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美国品牌文化—易趣网ebay

(2010-01-18 14:02:41)
标签:

美国

文化

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网上购物

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分类: 世界品牌*Foreign-Brand

 美国品牌文化—易趣网ebay

 

    eBay(NASDAQ:ebay,中文有译亿贝,易趣)是一个管理可让全球民众上网买/卖物品的线上拍卖/购物网站。总部位于加利福尼亚州圣何塞哈密尔顿大道(Hamilton Ave, San Jose, CA 如图)。

 

起源与历史

    于1995年9月由Pierre Omidyar以Auctionweb的名称创立于加利福尼亚州圣荷西。

  Omidyar第一件贩卖的物品是一只坏掉的雷射指示器,以14.83元成交。他惊讶地询问得标者:“您难道不知道这玩意坏了吗?” Omidyar接到了以下的回复信:“我是个专门收集坏掉的雷射指示器玩家。”(更常被传颂的故事则是一则1997年一位公关经理向媒体所杜撰的故事:eBay的创立是为了帮助Omidyar的未婚妻交换一些PEZ Candy的玩具。该故事后来在2002年在亚当斯科汉的书中揭露并经eBay官方确认。)

    杰夫史科尔(Jeff Skoll)在1996年被聘雇为该公司首任总裁及全职员工。1997年9月该公司正式更名为ebay。起初该网站属于Omidyar的顾问公司Echo Bay Technology Group。Omidyar曾经尝试注册一个EchoBay.com的网址,却发现该网址已被Echo Bay矿业注册了,所以他将EchoBay.com改成他的第二备案:Ebay.com

 

物品与服务

    每天都有数以百万的家具、收藏品、电脑、车辆在eBay上被刊登、贩售、卖出。有些物品稀有且珍贵,然而大部分的物品可能只是个满布灰尘、看起来毫不起眼的小玩意。这些物品常被他人给忽略,但如果能在全球性的大市场贩售,那么其身价就有可能水涨船高。只要物品不违反法律或是在eBay的禁止贩售清单之内,即可以在eBay刊登贩售。服务及虚拟物品也在可贩售物品的范围之内。可以公允的说,eBay推翻了以往那种规模较小的跳蚤市场,将买家与卖家拉在一起,创造一个永不休息的市场。大型的跨国公司,像是IBM会利用eBay的固定价或竞价拍卖来销售他们的新产品或服务。数据库的区域搜寻使的运送更加迅捷或是便宜。软件工程师们借着加入eBay Developers Program,得以使用eBay API,创造许多与eBay相整合的软件。截至2005年6月,已经有超过15,000人加入这个计划,其中包含许多公司创造许多的软件使的eBay买家与卖家能够更方便。

  2004年6月,eBay的英国分站将烟酒类产品的刊登列为禁止项目。少数的例外是数量稀少的陈年酒。

  在eBay上也不时会有一些具争议性且违反道德标准的拍卖。1999年时,有位仁兄看中了庞大(但却违法)的器官移植市场,在eBay刊登一则肾脏的拍卖,想借此获利。在某些场合,一些贩售人还是一个小镇的拍卖布告,都仅仅只是个笑话。只要eBay接获检举,这些拍卖布告就会立即被关闭。因为eBay不允许任何违反其政策的拍卖项目。然而eBay也是一个无耻之徒可以任意刊登虚假拍卖布告的地方。因为这个缘故,对新手而言,如果没有详读一切讯息的话,很容易陷入被诈骗的陷阱。

  eBay在拉丁美洲的合作伙伴是MercadoLibre。

eBay的主要竞争者是Amazon.com Marketplace和Yahoo拍卖以及阿里巴巴集团。

获利与交易

 eBay从以下项目获利:

  向每笔拍卖收取刊登费(费用从0.25至80元美金不等)。

  向每笔以成交的拍卖再收取一笔成交费(成交价的2~5%不等)。

    eBay扩张失败的国家和地区是中国大陆及中国台湾、日本。雅虎在日本经营的拍卖业务在日本国内已占据领导地位,迫使eBay铩羽而归。而台湾的eBay亦敌不过雅虎奇摩拍卖网站的市占率,也以与PChome联名的名义间接退出台湾市场。eBay最初通过收购易趣的方式进入中国市场,但之后在与淘宝的竞争中落败,最终以与TOM合资成立“新易趣”的方式退出中国市场。 

   由于eBay另外拥有PayPal,所以也从此处产生利益。该公司目前的经营策略在于增加使用eBay系统的跨国交易。 

   

立即注册PayPal并开始接受信用卡付款。

 

eBay Inc. is an American Internet company that manages eBay.com, an online auction and shopping website in which people and businesses buy and sell a broad variety of goods and services worldwide.  The company operates in three segments: eBay Marketplace, Payments, and Communications.

