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1999年阅读真题精解

(2011-05-30 10:22:15)
标签:

黄涛

考研

真题答案

教育

分类: 阅读篇

1999 Text 1

  It's a rough world out there. Step outside and you could break a leg slipping on your doormat. Light up the stove and you could burn down the house. Luckily, if the doormat or stove failed to warn of coming disaster, a successful lawsuit might compensate you for your troubles. Or so the thinking has gone since the early 1980s, when juries began holding more companies liable for their customers' misfortunes.

  Feeling threatened, companies responded by writing ever-longer warning labels, trying to anticipate every possible accident. Today, stepladders carry labels several inches long that warn, among other things, that you might — surprise! — fall off. The label on a child's Batman cape cautions that the toy "does not enable user to fly."

  While warnings are often appropriate and necessary — the dangers of drug interactions, for example — and many are required by state or federal regulations, it isn't clear that they actually protect the manufacturers and sellers from liability if a customer is injured. About 50 percent of the companies lose when injured customers take them to court.

  Now the tide appears to be turning. As personal injury claims continue as before, some courts are beginning to side with defendants, especially in cases where a warning label probably wouldn't have changed anything. In May, Julie Nimmons, president of Schutt Sports in Illinois, successfully fought a lawsuit involving a football player who was paralyzed in a game while wearing a Schutt helmet. "We're really sorry he has become paralyzed, but helmets aren't designed to prevent those kinds of injuries," says Nimmons. The jury agreed that the nature of the game, not the helmet, was the reason for the athlete's injury. At the same time, the American Law Institute — a group of judges, lawyers, and academics whose recommendations carry substantial weight — issued new guidelines for tort law stating that companies need not warn customers of obvious dangers or bombard them with a lengthy list of possible ones. "Important information can get buried in a sea of trivialities," says a law professor at Cornell Law School who helped draft the new guidelines. If the moderate end of the legal community has its way, the information on products might actually be provided for the benefit of customers and not as protection against legal liability.

 

51. What were things like in 1980s when accidents happened?

  [A] Customers might be relieved of their disasters through lawsuits.

  [B] Injured customers could expect protection from the legal system.

  [C] Companies would avoid being sued by providing new warnings.

  [D] Juries tended to find fault with the compensations companies promised.

52. Manufacturers as mentioned in the passage tend to ________.

  [A] satisfy customers by writing long warnings on products

  [B] become honest in describing the inadequacies of their products

  [C] make the best use of labels to avoid legal liability

  [D] feel obliged to view customers' safety as their first concern

53. The case of Schutt helmet demonstrated that ________.

  [A] some injury claims were no longer supported by law

  [B] helmets were not designed to prevent injuries

  [C] product labels would eventually be discarded

  [D] some sports games might lose popularity with athletes

54. The author's attitude towards the issue seems to be ________.

  [A] biased                          [B] indifferent

  [C] puzzling                        [D] objective

 

核心词汇

1. rough 粗糙的,不平坦的;粗野的;tough 艰巨的;艰难的

2. step 走

3. slip 滑到

4. light up 点燃

5. burn down 烧毁

6. fail to 没有

7. lawsuit=suit 起诉;诉讼

8. compensate for 为…作出补偿

9. jury 陪审团

10. hold sb. liable for 让…对…负责

11. misfortune 不幸

12. respond 做出反应

13. warning labels 警告标识

14. caution 警告

15. while 尽管,而,当…时候

16. appropriate 合适的

17. interaction相互作用

18. regulation 规则

19. claim 索赔

20. side with 支持

21. defendant 被告;

22. involving 涉及到

23. paralyze 瘫痪

24. nature 本质;by nature 天性

25. carry substantial weight 具有相当的分量

26. issue 发布了;发行了

27. bombard with 大量提供

28. a sea of 大量的

29. trivialities 琐事

30. end 目的

31. have one’s way 得以实现

32. legal liability 法律责任

33. misfortune

 

难句精解

①While warnings are often appropriate and necessary — the dangers of drug interactions, for example — and many are required by state or federal regulations, it isn't clear that they actually protect the manufacturers and sellers from liability if a customer is injured.

    ▲在这个主从复合句中,前一个分句是由while引导的让步从句,这个从句由两个并列句组成,中间用and连接。破折号之间的部分是举例说明warnings的内容,and后面的many省略了warnings,state与federal共用regulations。主句部分本身也是一个主从复合句,主句用了一个形式主语it,真正的主语是that引导的从句,注意这个从句中有个动词短语protect... from...,后面是一个if引导的条件从句。

    △首先要把握这个句子的主旨,那就是主句中所阐明的warnings对manufacturers and sellers的保护作用还很不明朗。注意破折号之间的部分对warnings的解释作用以及it作为形式主语的替代作用。

 

②As personal injury claims continue as before, some courts are beginning to side with defendants, especially in cases where a warning label probably wouldn't have changed anything.

    ▲在这个主从复合句中,前一个分句是由as引导的伴随状语从句,注意这里的claims是个名词;主句的时态用的是现在进行时,表示的这种状况正在开始。这个主句有一个较长的状语短语,原因是cases后面跟了一个where引导的定语从句修饰cases,这个定语从句的主干是warning label not change anything,解释的是什么样的cases。

    △主句依然是抓住句子大意的关键,该句所要表达的就是some courts beginning to side with defendants,再者要注意cases后面定语从句指出了哪类cases尤为如此。

 

③In May, Julie Nimmons, president of Schutt Sports in Illinois, successfully fought a lawsuit involving a football player who was paralyzed in a game while wearing a Schutt helmet.

   ▲这个句子的主干是... president... successfully fought a lawsuit...。句子的主语是Julie Nimmons,后面逗号之间的部分是她的职位,宾语部分a lawsuit有一个较长的动词现在分词involving所引导的短语,involving的宾语是a football player,后面跟了一个who引导的定语从句,这个定语从句中有一个while引导的时间状语,还原成句子就是while he was wearing a Schutt helmet。找出其中的关键部分:... president of Schutt... successfully fought a lawsuit involving a football player... paralyzed... while wearing a Schutt helmet。

 

④At the same time, the American Law Institute — a group of judges, lawyers, and academics whose recommendations carry substantial weight — issued new guidelines for tort law stating that companies need not warn customers of obvious dangers or bombard them with a lengthy list of possible ones.

    ▲这个看起来很长的句子其实是一个简单句,主干是... the... Institute... issued new guidelines for tort law...。其中破折号之间的内容说明的是这个Institute的人员构成,并且用一个whose引导的定语从句说明了这些成员的权威。law后面跟的现在分词stating有一个相当长的宾语从句,这个从句的主语是companies,而谓语有两个动词结构,一个是warn... of...,另一个是bombard... with...,叙述了guidelines的内容。

    △这个句子的要点是在stating后面的that从句,对其中两个动词结构warn... of...和bombard... with...的正确理解决定了对整个句子的理解。

 

⑤If the moderate end of the legal community has its way, the information on products might actually be provided for the benefit of customers and not as protection against legal liability.

    ▲在这个复合句中,if引导的是一个条件从句,主句部分的谓语用了被动形式,谓语动词provide for有两个宾语,一个是the benefits of customers,另一个是protection against legal liability,not决定了两者的取舍关系:取前者,舍后者。

    △从句给出了前提条件,注意has its way的意思是can be achieved;理解主句部分的关键在于provide for的两个宾语的取舍关系。

    补充: Or so the thinking has gone since the early 1980s中的thinking是一种思想的意思,指的是上面所说过的人们对于通过法律获得赔偿的思想。gone本意是消失,这里可以意译为改变,就是说这种思想已经改变。但是我个人觉得,从前后文看,这个gone不是否定,所以应该是开始的意思,也就是说应该翻译成这种思想已经形成了。

 

试题解析

51. [B] 意为:受伤的顾客可望得到法律制度的保护。

    第一段指出,外面是个危险的世界,如果你走出去,可能会滑倒在门垫上,摔伤一条腿;如果点燃炉灶,可能烧毁整栋房屋。可幸的是,如果门垫或炉灶没有警告你可能发生的危害,你可以就自己所受的伤害诉诸法律,成功地获得赔偿。或者,更确切地说,自80年代初以来人们一直这样认为,从那时起,陪审团开始认为更多的公司应该对其顾客遭受的不幸负责。

    第二段提到,为了保护自己,公司开始撰写冗长的标签,但是,正如第三段第二句所指出的那样,这种做法无济于事,因为,如果顾客与公司对簿公堂,大约一半的情况是公司败诉。然而,第四段第一句指出,这种潮流似乎正发生逆转。

