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234.精读《小逻辑》笔记131——概念论第238-244节

(2011-09-07 23:42:58)
标签:

黑格尔

小逻辑

概念论

理念

存在

本质

普遍性

杂谈

分类: 杂读笔记(钱先生指示)

234.精读《小逻辑》笔记131——概念论第238-244节

 

这七节后,《小逻辑》的精读也就结束了。这次精读,自四月五日起,至今历时六个月。中间借鉴了《黑格尔哲学》、《思辨的张力》以及一些小逻辑的研究论文,前期遇到的问题比较多,但后期感觉比较顺。尽管还有一些难以理解之处,但整体来说,大体能够把握。尤其是借助于《黑格尔哲学》一书的启发,进一步把握“初步规定”部分,开启来理解黑格尔哲学的钥匙,思想比较畅快。

这七节,是对绝对理念的陈述,也是对全书大构架的总结。有前面的作为基础,看起来也就顺理成章了。

 

§238

The several steps or stages of the Speculative Method are, first of all,(a)the Beginning, which is Being or Immediacy: self-subsistent, for the simple reason that it is the beginning. But looked at from the speculative idea, Being is its self-specializing act, which as the absolute negativity or movement of the notion makes a judgment and puts itself as its own negative. Being, which to the beginning as beginning seems mere abstract affirmation, is thus rather negation, dependency, derivation, and presupposition. But it is the notion of which Being is the negation: and the notion is completely self-identical in its otherness, and is the certainty of itself. Being therefore is the notion implicit, before it has been explicitly put as a notion. This Being therefore, as the still unspecified notion——a notion that is only implicitly or 'immediately' specified——is equally describable as the Universal.

思辨方法的各环节为:(A)开始。这就是存在或直接性;它是自为的,简单的理由,因为它只是开始。但从思辨理念的观点来看,它是理念的自我规定。这种自我规定,是概念的绝对的否定性或运动,它进行判断,并设定对自身的否定。那作为开始的存在,最初似乎是抽象的肯定,其实乃是否定,是间接性,是设定起来的,是需要前提支撑的。但是存在作为概念的否定(概念能在它的对方得到自身的同一性和自身的确定性),便是尚没有设定为概念的概念,亦即自在的概念。因此,这种存在还是没有经过规定的概念,亦即只是自在的直接的特定概念,也同样可以说是普遍的东西。

(这里对第一篇“存在论”作了一个总的评述,这个评述也是站在理念的最高点来看作为起点的存在。——也只有在理念的制高点,才能对起点有深刻的评价。作为开始的存在,表面是肯定的,实际上是否定的,需要有前提作为支撑。它是直接自在存在的概念。)

When it means immediate being, the beginning is taken from sensation and perception——the initial stage in the analytical method of finite cognition. When it means universality, it is the beginning of the systematic method. But since the Logical Idea is as much a universal as it is in being——since it is presupposed by the notion as much as it itself immediately is, its beginning is a synthetic as well as an analytical beginning.

说它是直接存在,就是从直观和知觉开始,——这就是有限认识的分析方法的出发点。说它是普遍性,这就是有限认识的综合方法的出发点。但逻辑的理念既是普遍的,又是存在着的,既是以概念为前提,又直接地是概念本身,所以它的开始既是综合的开始,又是分析的开始。

(存在也是普遍性,既是综合的开始,又是分析的开始。)

Philosophical method is analytical as well as synthetic, not indeed in the sense of a bare juxtaposition or mere alternating employment of these two methods of finite cognition, but rather in such a way that it holds them merged in itself. In every one of its movements therefore it displays an attitude at once analytical and synthetic. Philosophical thought proceeds analytically, in so far as it only accepts its object, the Idea, and while allowing it its own way, is only, as it were, an onlooker at its movement and development. To this extent philosophizing is wholly passive. Philosophic thought however is equally synthetic, and evinces itself to be the action of the notion itself. To that end, however, there is required an effort to keep back the incessant impertinence of our own fancies and private opinions.

