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186.精读《小逻辑》笔记83——本质论第129、130节

(2011-07-09 22:56:50)
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黑格尔

小逻辑

本质论

质料

形式

质素

孔道

知觉

形而上学

杂谈

分类: 杂读笔记(钱先生指示)

186.精读《小逻辑》笔记83——本质论第129、130节

 

抽象理智把物分为质料和形式两部分,也只有在理智的抽象中,这种分离才会存在。而在130节,主要集中在质素(个体的质料)上,质素同样也是我们的一种抽象,而我们抽象的方法还是借助于我们的感官经验,而这些质素之间存在着孔道(同样是一种形象的说法),更多在孔道中的质料,没有被我们所知觉到。质料是一种全体,而质素则是无限的。——所有这些思想方法都是形而上学的,这同所谓的“完全出自于现实”的说法相对立,也相统一。

 

§129

Thus the Thing suffers a disruption into Matter and Form. Each of these is the totality of thinghood and subsists for itself. But Matter, which is meant to be the positive and indeterminate existence, contains, as an existence, reflection-on-another, every whit as much as it contains self-enclosed being. Accordingly as uniting these characteristics, it is itself the totality of Form. But Form, being a complete whole of characteristics, ipso facto involves reflection-into-self; in other words, as self-relating Form it has the very function attributed to Matter. Both are at bottom the same. Invest them with this unity, and you have the relation of Matter and Form, which are also no less distinct.

这样,“物”就分裂为质料和形式两方面,每一方面都是“物”的全体,都是独立自存的。但质料既是肯定的、无规定性的实存,作为实存既包含反映他物,也包含自身独立的存在。因此,就质料作为两种规定的统一来说,它本身就是形式的全体。但是形式已经作为这两种规定的全体,既包含自身反映,或者作为自身联系的形式,当然也会具有构成质料的规定。两者自在地是同一的。两者的这种统一性,一般被设定为质料与形式的联系,两者的这种联系,同样正是它们的差别。

(实际上,说物的“分裂”并不确切,因为形式和质料两者从来就没有能够完全分开。)

 

The Theory of "Matters" (关于质料的理论)

§130

The Thing, being this totality, is a contradiction. On the side of its negative unity it is Form in which Matter is determined and deposed to the rank of properties(§125).At the same time it consists of Matters, which in the reflection-of-the-thing-into-itself are as much independent as they are at the same time negatived. Thus the thing is the essential existence, in such a way as to be an existence that suspends or absorbs itself in itself. In other words, the thing is an Appearance or Phenomenon.

“物”作为这种全体,就是矛盾。按照它的否定的统一性来说,它就是形式,在形式中,质料得到了规定,并且被降低到特质的地位(见125节);而同时物又由许多质料所构成,这些质料在返回到物自身过程中,既同样是独立的,也同时是被否定的。于是,“物”作为一种在自己本身内扬弃自己的本质的实存,——这就是现象。

(物也因为对质料和形式的区分,而对两者的地位进行压低——质料和形式都不是物质,而物质则是二者的结合。)

The negation of the several matters, which is insisted on in the thing no less than their independent existence, occurs in Physics porosity. Each of the several matters(colored matter, odorific matter, and if we believe some people, even sound-matter——not excluding caloric, electric matter, etc.)is also negated: and in this negation of theirs, or as interpenetrating their pores, we find the numerous other independent matters, which, being similarly porous, make room in turn for the existence of the rest. Pores are not empirical facts; they are figments of the understanding, which uses them to represent the element of negation in independent matters. The further working-out of the contradictions is concealed by the nebulous imbroglio in which all matters are independent and all no less negated in each other. If the faculties or activities are similarly hypostatized in the mind, their living unity similarly turns to the imbroglio of an action of the one on the others.

在“物”里所设定的对质料之独立性的否定,在物理学中就叫做多孔性(porosity)。这些质料中的每一种(颜色、味道及其他质素,如有些人认为存在的声素、热素、电质料等),也是经过否定的。这些质料的互相否定里或它们的细孔里,我们又可发现许多别的独立的质料,而这些质料既同样有细孔,于是有留出空隙让别的质料可以交互存在。这些细孔并不是经验的事实,而是理智的虚构,理智利用细孔这概念来表示独立的质料的否定环节,用一种模糊混乱的想法以掩盖这些矛盾的进一步发挥,按照这种想法,一切皆互相否定。在心理方面,如果用同样的方式把各种能力和活动皆加以实物化,它们的有机统一就会同样地变成彼此的互相作用的一团紊乱。

(多孔性和孔道只是一种形象的解释,——实际上,这里很多质素能够被说出来,主要还是依赖我们的感官,如眼睛对应颜色,耳朵对应声音——可以想象,“物”还具有其他很多质素,这些质素是彼此否定,彼此对立的,互相独立而存在的。在结合于一物时,这些质素是有机统一的,而我们却无法把它们人为地排列。)

These pores(meaning thereby not the pores in an organic body, such as the pores of wood or of the skin, but those in the so-called 'matters', such as coloring matter, caloric, or metals, crystals, etc.) cannot be verified by observation. In the same way matter itself——furthermore form which is separated from matter?? whether that be the thing as consisting of matters, or the view that the thing itself subsists and only has prope ties,is all a product of the reflective understanding which, while it observes and professes to record only what it observes, is rather creating a metaphysic, bristling with contradictions of which it is unconscious.

这些细孔,(这里所谓的细孔不是指有机体如树木或皮肤的细孔道或空隙,而是指所谓质料的细孔,如色素、热素或金属、结晶体内的细孔)是不能用观察加以证实的。同样,质料本身以及与质料分离的形式,首先是物以及用质料构成的物的持存,或就物作为本身独立自存,并具有某些特质,这一切都是抽象反思或理智的产物。这种抽象理智自诩要观察事实,并扬言要记述其客观观察所得的东西,但反而产生出一种形而上学。这种形而上学在各方面都充满了矛盾,却仍然为理智所不自知觉。

(孔道只是一种理智的抽象,其所谓的很多质素,是不能被(感觉经验)观察所得到的。——理智宣称自己要记述其“客观”所见,实际上,却不免要利用形而上学的方法。)

 

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