 [A]顾客可以通过诉讼免除自己的灾难。relieve sb. of sth.意为“免除某人某事;解除某人某事;使某人摆脱某事”。relieve的意思与原文表达的内容不相符,根据对选择项B的分析,顾客通过法律获得的是对损失的赔偿。看原文,顾客都已经是出事后才找诉讼,事情既然发生了怎么能够免除呢?所以说无论从原文还是从常理都是不对的。

[C]公司将会通过提供新的警示标签避免被起诉。该选择项有两处主要错误:一是avoid的使用,二是new的使用,这两个词的使用使C与原文表达的内容很不一致。这句话用了would avoid这个词,这就是说能够逃避的意思。但是原文根本没有提到是否这么做能否逃避法律的制裁。更何况,从常理考虑也不应该是这样。还有,这句话用了new这个词,原文中也找不到根据。所以[C]是不对的。

[D]陪审团倾向于对公司所承诺的赔偿严加挑剔。这个与原文中“when juries began holding more companies liable for their customers' misfortunes”比较相象,但是原文的这句话意思是:当时陪审团已开始认为更多的公司应对其顾客所遭受的不幸负责。可以看出,这两句的意思还是不同的。一句是有关赔偿的严谨性,一句是有关赔偿的执行度。

 

52. [C] 意为:充分利用标签避免法律责任。

    第二段指出,公司感到很大威胁,它们通过撰写比以前更长的警示标签保护自己,企图预料各种可能发生的事故。结果,现在的梯子上的标签有几英寸长,除了警告你其他可能发生的意外之外,还警告说你可能摔下来——这种警告真是莫名其妙!孩子的蝙蝠侠玩具的斗篷上也警告说:本玩具“并不能使拥有者飞行”。在作者看来,这样的警示语都是多余的、不必要的。

[A]通过在产品上写长长的警示语满足顾客。根据上文对选择项C的分析,他们这样做的目的主要是避免承担责任,而不是满足顾客的需要。

[B]意为:在描述自己的产品的不足上表现得更诚实。这个其实肯定不是商人们的本意,毕竟无奸不商,有哪个商人会这么诚实,把自己产品的缺点告诉别人?

[D]意为:不得不将顾客的安全看作头等重要的事。这个问题嘛,其实想一下,商人的目的就是赚钱,头等重要的事怎么可能是....从文章第二段可以看出,Feeling threatened, companies responded by writing ever-longer warning labels, trying to anticipate every possible accident。公司是因为受了威胁所以才开始贴标签的,但是文章并未说是因为考虑到顾客安全才这么做的。而且,从常理推断,公司应该是考虑到自身利益才这么做的。因此D选项应该是偷梁换柱大法。

 

53. [A] 意为:某些因伤害提出的索赔再也受不到法律的保护了。

    第三段指出,潮流似乎正发生逆转,虽然因人身伤害引起的索赔案像以往一样不断出现,某些法庭正逐渐开始站到被告一边(side with),特别是在有警示标签也可能无济于事的案件中。在Schutt Sports的案件中,Schutt Sports公司被告生产了不安全的头盔,造成一名橄揽球队员(football player)的瘫痪,但是,陪审团认为,造成球员受伤的不是头盔,而是橄榄球这种运动本身的危险性(the nature of the game)。公司因此胜诉。这一例子用于说明第四段第一、二句提到的现象。

[B]头盔不是设计来防止损伤的。戴头盔的目的当然是防止伤害,但是,头盔不可能是万能的。B答案是表面的意思,一般考研命题中不会把答案设定给这种选项的。因为“头盔不是设计来防止损伤的”这个即使从常理来讲也不正确,头盔本来就是用来防止损伤的。而且原文中也没提到这点。

[C]产品标签最终将会被淘汰。discard意为:弃而不用。

[D]运动员可能不再会热衷于某些体育运动项目。这个从常理上来说就不太对,再对照原文,原文只是说了一次事故引发的关于体育用品的争论,但是没有任何地方可以看出运动员会不再热衷于某些项目。只是一次单纯的事故而已,没有理由就夸张到放弃这一层,因此这个选项明显是用了夸张的手法。

 

54. [D] 意为:客观的。

    这里所说的“问题”指索赔案中孰是孰非这一问题。文章探讨了索赔案所涉及的顾客(原告)、公司(被告)和陪审团三方的反应,重点指出陪审团态度的转变。文章叙述客观,作者没有表达个人观点。关于态度题有很多偏方,基本上说,ABC三项这三个词基本不可能成为任何题的答案。而D这个词,绝对是首选项,基本上出现了选它就没错。因为,所有的选中文章讨论的大多是客观问题,作者的态度更是客观的。如果是主观的话根本就犯了主观主义错误......

[A]有偏见的。这个单词在考研英语阅读中很难会成为正确答案的,毕竟你想,既然能当选全国研究生入学考试试题,没有鲜明的中心思想是不可能的,像有偏见的这种态度基本是不可能出现的。反过来说,客观的这种态度基本是放之四海而皆准的。

[B]冷漠的。[C]迷惑不解的。如果对于问题是迷惑不解的,那么整篇文章就是说没有表明鲜明的立场。但是这种文章是不可能入选研究生入学考试的。更何况从原文来看,作者的态度相当明显,因此是客观的。

 

参考译文

    外面是一个危险的世界。如果你走出去,可能会滑倒在门垫上,摔伤一条腿。如果你点燃炉灶,可能会把房子烧掉。但是假如门垫或炉灶上没有警示语告诉你可能发生的危害,那么你或许可以就自己所受的伤害通过法律诉讼,成功地获得赔偿。大约自80年代初以来人们就不再(guangxian注:此处“不再”二字应删除!)这样认为了,当时陪审团已开始认为更多的公司应对其顾客所遭受的不幸负责。

    公司因此感到了威胁,便做出了反应,写出越来越长的警示标识语,力图预先标明种种可能发生的事故。现在,梯子上警告标签有几英寸长,除了警告你其他可能发生的意外情况外,还警告你可能会摔下来,简直是莫名其妙!印在儿童蝙蝠侠披风上的标识语竟然也告诫说,本玩具“无法让用户飞行”。

虽然警示语常常是合理而必要的,如对药物副作用而产生的危险的警示语,并且很多是州或联邦法规所要求的,但是当消费者受伤,这些警示语能否真正保护制造商和销售商使之免于责任,这还很难说。被受伤的消费者告上法庭的公司中,大约一半的情况是公司败诉。

    现在看来这种趋势正在转变。尽管个人伤害的指控一如既往地继续着,但有些法庭已开始站到被告一方,特别是在处理那些有警示语也无法避免伤害的案件时。五月份,伊利诺斯州的Shutt体育公司总裁朱利·尼蒙斯就成功地打赢了这样一场官司。一名橄榄球队员戴着该公司的头盔在一场比赛中受伤瘫痪,遂将该公司告上法庭。公司总裁朱利·尼蒙斯说:“他成了瘫痪,我们非常难过,但头盔的设计不是为了预防这类伤害的。”陪审团也认为造成该运动员受伤的是这项运动本身的危险性,而不是头盔。与此同时,美国法学会——该学会由一群举足轻重的法官、律师、学者所组成——签署了新的民事侵害法纲要,宣布公司不必警示顾客那些显而易见的危险,或者给顾客列出一份冗长的可能造成的危险的清单。康奈尔大学法学院一位参与起草新纲要的教授说,“重要的信息会淹没在细枝末节的汪洋之中”。如果该法律团体的这一适中的目的能够实现,产品上提供的警示信息实际上是用来保护消费者利益的,而不是为了避免公司承担法律责任的。

 

1999 Text 2

  In the first year or so of Web business, most of the action has revolved around efforts to tap the consumer market. More recently, as the Web proved to be more than a fashion, companies have started to buy and sell products and services with one another. Such business-to-business sales make sense because business people typically know what product they're looking for.

  Nonetheless, many companies still hesitate to use the Web because of doubts about its reliability. "Businesses need to feel they can trust the pathway between them and the supplier," says senior analyst Blane Erwin of Forrester Research. Some companies are limiting the risk by conducting online transactions only with established business partners who are given access to the company's private intranet.

