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almost & nearly

(2008-09-27 21:34:34)
标签:

杂谈

分类: 知识库

先看句子:

Insidethe top of the cave was nearly twenty feet hig

Almostnearly都表示“几乎”,但用法有同有异。本文拟对两者的用法做一比较。

1.  在肯定句中,Almostnearly可以通用,在every,all,always等词前尤其如此。例如:

Almost every American has at least one car.

She goes out to dinner or a dance or a theatre almost every evening.

Nearly everybody came to the housewarming party.几乎没个人都来参加庆祝迁居的聚会。

Nearly everything inside eheir houdes is made of bamboo,too.(高二册,第20)

Almost all colleges and universiries have well-equipped laboratories for terching the natural sciences.几乎所有的大学都拥有设备优良的实验室,用来教授自然科学。

Nearly all girls are good-looking ;some are pretty:a few ,but very few,are beautiful.

Nearly all the furniture was taken out of the dining-room.

He nealy /almost always arrives late.

That is a mistake he almost always makes.

In warm coutries ,many people have their houses made almost entirely of barmboo.(高二册,第20)

In Britain almost eight people out of ten live in towns.

English is spoken as native language by nearly three hundred million people.

I am told that nealy 0.5 of the groceries sold in america are sold in the supermarkets.据说美国日杂食品的销售额中几乎百分比之五十是由超级市场销售的。

It tool the policeman nearly an hour to get the traffic on the move again.

His eyes were shut;he was nealy dead.

Therefore ,almost immediately upon his return,he bought a farm in the hills of New Hampshire.

I went to see her one day and found her nealy in tears.

[]1有人认为,almost 所表示接近的程度一般要高于nealy,Longman Contemporary English-Chinese Dictionary 就是用very nearly 来解释almost 的。Michael Swan 在《英语用法指南》中指出:“一般说来almost的所表示的意思比nearly 更加接近一些。因此,在十二点十五分的时候,我们可以说It’nearly lunchtime;在十二点二十七分的时候,可以说It’almost lunchtime.”该书还提供了下面的例句:

   We’re nearly there.我们快到了。

   We’re almost there.我们马上就要到了。

   She’s nearly six feet tall.她身高将近六尺。(应为“六英尺”)

   She’s almost six feet tall.她身高差一点不到六尺。(应为“六英尺”)

   I nearly fell off my bike.我几乎从自行车上摔下来。

   I almost fell off my bike.我差一点没从自行车上摔下来。

I’m nearly as clever as you.我快赶上你那么聪明了。

  I’m almost as clever as you.我差不多和你一样聪明。

  不过,由于没有绝对的标准,这种差别是很难把握、体会或说明的。实际上,人们在平时使用时并不这样斤斤计较。更有人形成了自己的嗜好,偏爱almostnearly

   2聂振雄等编译的《英语用法问题解答》(增订本)则指出:“Almost可以说是个带有‘减除’意义的词,它总是从它所修饰的那个词的概念里减去一点。而nearly则表示接近这个概念,因而更加强调这个概念。如果有人问现在是什么时间,我们就almost ten o’clocknearly ten o’clock都可以。可是,如果我们要表达一种由于时间过的快而感到意外的心情,或者有人要求我们在将十点钟的时候提醒他一下,那么,我们只能用nearly,而不能用almost,也就是应该说:It is nearly ten o’clock.如果我们说:It is almost five miles to the next village.这个句子知识表明倒下一个村子还有差不多五英里路这个简单的事实。但如果我们要表达路太远或路途比我们原来估计的长的意思,我们就应该说:It is nearly five miles to the next village.同样,It cost me almost twenty pounds.之说明价格的多少,但It cost me nearly twenty pounds.则表示这个价格超过我原来估计的或希望付的数目。”

  2.在说“几乎做了某事儿实际上并没有做”时,用almostnearly均可,但nearly更为普通。例如:

  The ball struck him so hard that he nearly fell into the water.

  I looked down and nearly fell off the ladder when I saw a policeman.

  She fell and almost/nearly broke her neck.

  Although we went far into the cave, we did not come to the end of it: and we had to return fairly soon, as our torch was nearly burnt out.

