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英汉对照《伽利略和油灯》

(2011-05-06 15:57:32)
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伽利略和油灯

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分类: 汉英对照读物

英汉对照《伽利略和油灯》(2011-5-6

(Galileo and the Lamps

 

In Italy nearly four hundred years ago there lived a young man whose name was Galileo. He was always thinking and always asking the reasons for things. He invented the thermometer and simple forms of the telescope and the microscope. He made many important discoveries in science.

One evening when he was only eighteen years old, he was in the cathedral at Pisa at about the time the lamps were lighted. The lamps, which burned only oil in those days, were hung by long rods from the ceiling. When the lamp-lighter knocked against them, or the wind blew through the cathedral, they would swing back and forth like pendulums. Galileo noticed this. Then he began to study them more closely.

He saw that those which were hung on rods of the same length swung back and forth, or vibrated, in the same length of time. Those that were on the shorter rods vibrated much faster than those on the longer rods. As Galileo watched them swinging to and fro, he became more and more interested. Millions of people had seen lamps moving in the same way, but not one had ever thought of discovering any useful fact connected with the phenomenon.

When Galileo went to his room, he began to experiment. He took a number of cords of different lengths and hung them from the ceiling. To the free end of each cord he fastened a weight. Then he set them all to swinging back and forth, like the lamps in the cathedral. Each cord was a pendulum, just as each rod had been.

He found after long study that when a cord was 39.1 inches long, it vibrated just sixty times in a minute. A cord one-fourth as long vibrated just twice as fast, or once every half second. To vibrate three times as fast, or once in every third part of a second, the cord had to be only one-ninth of 39.1 inches in length. By experimenting in various ways Galileo at last discovered how to attach pendulums to clocks as we have them now.

Thus, to Galileo’s habit of thinking and inquiring, the world owes one of the commonest and most useful of inventions—the pendulum clock.

You can make a pendulum for yourself with a cord and a weight of any kind. You can experiment with it if you wish; and perhaps you can find out how long a pendulum must be to vibrate once in two seconds.

 

(原文选自六十年代高级中学课本《英语ENGLISH》第三册代用课本)

 

 

Notes to the Text

 

Galileo[/g æ l i/l eio u](1564--1642)伽利略,意大利天文学家和物理学家。

 

 

【郭炳淦译文】

伽利略和油灯

 

400多年前,意大利有一位名叫伽利略的年轻人。他总是在一刻不停地思考问题,喜欢探究事情的根源。他发明了温度计,发明了样式简单的望远镜和显微镜。在科学上,他有许多重要的发明。

18岁那年的一个夜晚,临近掌灯的时候,他正在比萨大教堂。那个时代,灯只能靠油来点燃,并用一根长长的木竿从天花板上垂吊下来。当掌灯人碰到那些油灯,或者风吹进教堂的时候,油灯就会像钟摆似的来回摇摆。伽利略注意到了这个问题。于是他开始对油灯更加仔细地进行了研究。

伽利略注意到,长度相同的木竿上的油灯来回摆动的时间相同。那些较短的木竿上的油灯比那些较长木竿上的油灯摆动速度要快。伽利略观察来回摇摆的油灯,越来越感到有趣。数百万人曾看到过油灯以相同的方式摆动,却没有一个人想到要发现实用性同这一现象之间的关系。

伽利略回到自己的房间,便开始了试验工作。他找出一些长度不等的绳子,从天花板上垂吊下来,并在每根绳子的末稍挂了一个砝码。接着他晃动所有的砝码,让它们像教堂里的油灯一样地来回摆动。每根绳子就像木竿一样成了钟摆。

经过长期的研究,伽利略发现:一根长39.1英寸的绳子,一分钟之内正好晃动60次。一根相当于原来绳子四分之一长的绳子,摆动速度则正好是原速度的两倍,亦即每半秒钟摆动一次。要使其摆动速度提高三倍,亦即每三分之一秒摆动一次,绳子的长度则只能是39.1英寸绳子长度的九分之一。伽利略通过各种各样的方式进行试验,最后终于发现了把钟摆安装在就像我们今天看到的时钟那样的钟表上的方法。

因此,世人把有摆的时钟这种极平常、极有用的东西的发明,归功于伽利略好问深思的习惯。

你自己也可以用绳子和任意一种重物制作一个钟摆。假如愿意的话,你可以用它来做试验,也许你就会算出,钟摆每两秒钟摆动一次的摆长应该是多少。

【注解】全文翻译完毕于20115615:27:32

 

 

 

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