平衡。但事物都有保持和趋向自身平衡的本性则是可以确定。
    Although of all these there is no absolute balance as there is relative and better balance, it is certain that things have the nature to maintain and develop toward self-balance.
    3、事物发展是由“平衡~不平衡~新平衡……”的永恒运动。(运行法则)
    3. The development of things is an eternal movement from balance to imbalance, to new balance… (This is the law of movement.)

0

阅读 评论 收藏 转载 喜欢 打印举报/Report
  • 评论加载中,请稍候...
发评论

    发评论

    以上网友发言只代表其个人观点,不代表新浪网的观点或立场。

      

    新浪BLOG意见反馈留言板 电话:4000520066 提示音后按1键(按当地市话标准计费) 欢迎批评指正

    新浪简介 | About Sina | 广告服务 | 联系我们 | 招聘信息 | 网站律师 | SINA English | 会员注册 | 产品答疑

    新浪公司 版权所有