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Is It Art or Violence?是艺术还是暴力?

(2011-03-22 20:48:43)
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杂谈

Is It Art or Violence?

是艺术还是暴力?

 

Tips from the FEI rule book on why coercive training equipment doesn’t work.

来自FEI规则手册上的忠告,为什么强制训练方式没有作用

 

My therapist tells me that if I share my issues with you I will feel better, so here goes: Can anybody around here ride in anything other than a flash noseband that has been pulled so tight it leaves a depression in the horse’s nose when the noseband is released? Do you have any idea how much I hate tight nosebands? Doesn’t that make you doubt yourself and your training methods just a little? It should. I learned a long time ago that art ends where violence begins. I do not see how we can be proud of our art as riders when the way our nosebands are adjusted amounts to daily mini-torture sessions for our horses who we purport to love and care for so much.

 

医生告诉我,如果和你们分享我的观点会对我有好处,所以如下:这里有谁骑过被紧紧的绑住鼻革然后又被松开的马?你们知道我有多讨厌紧的鼻革吗?你们没有对你自己和你的训练方法产生一点怀疑?不,会有的。很久之前我就知道了,艺术结束暴力开始。我们对我们的骑术引以为豪,但我没有见过我们调整鼻革的使用,让它成为那些据说是我们非常热爱和照顾的马儿们每天都要忍受的最轻的痛苦。

 

When your horse opens his mouth or crosses his jaw, do you think, “Uh-oh, I’ m going to lose dressage points this weekend, I’d better clamp his mouth shut? ” Or do you recognize that your horse is exhibiting a sign of tension? This means his training must continue to emphasize basic calming work. If he is obviously nervous at the bottom level of the training scale, you are not going to have much luck with his collected trot.

 

当你看到你的马张开嘴或者下颚,你会想,哦,我最好是绑住他的嘴,不然这个周末的舞步比赛要失分了。或者你认识到这是马紧张的表现吗?这意味着他的训练重点必须继续放在基础的安静工作上。如果他对低程度的训练明显紧张,你不可能要求他去更高的缩短快步。

 

For those of you who have not been taking notes after your dressage clinics, the training scale goes rhythm, looseness, contact, impulsion, straightness, collection. Because I was born in a different century, I was raised on Gen. Decarpentry’s advice-“Calm. Forward. Straight”I still prefer it because it emphasizes calmness before anything else. It is difficult to teach a horse anything when he is tense, and if you do teach him anything, chances are it will be the wrong thing.

 

给你们没有从场地马术训练中心得到的笔记,训练的阶梯是节奏,放松,联系,动力,正直,收缩。因为我生在不同的年代,我是听着Decarpentry将军的忠告――“安静 向前 正直”,长大的。我还是倾向于它,因为它强调安静在其他事情之前。在马紧张的时候很难教他任何东西,如果你非要教他,很有可能是错的事情。

 

Whichever way you think of it, you have to realize that your horse is not yet calm when he shows resistance in his mouth. If he is not yet calm, then any further demands on him will result in more tension and flawed results. It is an simple as that. If you want flawed results, go ahead and ask for collection before your horse is relaxed. This is a pretty certain way to produce a horse who needs his mouth strapped shut. A tight noseband is a vain attempt to disguise the fact that your horse is not ready for the things you are asking him to do.

 

不管你怎么想,你必须承认当马的嘴在抗拒的时候你的马还没有安静。如果他没有安静,那么任何进一步的要求,都会导致他更加紧张和不好的结果。这很简单,如果你想要不好的结果,那么继续要求你的马收缩,在他放松之前。它有可能导致一匹马需要绑住才能闭合嘴。紧的鼻革是徒劳的掩饰,它只能说明你的马没有准备好去做你要求他做的事情。

 

Where was I before I started this rant? Oh, yeah, classical equitation. I reread the “Object and general principles of dressage” in the international equestrian federation (FEI) dressage rule book the other day and was pleased with how meaningful it is, and how clear. For example, article 401 of the rule book says, “by virtue of a lively impulsion and suppleness of the joints, free from the paralyzing effects of resistance, the horse obeys willingly and without hesitation and responds to the various aids calmly and with precision, displaying a natural and harmonious balance both physically and mentally.”

 

我开始这样大声叫喊之前在哪里?哦,对了。是古典马术。那天我重读了国际马联盛装舞步规则一书里盛装舞步目标和总则部分,我很高兴它是多么的清楚和意味深长。例如,401章,“马匹借助关节充满活力的运动和柔软,摆脱掉由于抗拒产生的行动不便,自愿服从,没有犹豫,安静而准确的回应各种辅助指令,显示着自然和谐的身心平衡”

 

I especially like that part about “free from the paralyzing effects of resistance.” Think about that for a second: when horses stiffen and resist, their musculature becomes paralyzed for the duration of that resistance. If your horse is tense in his topline while jumping, he will be slow with his knees and hang his legs. If you are an eventer, or want to become one, then you have to realize that dressage permeates everything we do with horses.