  Another major shift in the model for Internet commerce concerns the technology available for marketing. Until recently, Internet marketing activities have focused on strategies to "pull" customers into sites. In the past year, however, software companies have developed tools that allow companies to "push" information directly out to consumers, transmitting marketing messages directly to targeted customers. Most notably, the Pointcast Network uses a screen saver to deliver a continually updated stream of news and advertisements to subscribers' computer monitors. Subscribers can customize the information they want to receive and proceed directly to a company's Web site. Companies such as Virtual Vineyards are already starting to use similar technologies to push messages to customers about special sales, product offerings, or other events. But push technology has earned the contempt of many Web users. Online culture thinks highly of the notion that the information flowing onto the screen comes there by specific request. Once commercial promotion begins to fill the screen uninvited, the distinction between the Web and television fades. That's a prospect that horrifies Net purists.

  But it is hardly inevitable that companies on the Web will need to resort to push strategies to make money. The examples of Virtual Vineyardsa. Amazon.com, and other pioneers show that a Web site selling the right kind of products with the right mix of interactivity, hospitality, and security will attract online customers. And the cost of computing power continues to free fall, which is a good sign for any enterprise setting up shop in silicon. People looking back 5 or 10 years from now may well wonder why so few companies took the online plunge. 

55. We learn from the beginning of the passage that Web business ________.

  [A] has been striving to expand its market

  [B] intended to follow a fanciful fashion

  [C] tried but in vain to control the market

  [D] has been booming for one year or so

56. Speaking of the online technology available for marketing, the author implies that ________.

  [A] the technology is popular with many Web users

  [B] businesses have faith in the reliability of online transactions

  [C] there is a radical change in strategy

  [D] it is accessible limitedly to established partners

57. In the view of Net purists, ________.

  [A] there should be no marketing messages in online culture

  [B] money making should be given priority to on the Web

  [C] the Web should be able to function as the television set

  [D] there should be no online commercial information without requests

58. We learn from the last paragraph that ________.

 [A] pushing information on the Web is essential to Internet commerce

 [B] interactivity, hospitality and security are important to online customers

 [C] leading companies began to take the online plunge decades ago

 [D] setting up shops in silicon is independent of the cost of computing power

 

核心词汇

1. or so 左右,

2. web=website 网络

3. revolve around 围绕

4. tap 轻打;开发;水龙头

5. more than 不仅仅是;不只是

6. make sense 有道理;有意义

7. nonetheless 尽管如此

8. reliability 可靠性

9. pathway 小径,通路,路径

10. supplier 供应商

11. limit 限制

12. conduct 进行,做

13. online transaction 在线交易

14. established 确定的;已有的

15. access to 进入;有权利做

16. intranet 局域网;internet 互联网

17. shift 转变,变化

18. model 模式,方式

19. concern 与…有关

20. available 可以用来;可以得到的

21. focus on 关注;集中

22. strategy 策略;方法

23. transmit 传递;发送

24. targeted 目标的;有针对性的

25. notably 明显地

26. deliver 发送

27. update 更新;upload 上传

28. a stream of 大量的

29. sunscriber 订阅者;订购者;用户;subscribe to 向…订阅;同意

30. monitor 监控器

31. customize 定制

32. proceed to 继续做;precede 在…之前

33. contempt 蔑视

34. think highly of 高度称赞

35. notion 观点

36. commercial promotion 商业促销

37. uninvited 不请自来

38. distinction 区别;区分

39. fade=disappear=vanish=perish 消失,不存在

40. prospect=future将来

41. horrify 让…感到恐怖

42. purist 净化者

43. inevitable 不可避免的

44. resort to 求助于

45. right 合适的;正确的;右边的;权力

46. interactivity 互动

47. hospitality 热情好客;inhospitality 冷漠

48. plunge 冒险

 

难句精解

①Some companies are limiting the risk by conducting online transactions only with established business partners who are given access to the company's private intranet.

   ▲这个句子的主谓宾很明显,但是重要的是by后面的conducting引导的动名词短语,表示的是companies limiting the risk的方式方法。还要注意的是partners后面跟了一个who引导的定语从句,说明了partners所享受的待遇。

   △找出其中的关键部分:... companies... limiting... risk by... transactions... with established... partners who... access to... company's... intranet。注意intranet与internet的差别:后者是国际互联网,前者是公司内部网。

 

②In the past year, however, software companies have developed tools that allow companies to "push" information directly out to consumers, transmitting marketing messages directly to targeted customers.

   ▲在这个简单句中,宾语tools带了一个that引导的定语从句,修饰tools,在这个从句中真正的主语是tools,由that替代,注意这个从句中谓语动词短语allow... to...的形式;后面跟了一个transmitting引导的现在分词短语,相当于that从句的补充成分,进一步说明push information to consumer的方式。

   △这个句子的主要内容集中在develop tools以及tools后面的that从句,从句中关键信息在于几个动词的使用:allow,push,transmit等。

 

③Online culture thinks highly of the notion that the information flowing onto the screen comes there by specific request.

   ▲这个句子的主句就是that前面的部分,注意动词短语think highly of的含义,但是理解这个句子的关键在于宾语notion后面所跟的that引导的同位语从句,就是说that从句解释的就是notion的内容。这个从句中的主语information后面跟了一个修饰性的flowing引导的现在分词短语。

   △在抓住了主干think highly of the notion之后,理解这个句子的关键在于对that从句的理解,尤其是by specific request决定了notion的重要内容。

 

④The examples of Virtual Vineyards, Amazon.com, and other pioneers show that a Web site selling the right kind of products with the right mix of interactivity, hospitality, and security will attract online customers.

   ▲这个句子的主干是... examples... show... a Web site... will attract... customers。抓住这个主干,再看其它成分:examples后面跟的of短语是限定成分,说明examples的内容;谓语动词show后面跟的是一个that引导的宾语从句,这个宾语从句的主语a Web site后面跟了一个现在分词短语作限定成分,这个短语的动词是selling,宾语是the right kind of products,再加上一个较长的表示方式的状语,注意介词宾语mix后面有一个of引导的三个并列名词表示mix的内容,后面will attract online customers是这个从句的谓语和宾语。

   △找出句子的主谓宾,再看不同成分的修饰限定部分,再者要注意宾语从句的主语所带的现在分词结构的限定短语。

 

⑤And the cost of computing power continues to free fall, which is a good sign for any enterprise setting up shop in silicon.

   ▲这个句子的主句是逗号前的句子,容易理解,重要的是逗号后which引导的从句,这里which指代的是逗号前的这个句子,指的是这个句子所陈述的现象,which在这里充当的是从句的主语,enterprise后面有一个现在分词短语,起限定作用。

   △重要的是弄清从句中which引导词所指的是前面整个句子,这样就可以得知a good sign的意思。另外注意setting up shop in silicon中silicon原意是“硅”,在这里指代的是“互联网”与“计算机”。

 

试题解析

55. [A] 意为:一直在竭力开拓其市场。

    第一段指出,在网络公司创办的最初一两年中,大部分措施是围绕着努力开拓(tap)消费者市场。最近,随着网络证明不仅是一种时尚而已,公司开始(在网上)相互买卖产品或提供服务,公司间的这种买卖方式是很有道理的,因为商人一般都知道自己所需要的产品。第一句和第二句都叙述了公司企图利用网上资源开拓业务的努力,第三句是对第二句提到的现象的评价。

[B]意为:打算遵循一种空幻的时尚。

[C]企图控制市场,但徒劳无益。第一段仅提到了它们的努力,并未提到努力的结果。

[D]意为:在一年左右的时间里发展迅速。第一段仅提到了它们的努力,并未提到努力的结果。事实上,正如第二段所提到的,许多公司目前仍然因为怀疑网络的安全性而对网络的使用犹豫不决。

 

56. [C] 意为:在策略上发生了根本改变。

    第三段第一句指出,网络商业模式的另一个重大变化是营销策略的变化。在这个句子中,technology的意思不是“技术”,而是“技巧”,这里指销售方法。根据第三段,这里所说的变化指从“推”到“拉”的变化。两种营销策略迥然不同。

[A]这种技术(或方法)受到了许多网络用户的喜爱。与原文的第三段But push technology has earned the contempt(蔑视) of many Web users自相矛盾。

[B]为:公司对在线交易的可靠性充满信心。根据第二段第一句,许多公司对网络的可靠性表示怀疑,因此对使用网络仍然很忧虑。

[D]它仅限于对固定合作伙伴使用。Limitedly=only用在这里过于绝对。

 