  The dangerous experiment nearly cost the scientist his life.这一危险的试验差点夺走了这位科学家的生命。

  I was crossing the street and was almost hit by a car我在过那路时差点被汽车撞着。

  Yes, Joan was so happy that she almost cried.是的,琼高兴得差点哭了。

  3.在any及否定词no, none, never, nobody, nothing, nowhere等前通常用almost, 不用nearly。例如:

  Almost any bus will do.哪一辆公共汽车都行。

  Almost no one (=Hardly anyone) believed her.几乎没有人相信她的话。

  There was almost no snow that winter.

  Almost none of the stories was true.

  He ate almost nothing. (=He hardly ate anything.)

  The speaker said almost nothing=scarcely anythingworth listening to.那个发言人所讲的话几乎没有一句值得一听。

  The Indians found in literature almost never talk, and never weep or smile.文学作品中的印第安人几乎从来不说话,从来不哭不笑。

  How can we trust him? He almost never keeps his promise.

  He worked day and night at that lecture, writing it out and memorising it, almost without eating or sleeping.他昼夜不停的准备着那次演讲,又是写又是背,几乎是寝食俱废。

  []《最新牛津现代高级英汉双解词典》指出:Hardly is generally preferred to almost+a negative verb.(一般多用hardly而不用almost+否定动词)。例如:

  She sang so quietly that I could hardly hear her. (不说:… I almost could’t hear her.)

  4.在修饰表达感情或心理状态的动词、形容词时通常用almost

  He almost dreads to think of what may happen.他几乎不敢去想会发生什么事。

  I almost wish I had taken his advice.

  You could almost imagine you were in Switaerland.

  I almost think you’re right.

  I am almost glad that the project has failed. 计划失败了,我几乎为之感到高兴。

  It’s almost incredible.这几乎是不可相信的。

  5.在表示一种非现实的情况并对之进行夸张时,一般宜用almost。;例如:

  She looks almost as if she were drunk.

  When the boy realized the toy helicopter in store for him, he almost flew through the air to get it.

   No long afterwards Kahn died leaving his colleagues at the institute to carry on his work. But now we can almost hear laughing from his grave.

  Our cat understands everything——he’s almost human.我们家的猫什么都懂——简直快同人性了。

My aunt almost sounds foreign.  我姑姑说话简直像个外国人
In that long dress she looks almost graceful. 穿上这件连衣裙,她几乎显得苗条多了。
Wearing a grin almost as wide as the Tennessee River, a relaxed Howard Baker sailed through    

his first full week as President Reagan’s chief of staff, leaving warm feelings in his wake.

  6.在“比较级+than”和副词too之前通常用almost。例如:
The tree is almost higher than the house.
Almost more than one man was killed. 

  This is almost too little.
She had the most beautiful eyes of any girl in the village ,and whenever one of the young

men looked at her as shi passed through the marketplace, her haze was almost more than he

could bear.……她凝视他的神情总是使他不由不爱上他。

  7nearly前面可以有pretty, very等修饰语,almost则不能被这些词修饰。例如:
  The work was very nearly finished.
  It’s very nearly dark. Let’s turn back.
  The situation is pretty nearly hopeless.
形势几乎完全没希望了。
  He pretty neatly revealed all the secrets of his plan.他几乎把计划的全部秘密都泄露出去了。
  8not nearly(not……nearly)是一个惯用语,相当于far from, 意思是:“远远不如”,“与……相差很远”。其中的nearly一般要重读,且不能改为almost

  It is not nearly so easy as you think.这远不像你所想的那么容易。

  I have ɑ20but that will not be nearly enough for my journey.我有20英镑,可这点钱作路费时源源不够的。

  This dictionary is not as good as yours.这本词典比你的差多了。

  但是,在not前面通常则要用almost,almostnot。例如:

  Dick’s got married? I almost can’t (=I can hardly )believe it.

  I had very little to say about their arrival. I almost dd not notice (=hardly noticed) it.

  9.almost还可以修饰nearly。例如:

  I’m sure, nobody to read this would ever imagine I was an almost nearly grown up girl.我相信, 读到本书的人没有一个会想到我几乎是一个大姑娘了。


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