 

我特别喜欢“摆脱掉由于抗拒产生行动不便”这句。想一秒钟:当马僵硬抗拒,他们的肌肉组织在抗拒过程中变得不能行动自如。如果你的马在跳障碍的时候上部轮廓线是绷紧的,他将放慢他的膝悬垂下他的腿。如果你是一名或者希望成为一名选手,那么你应该认识到盛装舞步的训练方法贯穿于我们对马做的任何事情当中。

 

Article 401 additionally states, “the object of dressage is the development of the horse into a happy athlete through harmonious education. As a result, it makes the horse calm, supple, loose and flexible, but also confident, attentive and keen, thus achieving perfect understanding with his rider.” I give the FEI a lot of unsolicited constructive criticism in this column, most of it well deserved and desperately needed. However, I would be the first to admit that this is a lovely description of what we are supposed to be looking for in the training of horses.

 

401章还写道,“盛装舞步的目的是通过和谐的训练让马发展成为一名快乐的运动员。如此,它能使马安静,柔软,放松,灵活,而且自信,专注,敏锐,于是达到和他的骑手完美的相互理解。”就这一段,我给国际马联多次自作主张的建设性的批评意见,很多是非常应当和非常需要的。然而,首先,我承认这句话给出了一个非常好的定义,是我们训练马匹的过程中应当去寻找的目标。

 

Finally, the rule book states that a horse should be allow to “quietly chew the bit”. You often find this expression in the source documents of dressage, and it is always spoken of approvingly as a trait to be developed and encouraged. There is a very good reason for encouraging this trait in your horse: when he chews quietly on the bit, his mouth is soft and mobile. When his mouth is soft and mobile, it is a good bet that his jaw is relaxed. When his jaw is relaxed, his topline is through and his haunches are active. When your horse exhibits these traits, you are well on your way to producing the “happy athlete” mentioned in the rule book.

 

最后,规则里面还说,马匹应当被允许轻轻的咀嚼衔铁。你经常能够在有关盛装舞步的文本中看到这样的表达,它通常被赞许的称道是应当发展和鼓励的特征。有非常好的理由鼓励你的马发展这项特征。当他安静的咀嚼受衔时,他的嘴是柔软的运动的。当他的嘴是柔软的运动时,能够非常确定他的下颚是放松的。当他下颚放松时,他的上部轮廓线是贯通的,他的腰部臀部是积极运动的。当你的马呈现出这些特征时,你已经上路了,造就一匹快乐的运动马,象书里说的那样。

 

If all this is true, then tell me how in the world your horse is going to chew softly on anything when your flash is so tight that he can’t move his jaw at all? I laugh to myself when I walk past a competitor getting ready to go into the dressage arena at an event and see her groom frantically stuffing sugar cubes into the side of the horse’s mouth. At some time in the past that rider has been told that a trained horse should show signs of foam on the sides of his mouth, so she is going to produce that foam by whatever means. She doesn’t even notice that her poor creature has his mouth so firmly clamped shut that he cannot chew anything. If US dressage team coach Bengt Ljungquist were alive, he would be spinning in his grave.

 

如果这些都是对的,那么告诉我,当鼻革紧的勒住,马根本不能运动下颚时,他将如何轻轻咀嚼? 一次我笑我自己,当时正经过一个要参加舞步比赛准备进入场地的选手,看见她的马夫正在拼命的往马的嘴里塞方糖。过去选手被告知训练有素的马匹应当嘴边吐白沫的,所以她想方设法的制造白沫。她甚至没有注意到她可怜的马儿嘴巴被捆得紧紧的,不能咀嚼任何东西。如果美国盛装舞步队的教练Bengt Ljungquist活着,他一定重新回到他的坟墓里睡去。

 

If that is your training practice, why not just go ahead and super glue your horse’s teeth together…that’ll keep him from gaping his mouth, and it will fix that nasty teeth grinding at the same time. Just kidding … really. Blame it on my therapist—she told me I need to rant more.

 

如果你是那样常规训练的,那么为什么不进一步用强力的胶水把马的牙齿粘在一起,那样就能阻止他张嘴,同时还能防止讨厌的磨牙。是开玩笑的。。。实际上都怪我的医生,是她告诉我需要这样大喊大叫的。

 

Anyway, the best way to get a good score in your dressage test is to give the judge what she wants. Judges are trained to judge according to the rule book, and the rule book says your horse should be free from the paralyzing effect of resistance. Maybe if you concentrate more on correct training, your scores will go up. It will take a little while longer, but you will get a thrill out of your horse’s improved performance. That thrill when you realize your horse is starting to understand is what separates competitors from horsemen. When we get the feeling that our horse is improving, the color of ribbon pales in significance. Competitions are a test of our progress as horsemen; they are not an end in themselves.