57. [D] 意为:没有要求就不应该有在线商业信息。即:没有主动要求就不应该提供在线商业信息。

    根据第三段最后四句,“推”的策略受到了许多网上用户的厌弃,在线用户们极力推崇这种做法:信息应该根据特定要求载入(用户的)屏幕。商业信息一旦在没有要求的情况下就被推入用户的屏幕,那么,网络和电视的区别就不存在了,这种前景正是Net purists所惧怕的。这里,Net purists指主张保持网络特色的人。

[A]意为:在线领域不应该有销售信息。根据对[D]的分析,这些人反对的是销售信息的传送方式,而不是这种信息本身。

[B]上网的首要目的应该是为了赚钱。

[C]网络的功能应该像电视一样。这正是Net purist所反对的。

 

58. [B] 互动、礼貌、安全对在线客户来说很重要。这里互动(指网上人机对话功能)、礼貌(指网上热情服务)、安全都指网络信息的特点或提供方式。

在最后一段作者指出,网上的公司不使用“推”的策略也肯定能赚钱。Virtual Vineyards和Amazon.com(两个网址的名称)以及其他开拓者的例子表明:销售对路产品的网址,加上互动、礼貌、安全等特点,将同样会吸引网上客户。

[A]对网上商业来说,在网上“推”信息至关重要。根据上文的分析,事实恰恰相反。

[C]一些大公司在几十年前就开始积极尝试在线服务。第四段最后一句指出,只要回顾一下过去5年至10年的历史人们很可能会感到奇怪:为什么如此少的公司尝试在线服务呢?

[D]在计算机上建立销售点与(计算机的)运算能力无关。根据第四段第三句,计算机的运算能力成本不断下降,这对于企事业在计算机上建立销售点是个好的形势。所渭“计算机的运算能力成本不断下降”指计算机和网络上网价格变得便宜;所谓“在硅中设立商店”指在计算机(网络)上设立销售点。可见,二者是相关的。

 

参考译文

    大约在网上交易的第一年当中,大部分业务活动都是围绕着努力开发消费者市场来进行的。最近,随着证明网络不仅是一种时尚而已,公司间便开始(在网上)交易产品和服务。这类公司之间的销售是很有道理的,因为商人通常都知道他们需要什么产品。

    不过,由于怀疑网络的可靠性许多公司仍对网络的使用犹豫不决。Forrester研究所的资深分析家布兰·欧文说,“商家需要认识到他们可以信赖销售商和供应商之间的这种途径。”有些公司为了限制这种冒险,只与那些已经熟识的贸易伙伴进行在线贸易,给予这些伙伴进入本公司局域网的权利。

    网络商业模式的另一个重大变化体现在营销策略上。前些年,互联网上的营销活动还集中在如何将用户“拉进”网站的策略问题上。然而,在去年,软件公司开发出新的技术,这些技术使得公司可以将信息直接“推出”给消费者,直接把营销信息传送给特定的用户。最突出的例子是Pointcast网络,该网络使用一种屏幕保护系统,将大量最新的信息和广告不断地传送到用户的计算机显示器上。用户可以定制自己想要接受的信息,然后直接进入某个公司的网址。像Virtual Vineyards这样的公司业已开始采用类似的技术将有关特价商品、产品推销或其他活动的信息“推”向用户。但这种“推”销技术遭到许多网上用户的鄙视。网上文化推崇这样一个概念,即流动到屏幕上的信息应是在专门的请求之后才出现的。一旦商业促销不请自来地充斥电脑屏幕,那么网络和电视就没多大差别了。这种前景让网络净化者感到不安。

    网上公司并不是非得依靠“推销”策略方能挣钱。像Virtual Vineyards和Amazon.com及其他开拓者的例子说明:一个销售适类商品的网站,如果将交互性、热情服务、安全性合理结合,肯定会吸引网上用户的。计算能力的成本持续自由下降,这对任何建立了网上销售的企业来说都是个好的征兆。回顾过去的5到10年的历史,人们很可能会感到奇怪:尝试网上销售的公司为何如此之少呢?

 

1999 Text 3

  An invisible border divides those arguing for computers in the classroom on the behalf of students' career prospects and those arguing for computers in the classroom for broader reasons of radical educational reform. Very few writers on the subject have explored this distinction — indeed, contradiction — which goes to the heart of what is wrong with the campaign to put computers in the classroom.

  An education that aims at getting a student a certain kind of job is a technical education, justified for reasons radically different from why education is universally required by law. It is not simply to raise everyone's job prospects that all children are legally required to attend school into their teens. Rather, we have a certain conception of the American citizen, a character who is incomplete if he cannot competently assess how his livelihood and happiness are affected by things outside of himself. But this was not always the case; before it was legally required for all children to attend school until a certain age, it was widely accepted that some were just not equipped by nature to pursue this kind of education. With optimism characteristic of all industrialized countries, we came to accept that everyone is fit to be educated. Computer-education advocates forsake this optimistic notion for a pessimism that betrays their otherwise cheery outlook. Banking on the confusion between educational and vocational reasons for brining computers into schools, computer-ed advocates often emphasize the job prospects of graduates over their educational achievement.

  There are some good arguments for a technical education given the right kind of student. Many European schools introduce the concept of professional training early on in order to make sure children are properly equipped for the professions they want to join. It is, however, presumptuous to insist that there will only be so many jobs for so many scientists, so many businessmen, so many accountants. Besides, this is unlikely to produce the needed number of every kind of professional in a country as large as ours and where the economy is spread over so many states and involves so many international corporations.

  But, for a small group of students, professional training might be the way to go since well-developed skills, all other factors being equal, can be the difference between having a job and not. Of course, the basics of using any computer these days are very simple. It does not take a lifelong acquaintance to pick up various software programs. If one wanted to become a computer engineer, that is, of course, an entirely different story. Basic computer skills take — at the very longest — a couple of months to learn. In any case, basic computer skills are only complementary to the host of real skills that are necessary to becoming any kind of professional. It should be observed, of course, that no school, vocational or not, is helped by a confusion over its purpose.

59. The author thinks the present rush to put computers in the classroom is ________.

  [A] far-reaching                      [B] dubiously oriented

  [C] self-contradictory               [D] radically reformatory

60. The belief that education is indispensable to all children ________.

  [A] is indicative of a pessimism is disguise

  [B] came into being along with the arrival of computers

  [C] is deeply rooted in the minds of computer-ed advocates

  [D] originated from the optimistic attitude of industrialized countries

61. It could be inferred from the passage that in the author's country the European model of professional training is ________.

  [A] dependent upon the starting age of candidates

  [B] worth trying in various social sections

  [C] of little practical value

  [D] attractive to every kind of professional

62. According to the author, basic computer skills should be ________.

  [A] included as an auxiliary course in school

  [B] highlighted in acquisition of professional qualifications

  [C] mastered through a life-long course

  [D] equally emphasized by any school, vocational or otherwise

 

核心词汇

1. invisible 无形的;看不见的

2. divide 分开

3. argue for 支持;argue against 反对

4. On the behalf of 代表;为了

5. career 事业;就业

6. prospect 前景

7. radical 根本的

8. subject 话题,主题,科目

9. explore 探讨

10. distinction 区分

11. contradiction 矛盾

12. heart 本质;中心;go to the heart of 涉及到….核心问题

13. what is wrong with ….是错误的;

14. campaign 运动;活动

15. aim at 针对,努力

16. justify 证明…有道理

17. rather 相反

18. conception 概念

19. character 人物,汉字

20. incomplete 不完整

21. competently 称职地

22. assess 评价;判断

23. livelihood 生计;生活

24. pursue 追求

25. optimisim 乐观

26. betray 违背,背叛

27. emphasize A over B; 强调A胜过 B

28. right 合适的;正确的

29. presumptuous 武断的

30. involve 涉及到,包括

31. in any case 无论如何

32. complementary 补充的

33. the host of 大量的

34. vocational 职业的

35. confusion 困惑

 

难句精解

①An invisible border divides those arguing for computers in the classroom on the behalf of students' career prospects and those arguing for computers in the classroom for broader reasons of radical educational reform.

   ▲这是本篇首句,对于本文理解至关重要。在结构上这是个简单句,复杂之处在于divides后面所跟的两个作宾语的those。those后面跟的都是由arguing引导的作为限定成分的现在分词短语,结构相似。注意短语中介词用法,on the behalf of和本句最后一个for都有“因为……的原因”的意思。

   △主要把两个those后面的限定成分弄清楚,就知道了两种论点的不同之处,还要注意的是本句的介词所代表的意思。

 

②An education that aims at getting a student a certain kind of job is a technical education, justified for reasons radically different from why education is universally required by law.