哲学的方法既是分析的又是综合的,这倒并不是说这两个方法的仅仅平列并用,或单纯交换使用,而是说哲学方法扬弃了并包含了这两个方法。因此,在哲学方法的每一运动里所采取的态度,同时既是分析的又是综合的。哲学思维,就其仅仅接受它的对象、理念,听其自然,似乎只是静观对象或理念自身运动的发展来说,可以说是采取的分析方法。这种方式下的哲学思考完全是被动的。但是哲学思维同时也是综合的,它表示出它自己即是概念本身的活动。不过哲学思维为了要达到这一目的,却需要一种认真的努力去扫除自己那些不断冒出来的偶然的幻想和特殊的意见。

(哲学思维既是分析的又是综合的,它要从对象理念中发现其发展,而且又通过概念的发展实现自为存在。其中,应该保持警惕的,是主观幻象。)

 

§239

(b)The Advance renders explicit the judgment implicit in the Idea. The immediate universal, as the notion implicit, is the dialectical force which on its own part deposes its immediacy and universality to the level of a mere stage or 'moment'. Thus is put the negative of the beginning, its specific character: it supposes a correlative, a relation of different terms——the stage of Reflection.

(B)进展。进展就是将理念的内容发挥成判断。直接的普遍性,作为自在的概念就是辩证法,由于辩证法的这种作用,概念自己本身就把它的直接性和普遍性降低为一个环节。因此它就成为对“开始”的否定,或者对那最初者予以规定。这样,它便有了相关者,对相异的方面有了联系,因而进入反思的阶段。

(概念中的每一部分得到明确发挥,这就是判断。判断是对开始的否定,它建立了联系,进入了反思阶段。)

Seeing that the immanent dialectic only states explicitly what was involved in the immediate notion, this advance is Analytical; but seeing that in this notion this distinction was not yet stated, it is equally Synthetic. In the advance of the idea, the beginning exhibits itself as what it is implicitly. It is seen to be mediated and derivative, and neither to have proper being nor proper immediacy. It is only for the consciousness which is itself immediate, that Nature forms the commencement or immediacy and that Spirit appears as what is mediated by Nature. The truth, indeed, is that Nature is posited by Spirit, and Spirit itself in turn, uses Nature as its presupposition.

同样,这种进展,即是分析的,它通过其内在的辩证法只是发挥出那已包含在直接的概念内的东西;又是综合的,因为在这一概念里,这些差别尚未明白发挥出来。在理念的进展里,“开始”表明其自身还是自在的东西,换言之,它是被设定的,中介性的,既不是存在这得,也不是直接性的。只有对那本身直接意识来说,自然才是开始的,直接性的东西,而精神是以自然为中介的东西。但事实上,自然是由精神设定起来的,而精神自身又以自然为它的前提。

(自然对于精神来说,是开始。同时,自然是被精神所设定,但精神却需要自然作为材料。)

 

§240

The abstract form of the advance is, in Being, an other and transition into an other; in Essence showing or reflection in the opposite; in Notion, the distinction of individual from universality, which continues itself as such into, and is as an identity with, what is distinguished from it.

进展的抽象形式在“存在”的范围内,是一个对方并过渡到一个对方,在“本质”范围内,它是映现在对立面的,在“概念”范围内,它是一个与个体性相区别的普遍性,继续保持其普遍性于与其相区别的个体事物之中,并达到与个体事物的同一性。

(抽象在存在里,是变易;在本质里,是联系;在概念里,是普遍性。)

 

§241

In the second sphere the primarily implicit notion has come as far as shining, and thus is already the idea in germ. The development of this sphere becomes a regress into the first, just as the development of the first is a transition into the second. It is only by means of this double movement, that the difference first gets its due, when each of the two members distinguished, observed on its own part, completes itself to the totality, and in this way works out its unity with the other. It is only by both merging their one-sidedness on their own part, that their unity is kept from becoming one-sided.

在第二范围内,那最初自在存在着的概念,达到了映现;所以它已经是潜在的理念了。这一范围的发展成为到第一范围的回归,正如第一范围的发展成为第二范围的过渡一样。唯有通过这种双重的运动,区别才取得它应有的地位,即被区别开的双方的每一方就其本身来说,都完成它自己而达到全体,并且在全体中实现其自身与对方的统一。唯有双方各自扬弃其片面性,它们的统一才不致偏于一面。

(统一体并不是两端的并列和机械排列,而是一种融合,新的东西。)

 

§242

The second sphere develops the relation of the different to what it primarily is——to the contradiction in its own nature. That contradiction which is seen in the infinite progress is resolved(c)into the end or terminus, where the difference is explicitly stated as what it is in notion. The end is the negative of the first, and as the identity with that, is the negativity of itself. It is consequently the unity in which both of these Firsts, the immediate and the real First, are made constituent stages in thought, merged, and at the same time preserved in the unity. The notion, which from its implicitness thus comes by means of its differentiation and the merging of that differentiation to close with itself, is the realized notion——the notion which contains the relativity or dependence of its special features in its own independence. It is the idea which, as absolutely first (in the method),regards this terminus as merely the disappearance of the show or semblance, which made the beginning appear immediate, and made itself seem a result. It is the knowledge that the idea is the one systematic whole.