 

不管怎样,在舞步比赛中取得好成绩的最佳方式是作出判断她需要的是什么。这个判断来自根据规则手册上的要求进行的训练,手册上说你的马应当摆脱抗拒导致的行动不便。如果你更加专注于正确的训练,也许你的成绩会提升很多。它需要一些时间,但你会因为马匹表现的改善而惊喜。当你发现你的马开始理解了,它带来的惊喜是比赛选手和马术骑手的区别。当我们感受到马匹的进步,这种意义彩虹都失去颜色。比赛是我们作为骑手的过程中的一个测试,他们本身不是目的。

 

However, I don’t want you to think that I live and train only in a world of theory. Riding and training horses in the real world is a complicated business, and things can get confusing sometimes. Was it Emerson who said that a sign of maturity is the ability to believe two mutually exclusive things at the same time? If that is so, then we need to let our thinking about horses mature. What do I mean? Let me give you an example: I firmly believe that we must train our horses according to classical principles. This means long-term systematic, progressive, training that never disturbs the tranquility of the horse. At the same time, I also believe that you can’t have good hands if you don’t have enough bit. See what I mean about opposed ideas? Yet both are true, and we need to apply both of them.

 

然而,我不想让你们认为我只是活在并且训练在理论的世界里。骑马和训练马在现实世界中是复杂的事情,有些时候很困惑。Emerson说过成熟的表现就是有能力在同一时间里相信两个相互排斥的事情,是吗?如果是这样的,那么我们需要去想想马的成熟。这是什么意思? 举个例子,我坚定的相信我们必须按照古典规则训练马匹。这意味着长期系统循序渐进的训练从不打破马匹的宁静。同时,我也相信如果你不用足够的衔铁的力量,你就不能有好的手的辅助。看我相互矛盾的观点?但是,它们都是对的,而且我们需要两个都用。

 

The process of training horses in the real world finds us suspended between these two opposed concepts, and we have to continually balance them. If I emphasize classical principles to the exclusion of all else, I may get into a situation where I endanger my horse and my student, because if your horse is lacking in training, you will need some kind of gadget bit, which will then be, short-term, enough bit. At the same time, every time I use a gadget bit or overtighten a noseband, training comes to a stop. My horse will not truly improve until I do away with gadgets and domination and return to quiet, consistent, patient training.

 

现实中的马术训练进程被我们阻止在这两个相互对立的概念前,我们需要不断的平衡它们。如果我强调古典规则而排斥其他,我将把我的马匹和我的学生置于危险的境地,因为如果马匹缺乏训练,你将需要一些衔铁的帮助,它是短期的够用就行。同时每次使用衔铁器具和过紧的鼻革,训练都很快停止。我的马不会真正提高,直到去掉这些器具和控制,重新回到安静,连贯,有耐心的训练中。

 

Have I ever overtightened my horse’s noseband? Oh, sure. I live and work in the real world. A tight noseband is a short-term solution to a long-term problem. If my student is careening around the warm-up arena, hanging on the reins like a drunk on a lamppost, I have to do something right now to make that horse and rider safer. It is all well and good for me to say, “I only train using classical methods.” However, the problem is that my student must live through the short-term to prove that classical methods are tight in the long-term. The one thing you can be sure of is that I will take away all the gadgets when I get home and resume classical training.

 

我从来都不用过紧的鼻革吗?当然不。我生活工作在现实世界里。紧的鼻革是一个短期的方法用来解决长期的问题。如果我的学生正歪歪斜斜的在比赛的热身场地里,抓着缰绳象醉汉抓着路灯杆,我必须立刻做些什么保证马匹和骑手都安全。我说我只用古典的训练方法,这是一贯正确的。但问题是,我的学生必须通过短期的过程来证明古典方法在长期是好用的。有一件事情你们应当确信,当我回去时我会去掉所有装置,重新开始古典训练。

 

It can be an enormous help to your training once you understand and accept that your horse is an incredibly sensitive creature. I often wonder why people think they have to kick and pull a horse who can feel a fly land on his neck. Instead of worrying about your dressage score, I want you to concentrate on teaching your horse to calmly respond to invisible aids.

 

马是一个非常敏感的生物,一旦你理解并且接受了,它能够给你的训练极大的帮助。我经常想知道为什么人们认为他们必须蹄马或者拉马,马能够感觉到一只苍蝇落在它的脖子上。我想你们应该专注于训练你们的马匹安静的回应看不见的指令,而不是担心你们的舞步成绩。

 

Reiner Kimke, the legendary multiple gold medal winner said, “my horses are not my slaves, they are my friends.” Teach your horse to respond calmly and correctly, and he will be your friend forever.

 

著名的多项金牌获得者,Reiner Kimke说, 我的马不是我的奴隶,他们是我的朋友。教你的马平静正确的反应,他将成为你永远的朋友。

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