   ▲首先看这个句子的主语an education,它带了一个that引导的定语从句,其中that在这个从句中作主语,谓语是aims at,后面跟了一个动名词短语作介词宾语;这个句子的谓语是is,后面作表语的是名词a technical education,在这之后是一个过去分词justified引导的短语修饰上句的表语名词,这个短语中作为介词宾语的reasons带了一个形容词different前导的短语,其中from后面跟的介词宾语是个why引导的从句。

    △理解这个句子的关键,一是明白主语所带从句的含义,再是表语所带的过去分词短语,尤其是其中why引导的介词宾语从句。

 

③Rather, we have a certain conception of the American citizen, a character who is incomplete if he cannot competently access how his livelihood and happiness are affected by things outside of himself.

    ▲这个句子的难点在于conception后面所跟的限定成分,尤其是citizen后面的部分,在这里a character复指的是the American citizen,其后是一个who引导的定语从句,是个主从复合句,其中主句是who is incomplete,从句是if引导的条件从句,这个条件从句中的谓语动词access跟了一个how引导的宾语从句。

    △对这个句子的理解关键在于后半部分对the American citizen的解释,尤其是if引导的条件从句的含义,是整篇文章的重点内容。

 

④Besides, this is unlikely to produce the needed number of every kind of professional in a country as large as ours and where the economy is spread over so many states and involves so many international corporations.

   ▲这里的主语this指的是前面所说的professional training,后面不定式短语中动词produce的宾语是professional,前面的成分是修饰这个词的短语,接着是他点状语,其中country带了两个修饰成分,前一个是形容词词性的短语as large as ours,后一个是where引导的定语从句,这个从句的主语the economy有两个谓语动词:is和involves,后面都用了相似的结构so many,表示强调。

 

⑤But, for a small group of students, professional training might be the way to go since well-developed skills, all other factors being equal, can be the difference between having a job and not.

    ▲该句是个主从复合句,前面for引导的短语表示的是对象,注意主句的表语the way跟了一个不定式to go,从句由since引导,这个从句的主干是skills... can be the difference,其中difference带了一个介词短语between... and...,and后面的not可以补足为not having a job。再者就是中的插入成分,all other factors being equal,这是一个独立主格结构,在本句中作为插入短语,起到限制的作用。

    △理解好since后面的原因状语从句是这个句子的关键,当然还要注意for后面所跟的对象,以及主句不太确定的语气:might be the way。

 

试题解析

59. [B] 意为:目标不明确。

    第一段指出,有人主张为学生的未来工作而进行计算机课堂教学,有人则主张为教育的根本改革这一更广泛的目的进行计算机课堂教学,在这两种人之间存在着一条看不见的界限。很少有人撰文论述这一区别——或更确切地说是矛盾,但是,这一问题恰恰是主张汁算机课堂教学这一运动的症结之所在。可见,在这两句中已经提到了计算机教学的目的不清的问题。

    在全文的最后一句作者总结说:当然,应该指出的是,无论是职业学校还是普通学校,其办学目的不明确都是无益的。

    [A]意义深远的。  [C]自相矛盾的。[D]根本改革的。

 

60. [D] 意为:起源于工业化国家的乐观主义态度。

    第二段第三、四、五句指出,我们对一个美国公民的素质有一种既定的认识,认为,如果他不能充分地评价外在因素对其生活和幸福的影响,他的个性是不完整的。但是,情况不总是如此,在法律规定所有孩子必须上学到某个年龄之前(指义务制教育),有些人被普遍认为本性上是不适于接受这种教育的。随着乐观主义的思想深入到所有工业化国家,人们开始认为每个人都适于受教育。

   [A]表明伪装下的悲观主义态度。 [B]随着计算机的诞生而存在。

   [C]深深地植根于主张计算机教育的人们的思想中。computered是本文作者杜撰的一个词,根据第二段最后一句,computered advocate当理解为“主张计算机课堂教学的人”。

 

61. [C] 意为:几乎不具有实际价值。意即不适用于其国家。

    第三段第三句指出,此外,对于像我们这样偌大一个国家(指美国)来说,经济遍布这么多的州,涉及如此多的跨国公司,这种做法(指欧洲式的职业教育)很难培养出所需要的各类专业人员。

[A]取决于学员开始接受培训的年龄。candidate这里指参加培训的人。

[B]值得在社会各界进行尝试。

[D]对各种专业人员来说都具有吸引力。

 

62. [A] 意为:应该作学校的辅助课程。

    第四段第六句指出,无论如何,在成为任何一类专业人员所需要的众多真才实学中,计算机基础技能只是一种辅助技能。这里的complementary和选择项A中的auxiliary是同义词。

[B]在获得专业素质的过程中加以强调。在最后一段作者指出,学习计算机基本技能很简单,不需要花太多的时间。可见,作者并不认为从职业培训的角度来学习计算机基础知识多么深奥难懂,因此也不需要“强调”。

[C]花毕生的时间去掌握。根据最后一段,在作者看来,现在掌握计算机基础技能非常简单,不需要花毕生的时间学习各种软件程序,掌握基础计算机技能最多只需要一两个月。

[D]无论是职业学校还是普通学校都强调。

 

参考译文

    对于计算机课堂教学,人们在观点上存在着一条无形的界限:一种是以学生的就业前景为理由,另一种是以激进的教育改革为理由。很少有人就这一区别——事实上是矛盾——进行撰文探讨,但它却是促使计算机进入课堂的活动出问题的关键。

    旨在使学生胜任某种工作的教育是职业教育,它存在的理由与法律所规定的普及教育之间有很大差别。根据法律要求,所有儿童都必须就学至十几岁,其目的并非简单地增加他们的谋职能力。我们更应该具有的是作为美国公民的某种观念,即他必须准确判断自身的生活和幸福是如何受到外界影响的,否则他的公民特征就是不完整的。但是情况并不总是如此;在法律要求所有儿童必须上学至一定年龄之前,人们普遍认为有些儿童天生就不适合接受这种教育。随着工业化给国家带来的特有乐观精神,我们已经接受人人都适合受教育的观念。倡导计算机教育的人抛弃了这一乐观理念,取而代之的是与他们乐观外表相悖的悲观论调。基于将计算机引入课堂的“教育理由”和“谋职理由”的混淆,主张计算机教育的人常常只强调毕业生的就业前景,而忽略了他们的教育成就。

    对适当的学生实行职业教育也有道理。欧洲的许多学校很早就引进职业培训的概念,以确保儿童具备欲从事的职业所需的技能。然而,去臆断科学家、商人、会计职位的数量是武断的。此外,在我们这么大的一个国家里,经济延展到这么多的州,涉及到这么多的国际公司,因而要按照数量培养出所需要的各类专业人员是不太可能的。

    但是对少数学生而言,职业培训也许是可取之路,因为在其他因素相同的情况下,熟练的技能是能否得到工作的关键。当然,目前计算机的基本操作非常简单。不需要花毕生的时间去熟悉各种不同的软件程序的使用。当然如果想成为一名计算机工程师,事情就完全不同了。基本的计算机技能最长也只需一两个月即学会。不管怎样,基本的计算机技能只是对成为专业技术人员所需的各种实际技能的补充。当然应该看到的是,不管是职业学校、还是普通学校,混淆计算机教学的目的,都不会受益。

 

1999 Text 4

  When a Scottish research team startled the world by revealing 3 months ago that it had cloned an adult sheep, President Clinton moved swiftly. Declaring that he was opposed to using this unusual animal husbandry technique to clone humans, he ordered that federal funds not be used for such an experiment — although no one had proposed to do so — and asked an independent panel of experts chaired by Princeton President Harold Shapiro to report back to the White House in 90 days with recommendations for a national policy on human cloning. That group — the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC) — has been working feverishly to put its wisdom on paper, and at a meeting on 17 May, members agreed on a near-final draft of their recommendations.

  NBAC will ask that Clinton's 90-day ban on federal funds for human cloning be extended indefinitely, and possibly that it be made law. But NBAC members are planning to word the recommendation narrowly to avoid new restrictions on research that involves the cloning of human DNA or cells — routine in molecular biology. The panel has not yet reached agreement on a crucial question, however, whether to recommend legislation that would make it a crime for private funding to be used for human cloning.

  In a draft preface to the recommendations, discussed at the 17 May meeting, Shapiro suggested that the panel had found a broad consensus that it would be "morally unacceptable to attempt to create a human child by adult nuclear cloning." Shapiro explained during the meeting that the moral doubt stems mainly from fears about the risk to the health of the child. The panel then informally accepted several general conclusions, although some details have not been settled.