在第二范围里,有差别的双方的关系发展到它原来那个样子,即发展到矛盾自己本身。这矛盾表现在无限进展里。这种表现在无限递进中的矛盾,只有在目的里才得到解除。(C)目的。唯有在目的里,那相区别的事物才被设定为像它们在概念里那样。目的是对最初起点的否定,但由于目的与最初起点有同一性,所以,目的也是对于它自身的否定。因此,目的即是一统一体,在此统一体中,这两个意义的最初作为观念性的和作为环节的,作为被扬弃来的,同时又作为被保存住了的就结合起来了。概念以它的自在存在为中介,它的差异,和对它的差异的扬弃而达到它自己与自己本身的结合,这就是实现了的概念。——这就是说,这概念包括着它所设置的不同的规定在它自己的自为存在里。这就是理念。对作为绝对的最初(在方法里)的理念来说,目的的达到知识消除了误认开始似乎是直接的东西,理念似乎是最后成果那种假象。——这就达到了“理念是唯一全体”的认识了。

(理念是全体,是从开始到结束的过程。这一过程,通过一种不满足——从自在到自为的动力——目的而贯穿起来。整个发展过程的路径就是概念作为指引。)

 

§243

It thus appears that the method is not an extraneous form, but the soul and notion of the content, from which it is only distinguished, so far as the dynamic elements of the notion even on their own part come in their own specific character to appear as the totality of the notion. This specific character, or the content, leads itself with the form back to the idea; and thus the idea is presented as a systematic totality which is only one idea, of which the several elements are each implicitly the idea, while they equally by the dialectic of the notion produce the simple independence of the idea. The science in this manner concludes by apprehending the notion of itself, as of the pure idea for which the idea is.

由此足见,方法并不是外在的形式,而是内容的灵魂和概念。方法与内容的区别,只在于概念的各环节,即使就它们本身、就它们的规定性来说,也表现为概念的全体。由于概念的这种规定性或内容自身和形式要返回到理念,所以理念便被表述为系统的全体,这系统的全体就是唯一的理念。这唯一理念的各特殊环节中的每一环节既自在地是同一理念,复通过概念的辩证法而推演出理念的简单的自为存在。在这种方式下,科学便以把握它自身的概念,作为理念之所以为理念的纯理念的概念而告结束。

(如果没有内容,方法就没有归依;如果没有形式,内容就是空的。理念,就是概念的全体,是内容和形式的结合。)

 

§244

The Idea which is independent or for itself, when viewed on the point of this unity with itself, is Perception or Intuition, and the percipient Idea is Nature. But as intuition the idea is, through an external 'reflection', invested with the one-sided characteristic of immediacy, or of negation. Enjoying however an absolute liberty, the Idea does not merely pass over into life, or as finite cognition allow life to show in it: in its own absolute truth it resolves to let the 'moment' of its particularity, or of the first characterization and other-being, the immediate idea, as its reflected image, go forth freely as Nature.

自为理念,按照它同自己的统一性来说,就是直观,而直观着的理念就是自然。但是作为直观的理念通过外在的反思,便被设定为具有直接性或否定性的这种片面特性。不过享有绝对自由的理念便不然,它不仅仅过渡为生命,也不仅仅作为有限的认识,让生命映现在自身内,而是在它自身的绝对真理性里,它自己决定让它的特殊性环节,或它最初的规定和它的异在的环节,直接性的理念,作为它的反映,自由外化为自然。

(绝对自由的理念,不但过渡为生命,而且成为自在自为的现实。)

We have now returned to the notion of the Idea with which we began. This return to the beginning is also an advance. We began with Being, abstract Being: where we now are we also have the Idea as Being: but this Idea which has Being is Nature.

我们从理念开始,现在又返回到理念的概念。这种返回到开始,同时也是一种进展。我们所借以开始的是存在,抽象的存在,而现在我们达到了作为存在的理念。但是这种存在着的理念就是自然。

(在刚进入视野的时候,自然是直观的、肯定的,而实际上,它却是否定的、被设定的。后来就发现,自然的并不只是其所表现,还有本质。自然的发展,不仅仅是自身,还有“我”,主客观是一体的。)

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