NBAC plans to call for a continued ban on federal government funding for any attempt to clone body cell nuclei to create a child. Because current federal law already forbids the use of federal funds to create embryos (the earliest stage of human offspring before birth) for research or to knowingly endanger an embryo's life, NBAC will remain silent on embryo research.

  NBAC members also indicated that they would appeal to privately funded researchers and clinics not to try to clone humans by body cell nuclear transfer. But they were divided on whether to go further by calling for a federal law that would impose a complete ban on human cloning. Shapiro and most members favored an appeal for such legislation, but in a phone interview, he said this issue was still "up in the air."

63. We can learn from the first paragraph that ________.

  [A] federal funds have been used in a project to clone humans

  [B] the White House responded strongly to the news of cloning

  [C] NBAC was authorized to control the misuse of cloning technique

  [D] the White House has got the panel's recommendations on cloning

64. The panel agreed on all of the following except that ________.

  [A] the ban on federal funds for human cloning should be made a law

  [B] the cloning of human DNA is not to be put under more control

  [C] it is criminal to use private funding for human cloning

  [D] it would be against ethical values to clone a human being

65. NBAC will leave the issue of embryo research undiscussed because ________.

  [A] embryo research is just a current development of cloning

  [B] the health of the child is not the main concern of embryo research

  [C] an embryo's life will not be endangered in embryo research

  [D] the issue is explicitly stated and settled in the law

66. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that ________.

  [A] some NBAC members hesitate to ban human cloning completely

  [B] a law banning human cloning is to be passed in no time

  [C] privately funded researchers will respond positively to NBAC's appeal

  [D] the issue of human cloning will soon be settled

 

核心词汇

1. startle=surprise=shock=amaze=astonish 使…吃惊

2. clone 克隆

3. be opposed to 反对

4. animal husbandry 畜牧业

5. chair 主持

6. recommendation 建议

7. near-final 接近最后稿

8. extend 延长

9. indefinitely 无限制地

10. word 措词;用词

11. narrowly 侥幸地

12. restriction 限制;制约

13. routine 惯例的;日常的

14. crucial 关键的

15. draft 草案

16. consensus 共识

17. morally unacceptable 道德上不可接受

18. stem from 来自于

19. forbid 禁止

20. appeal to 呼吁

21. divided 有分歧

22. impose 施加;强加;征收

23. favor 支持;

24. up in the air 悬而未决

25. feverishly 激动地,狂热地

 

难句精解

①Declaring that he was opposed to using this unusual animal husbandry technique to clone humans, he ordered that federal funds not be used for such an experiment — although no one had proposed to do so — and asked an independent panel of experts chaired by Princeton President Harold Shapiro to report back to the White House in 90 days with recommendations for a national policy on human cloning.

   ▲这个长句严格来说主语只有一个he和两个谓语(order和ask)。第一个逗号之前是一个表示伴随状态的现在分词短语,declaring后面是一个that引导的宾语从句,注意其中有一个use... to...的动词结构,然后是主句,第一个谓语ordered后面也是一个that引导的宾语从句,这个从句用了虚拟语气,在谓语动词be前面省略了should;破折号之间是个although引导的让步从句,是对前面的补充;and后面是第二个谓语asked,用了短语搭配ask... to...,ask的宾语其实是panel,这个单词的前后都是它的修饰成分,尤其是有过去分词chaired引导的短语,表明的是这个panel的领导者是谁;to后面的动词report接的是目的地the White House,时间要求in 90 days,内容recommendations,后面的for短语说明的是recommendations的内容。

   △理解这个句子的关键在于找到主句的两个谓语,然后理清两个谓语动词后面的宾语成分;再者就是句子开始的现在分词结构和破折号之间的补充成分。

 

②NBAC will ask that Clinton's 90-day ban on federal funds for human cloning be extended indefinitely, and possibly that it be made law.

   ▲这个句子的主语是NBAC,谓语ask后面是两个并列的宾语从句,从句都用了虚拟语气的谓语形式,即省略了should,谓语动词用原形be。第一个从句的主语是ban,这个词前后都是修饰成分;第二个从句还是用that引导,句式简单。要注意的是,如果把第二个从句补齐的话,应该是and possibly ask that it be made law。

   △找出ask的两个宾语从句是理解这个句子的关键,同时注意虚拟语气的运用,明白谓语动词为什么用be动词原形。

 

③The panel has not yet reached agreement on a crucial question, however, whether to recommend legislation that would make it a crime for private funding to be used for human cloning.

   ▲这个简单句的宾语agreement跟了一个on引导的短语,说明的是agreement的内容,即a crucial question;question后面有一个whether引导的不定式短语,其中包含了一个宾语从句,从句的主语缺省,应该是legislation。在这个从句中有一个形式宾语it,真正的宾语是后面的for... to...结构。

   △whether引导的不定式短语是这个句子的关键,注意其中的宾语从句以及it作为形式宾语所替代的真正宾语。

 

④In a draft preface to the recommendations, discussed at the 17 May meeting, Shapiro suggested that the panel had found a broad consensus that it would be "morally unacceptable to attempt to create a human child by adult nuclear cloning".

   ▲这个简单句的主干其实就是Shapiro suggested that从句。主语前面的部分是该句的状语,其中recommendations后面的过去分词结构是表明时间的修饰成分。主句的宾语从句中包含了一个consensus的同位语从句,解释的是consensus的内容,这个同位语从句中的it充当的是形式主语,真正的主语是后面的不定式to attempt to create a human child by adult nuclear cloning。

   △该句的主要信息集中的两个地方,一个是the panel... found... consensus...,另一个是对于consensus的解释,尤其是对其中形式主语的理解。

⑤Because current federal law already forbids the use of federal funds to create embryos(the earliest stage of human offspring before birth) for research or to knowingly endanger an embryo's life, NBAC will remain silent on embryo research.

   ▲在这个主从复合句中,前面是because引导的原因状语从句,这个从句的宾语是use,of短语说明了use的对象(federal funds),随后是两个并列的不定式短语,表明的是用途(create embryos;to knowingly endanger an embryo's life),其中括号里的内容是对embryos的解释,然后才是主句,注意介词on(关于)的用法。

   △这个句子的关键在于use后面的修饰成分,尤其是两个to不定式的意义,说明了禁止的内容。再者注意括号里对embryos的解释。

 

试题解析

63. [B] 白宫对这一克隆技术方面的消息反应强烈。

    根据第一段第一、二句,当苏格兰一个研究小组三个月前透露他们克隆了一只成年羊时,消息震动了世界,克林顿总统立即作出了反应,他宣布反对用这种特殊的畜牧技术克隆人,要求禁止使用联邦基金进行这样的研究——虽然尚未有人提出这样做,他要求成立一个由普林斯顿校长Shapiro领导的独立专家小组,就克隆人研究方面的国家政策问题拿出建议,在三个月内向白宫汇报。从这两句的内容来看,白宫的反应不仅迅速而且强烈。

[A]联邦基金已被用于一个克隆人的项目中。文中中只说不应该用于克隆人的项目中,而选项错误在时态用了现在完成时,表示已经使用。

[C]NBAC被授权控制克隆技术的滥用。国家生物道德顾问委员会(NBAC)的职责是向白宫提出有关克隆人技术的政策性建议。

[D]白宫已得到专家组有关克隆技术的建议,文章中说这个草案还没有完成,那当然白宫就还没有受到其建议,也错在用了完成时。

 

64. [C] 意为:使用私人基金研究克隆人技术是犯罪行为。

    在本文中第二段第三句,专家组还没有在一个关键问题上达成一致,即:是否建议立法,规定私人出资研究克隆人技术是犯罪行为。所以选项中用了is就变成了客观事实。

[A]应该立法禁止使用联邦基金研究克隆人技术。根据第二段第一句,NBAC将要求克林顿总统有关使用联邦基金研究克隆人技术的禁令无限期延长,并且可能要求立法禁止。根据第四段,他们也计划呼吁继续禁止使用联邦政府基金利用人体细胞核来克隆婴孩的企图。

[B]不再对克隆人体DNA技术作更多的限制。根据第二段第二句,NBAC成员们计划对建议的内容严加措辞,以避免对涉及克隆人体DNA(脱氧核糖核酸)和细胞的研究增加新的限制——因为在分子生物研究中这种研究属常规研究课题。

[D]克隆人类将是违背道德价值观的。第三段第一句指出,Shapiro在5月17日开会讨论的建议序言草稿中表示,专家组已取得广泛的一致意见,认为“试图利用成人细胞核克隆技术来创造人是不道德的。”

 

65. [D] 意为:有关这个问题法律己经作出了明确的陈述和规定。

    根据第四段第二句,因为现行联邦法律已经禁止使用联邦基金创造供研究用的胚胎,或有意识地危害胚胎的性命,NBAC的建议将不再涉及胚胎的研究。

[A]胚胎研究只不过是代表克隆技术的新发展。

[B]婴儿的健康状况不是胚胎研究所主要关心的问题。

[C]胚胎的性命在胚胎研究中不会受到威胁。这三个选项均与文章内容不符。

 

66. [A] 意为:某些NBAC成员对彻底禁止克隆技术的研究表示犹豫不决。

    根据最后一段第二句,在是否进一步呼吁制定联邦法律彻底禁止克隆人技术研究方面,NBAC成员意见不一。虽然Shapiro和多数成员都赞成呼吁做这样的立法,但是,在一次电话采访中,他称这一问题仍然“悬而未决”。

[B]禁止克隆人技术研究的法律将很快获得通过。

[C]私人资助的研究者将会响应NBAC的呼吁。根据最后一段第一句,虽然不作出法律上的强行禁止,NBAC成员们也表示,他们将呼吁私人资助的研究者和研究机构不要用细胞核移植技术来克隆人。但是这里并没有提到——也没有足够的证据推测出私人资助的研究者对这一呼吁的态度。

[D]克隆人技术研究这一问题将很快获得解决。

 

参考译文

    当一个苏格兰研究小组透露三个月前他们克隆了一只成年绵羊时,世界为之震惊,克林顿总统迅速做出反应。他宣称反对利用这种非同寻常的畜牧业技术去克隆人,并下令禁止使用联邦资金做这样的实验——尽管还没有人提议要那样做——并责成成立一个由普林斯顿大学校长哈罗德·夏皮罗为首的独立专家小组,在90天内拿出有关克隆人的国家政策的建议,向白宫汇报。这个名为“全国生物伦理道德顾问委员会”(NBAC)的小组一直在非常积极地工作,集思广益,并诉诸笔端;在5月17日的一次会议上,委员们就接近定稿的意见书取得了一致意见。

   NBAC将要求克林顿总统禁止使用联邦资金克隆人的90天禁令无限期地延长,并且还可能要求将之立法。但是,NBAC成员们正计划在建议的措辞上更为严谨,以避免给克隆人体DNA或细胞等研究带来更多地限制——(这属于)分子生物研究中的常规课题。然而,该小组尚未在一个关键问题上达成一致,即是否建议立法机关把将私人资金用于克隆人的行为视为犯罪。

   在5月17日会议上讨论的建议序言草案中,夏皮罗表示,专家组已取得广泛的共识,认为“试图利用成人细胞核去克隆婴儿将是违背道德伦理的”。夏皮罗解释说在与会期间,道德上的怀疑主要源于对婴儿健康带来危害的担忧。随后,该小组非正式地接受了几条一般的结论,尽管有些细节尚无定论。

   NBAC计划呼吁继续禁止使用联邦政府基金利用人体细胞核去克隆婴孩的任何企图。因为现行的联邦法律已经禁止使用联邦基金克隆研究用的胚胎(人类子代出生前的最早阶段)或有意识地危及胚胎的生命,NBAC在胚胎研究这一问题上保持沉默。

   NBAC的成员明确表示,他们呼吁由私人提供资金的研究人员和机构不要试图通过人体细胞核转移去克隆人。但他们在是否进一步要求联邦立法强令彻底禁止克隆人这一问题上存在分歧。夏皮罗和大多数委员赞成将此立法,但在电话采访中,他透露这一议题仍“悬而未决”。

 

1999 Text 5

  Science, in practice, depends far less on the experiments it prepares than on the preparedness of the minds of the men who watch the experiments. Sir Isaac Newton supposedly discovered gravity through the fall of an apple. Apples had been falling in many places for centuries and thousands of people had seen them fall. But Newton for years had been curious about the cause of the orbital motion of the moon and planets. What kept them in place? Why didn't they fall out of the sky? The fact that the apple fell down toward the earth and not up into the tree answered the question he had been asking himself about those larger fruits of the heavens, the moon and the planets.

  How many men would have considered the possibility of an apple falling up into the tree? Newton did because he was not trying to predict anything. He was just wondering. His mind was ready for the unpredictable. Unpredicability is part of the essential nature of research. If you don't have unpredictable things, you don't have research. Scientists tend to forget this when writing their cut and dried reports for the technical journals, but history is filled with examples of it.

  In talking to some scientists, particularly younger ones, you might gather the impression that they find the "scientific method" a substitute for imaginative thought. I've attended research conferences where a scientist has been asked what he thinks about the advisability of continuing a certain experiment. The scientist has frowned, looked at the graphs, and said "the data are still inconclusive." "We know that," the men from the budget office have said, "but what do you think? Is it worthwhile going on? What do you think we might expect?" The scientist has been shocked at having even been asked to speculate.

  What this amounts to, of course, is that the scientist has become the victim of his own writings. He has put forward unquestioned claims so consistently that he not only believes them himself, but has convinced industrial and business management that they are true. If experiments are planned and carried out according to plan as faithfully as the reports in the science journals indicate, then it is perfectly logical for management to expect research to produce results measurable in dollars and cents. It is entirely reasonable for auditors to believe that scientists who know exactly where they are going and how they will get there should not be distracted by the necessity of keeping one eye on the cash register while the other eye is on the microscope. Nor, if regularity and conformity to a standard pattern are as desirable to the scientist as the writing of his papers would appear to reflect, is management to be blamed for discriminating against the "odd balls" among researchers in favor of more conventional thinkers who "work well with the team."

67. The author wants to prove with the example of Isaac Newton that ________.

  [A] inquiring minds are more important than scientific experiments

  [B] science advances when fruitful researches are conducted

  [C] scientists seldom forget the essential nature of research

  [D] unpredictability weighs less than prediction in scientific research

68. The author asserts that scientists ________.

  [A] shouldn't replace "scientific method" with imaginative thought

  [B] shouldn't neglect to speculate on unpredictable things

  [C] should write more concise reports for technical journals

  [D] should be confident about their research findings

69. It seems that some young scientists ________.

 [A] have a keen interest in prediction

 [B] often speculate on the future

  [C] think highly of creative thinking

  [D] stick to "scientific method"

70. The author implies that the results of scientific research ________.

 [A] may not be as profitable as they are expected

  [B] can be measured in dollars and cents

  [C] rely on conformity to a standard pattern

  [D] are mostly underestimated by management

 

核心词汇

1. in practice 实际上;在实践中

2. depend on 依靠,取决于

3. the preparedness of the minds 有准备性的头脑

4. supposedly 据认为;据信

5. cause 原因;起因;事业

6. orbit 轨道

7. motion 运动

8. would have considered 将会考虑到

9. unpredictable 不可预测的

10. nature 本质

11. tend to 易于

12. cut and dried 简洁的

13. substitute for 替代

14. imaginative 有想象力的

15. advisability 可行性

16. frown 不同意

17. inconclusive 非结论性的

18. speculate 推测

19. amount to 相当于;等于

20. measureable 可以测量的

21. unquestioned 没有疑问的

22. convince 确信;相信

23. regularity 规律性

24. conformity 一致性

25. standard pattern 标准模式

26. discriminate against 歧视

27. odd balls 怪人

28. conventional 传统的

29. work well with the team 有团队精神

30. in favor of 支持

 

难句精解

①The fact that the apple fell down toward the earth and not up into the tree answered the question he had been asking himself about those larger fruits of the heavens, the moon and the planets.

   ▲这个句子的主干是The fact answered the question。复杂之处在于主语fact跟了一个同位语从句,解释的是fact的内容,注意这个从句中and省略了与前面相同的主语谓语the apple fell;后面的宾语带了一个定语从句,这个从句的引导词that或者which省略了,about短语是对question的解释,those larger fruits of the heavens指的就是the moon and the planets。

   △找出这个句子的主干,再看主语和宾语的修饰性短语,再一个需要注意的是larger fruits of the heavens和后面the moon and the planets的复指关系。

 

②In talking to scientists, particularly younger ones, you might gather the impression that they find the "scientific method" a substitute for imaginative thought.

   ▲这个句子的主干是you... gather the impression...,但是它的主要内容集中在impression后面的同位语从句中。在这个解释impression的从句中有一个动词结构find+n.+n.,意思是“觉得……是……”,在本句中是“觉得科学方法是一种替代品”,for后面的短语解释了是什么的替代品。句子开始的介词短语充当的是状语,表示的是这种形象形成的时刻。

   △可以撇开前面的状语短语,只看主干,重要的是理解that从句中find后面跟两个名词的用法。

 

③If experiments are planned and carried out according to plan as faithfully as the reports in the science journals indicate, then it is perfectly logical for management to expect research to produce results measurable in dollars and cents.

   ▲这个主从复合句中的前半部分是if引导的条件从句,这个从句中有一个as... as...的结构,比较施行中的和书面所说的试验的真实度(faithfully),注意后一个as后面跟的是一个句子,其中the report谓语是indicate;后半部分是主句,句中的it是形式主语,代替的是后面for... to...的结构,这是真正的主语。还需要注意的是results后面跟的形容词短语说明的是results的衡量方式。

   △准确理解as... as...结构,弄清faithfully这个副词修饰的是动词planned and carried out,再就是主句中形式主语的用法,要找到作为真正主语的不定式短语。

 

④It is entirely reasonable for auditors to believe that scientists who know exactly where they are going and how they will get there should not be distracted by the necessity of keeping one eye on the cash register while the other eye is on the microscope.

    ▲这个简单句的主语用的是形式主语it,真正的主语是for后面的部分。believe后面跟的是一个that引导的宾语从句,主干是scientists... should not be distracted by...,其中的主语scientists跟了一个who引导的定语从句,这个定语从句的宾语分别是where和how引导的两个从句。by后面名词跟了一个of前导的动名词短语,后面还有一个while引导的伴随状语,表示同时发生的动作。注意动词词组keep an eye on的用法。

   △抓住believe后面宾语从句的意义,尤其是主语scientists的限定性从句以及by后面名词短语的修饰作用。

 

⑤Nor, if regularity and conformity to a standard pattern are as desirable to the scientist as the writing of his papers would appear to reflect, is management to be blamed for discriminating against the "odd balls" among researchers in favor of more conventional thinkers who "work well with the team."

   ▲首先注意这个句子是个倒装句,原因是否定词nor在句首,后面紧跟的是if引导的条件从句,注意其中有一个as... as...的用法,中间跟的是形容词desirable,比较的是科学家对regularity and conformity的希望和他们论文所反映的要求;这样的构成使得主句的主语和谓语is发生了倒装,介词for后面跟动名词短语的是blamed的理由,注意against和in favor of后面各跟了一种不同类型的researchers,最后需要注意的是thinkers后面跟的是who引导的定语从句,起修饰作用。

   △理解主句的倒装结构是理解这句话的关键,在看这个句子的时候不要忽略了句首的nor,这个单词否定了整个主句。此句的主干是Nor is management to be blamed。

 

试题解析

67. [A] 意为:好奇心比科学实验更重要。

    第一段第一句指出,在实践中,科学(的进步)更多地依赖于实验的观察者(指做实验的人)的心理准备状况,而更少地依赖于科学所设置的实验。本段其他部分所举的牛顿的例子用于说明这一句阐明的道理;第二段又对这一个例子进行了更具体的总结概括,指出了为捕捉未预料到的现象而做好心理准备的重要性。

[B]当进行有成果的研究时,科学就会进步。

[C]很少有科学家忘记研究的本质内容。

[D]在科学研究中,不可预测性不如预测重要。根据第二段第五、六句,不可预测性是科学研究的本质内容(不可缺少)的一部分。如果没有不可预测性,就无所谓研究。

 

68. [B] 意为:不应该忽视对不可预测现象的推测。

    第二段指出,不可预测性是科学研究的本质内容(不可缺少)的一部分。如果没有不可预测性,就无所谓研究。科学家们在为科学杂志写作千篇一律的报告时往往忘记这一点,但是历史上充满了这样的例子(指像牛顿一样通过预测没有预料到的现象获得重大发现的例子)。

[A]不应该用想像思维代替“科学方法”。第三段指出,在与某些科学家——特别是年轻一点的科学家交谈时,你也许会得到达样一个印象:他们认为“科学方法”可以代替想象思维。可见,有些科学家是遵循“科学方法”的,但是,在他们写作论文时却经常忽视了。

[C]应该为科学杂志撰写更简明的报告。根据文章第三、四段,科学家在撰写论文时经常忽视科学实验中的不可预测性因素,写出的论文给人以错误的印象,似乎科学实验总是能取得预期的结果。可见,这里不是一个简明不简明的问题。

[D]应该对自己的研究发现有信心。第三段举的例子旨在说明:科学家对待科学实验的态度和他们写作论文的方式很不一致,因此容易引起其他人的误解。

 

69. [D] 意为:坚持“科学方法”。参考第68题对选择项A的解释。

 [A]对预测很感兴趣。 [B]经常预测未来。 [C]崇尚创造性思维。

 文章只在第三段第一句提到了年轻科学家的态度。

 

70. [A] 意为:可能不像预料的那样有利可图。

    第四段第三句指出,假如科学实验像科学杂志登载的论文所显示的那样完全按事先的计划设计完成,那么,管理者如果期望实验会产生可以用美元和美分测量的结果就会是完全符合逻辑的。言外之意,科学实验中总是会存在一些难以预测的现象,因此所产生的结果有时难以预测到,因此,不能肯定地说某项实验必定会产生经济效益。

[B]可以用美元和美分测量。

[C]依赖于与标准模式的一致性。第四段最后一句话的意思是:假如像他们的论文所反映的那样科学家们也想看到规律性和与某种标准模式的一致性,那么,如果管理者们歧视研究者中的“怪人”,而喜欢善于合作的、具有传统思维模式的人,这也是无可指责的。言外之意,科学实验中可能存在很多不可预测现象,如果实验者有充分的心理准备,及时把握住这些现象,突破传统的思维方式,就可能获得更有价值的发明。
  [D]大都被管理者低估了。

 

参考译文

    在实践中,科学的进步依赖于做实验,但更依赖于实验的观察者(即做实验的人)的心理是否有足够的准备。艾萨克·牛顿爵士通过苹果落地发现了万有引力。多少个世纪以来,苹果一直在许多地方落到地面,也有成千上万的人看到过苹果落地。多年来牛顿一直对月球和行星绕轨道运行的起因好奇不已。是什么使它们处于现在的位置呢?它们为什么不落到天空之外呢?苹果向下落到地面不是向上飞到树上,这一事实回答了他长期以来一直对天空中更大果实——月球和行星所存有的疑问。

    多少人会考虑过苹果向上飞到树上的可能性呢?牛顿考虑过,因为他不想对任何事情进行预测。他只是怀有好奇心。他的思想在准备思考不可预测的事。不可预测性是科学研究不可或缺的一个重要特征。如果没有不可预测现象的产生就无所谓科学研究了。科学家们在为科学杂志撰写千篇一律的报告时常常忘记这一点,而历史上这样的例子却比比皆是。

    在和一些科学家,特别是年轻科学家交谈时,你可能会有这样一种印象:他们认为“科学方法”可以代替创造性思维。我出席过一些科研会议,会上有人问一位科学家继续某项实验是否是明智之举。那位科学家皱了皱眉,又看了看图表,然后说:“数据还是不够充分。”预算部门的人说:“这点我们知道,但你的意见如何?你觉得值得做下去吗?你觉得我们可以期待什么呢?”这位科学家感到很震惊,他没有料到人们会让他做出预测。

    当然,这几乎等于说:那位科学家成了他自己论文的受害者。他所提出的种种论断是如此不容置疑、如此一致,以至于不仅他自己相信了,而且也说服了工商界的管理者相信其正确性。假如科学实验像科学杂志登载的科学报告显示的那样完全按事先的计划去规划和实施,那么,对管理层来说,期待研究能够产生可以用金钱衡量的结果是完全合理的。审计人员也完全有理由相信,确切知道自己的目标并知道如何实现这一目标的科学家们根本没必要用一只眼盯着现金计数器的同时,还要用另一只眼睛盯着显微镜。如果像他们的论文所反映的那样,科学家也想看到规律性和与某种标准模式的一致性,那么如果管理人员歧视研究人员中的“标新立异者”,而赞赏“善于合作”的具有传统思维模式的人,那也是无可指摘的。

 

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