The majority of the sales take place through a set-time auction format, but subsequent methods include a substantial segment of listings in the "Buy It Now" category.

In addition to its original U.S. website, eBay has established localized websites in thirty other countries. eBay Inc. also owns PayPal, StubHub, Kijiji, and other businesses.

The online auction website was founded as AuctionWeb in San Jose, California, on September 3, 1995, by French-born Iranian computer programmer Pierre Omidyar as part of a larger personal site that included, among other things, Omidyar's own tongue-in-cheek tribute to the Ebola virus. In 1997, the company received approximately $5 million in funding from the venture capital firm Benchmark Capital.

 

The very first item sold on eBay was a broken laser pointer for $14.83. Astonished, Omidyar contacted the winning bidder to ask if he understood that the laser pointer was broken. In his responding email, the buyer explained: "I'm a collector of broken laser pointers." The frequently repeated story that eBay was founded to help Omidyar's fiancée trade Pez Candy dispensers was fabricated by a public relations manager in 1997 to interest the media. This was revealed in Adam Cohen's 2002 book, The Perfect Store, and confirmed by eBay.

Chris Agarpao was hired as eBay's first employee and Jeffrey Skoll was hired as the first president of the company in early 1996. In November 1996, eBay entered into its first third-party licensing deal, with a company called Electronic Travel Auction to use SmartMarket Technology to sell plane tickets and other travel products. Growth was phenomenal; in January 1997 the site hosted 2000,000 auctions, compared with 250,000 during the whole of 1996. The company officially changed the name of its service from AuctionWeb to eBay in September 1997. Originally, the site belonged to Echo Bay Technology Group, Omidyar's consulting firm. Omidyar had tried to register the domain name echobay.com, but found it already taken by the Echo Bay Mines, a gold mining company, so he shortened it to his second choice, eBay.com. (Echobay.com is now owned by Echobay Partners, Ltd., a private equity firm based in Nevis.)

Meg Whitman was hired as eBay President and CEO in March 1998. At the time, the company had 30 employees half a million users and revenues of $4.7 million in the United States. eBay went public on September 21, 1998, and both Omidyar and Skoll became instant billionaires. eBay's target share price of $18 was all but ignored as the price went to $53.50 on the first day of trading.

As the company expanded product categories beyond collectibles into almost any saleable item, business grew quickly. In February 2002, the company purchased IBazar, a similar European auction web site founded in 1995 and then bought PayPal on October 14, 2002.

In early 2008, the company had expanded worldwide, counted hundreds of millions of registered users, 15,000+ employees and revenues of almost $7.7 billion. After nearly ten years at eBay, Whitman made the decision to enter politics. On January 23, 2008 the company announced that Whitman would step down on March 31, 2008 and John Donahoe was selected to become President and CEO. Whitman remained on the Board of Directors and continued to advise Donahoe through 2008. In late 2009, eBay completed the sale of Skype for $2.75 Billion, but will still own 30% equity in the company.

Profit and transactions

eBay generates revenue from a number of fees. The eBay fee system is quite complex; there are fees to list a product (Insertion Fee) and fees when the product sells (Final Value Fee), plus several optional adornment fees, all based on various factors and scales. The U.S.-based eBay.com takes $0.10 to $4 (based on the opening price) for a basic listing without any adornments and 8.75% or less of the final price (as of May 2009). The UK based ebay.co.uk (ebay.co.uk offices) takes from GBP £0.15 to a maximum rate of GBP £3 per £100 for an ordinary listing and from 0.75 percent to 10% (writing as of June 2009) percent of the final price. Reduced FVF's are available to business registered customers.In addition, eBay now owns the PayPal payment system which has fees of its own.

Under current U.S. law, a state cannot require sellers located outside the state to collect a sales tax, making deals more attractive to buyers. Although some state laws require purchasers to pay sales tax to their own states on out-of-state purchases, it is not a common practice. However, most sellers that operate as a full time business do follow state tax regulations on their eBay transactions. However for the tax called Value added tax (VAT), eBay requires sellers to include the VAT fees in their listing price and not as an add-on and thus eBay profits by collecting fees based on what governments tax for VAT.

The company's current business strategy includes increasing international trade. eBay has already expanded to over two dozen countries including China and India. The only places where expansion failed were Taiwan and Japan, where Yahoo! had a head start, and New Zealand where TradeMe, owned by the Fairfax media group is the dominant online auction website.

A more recent strategy involves the company increasingly leveraging the relationship between the eBay auction site and PayPal: The impact of driving buyers and sellers to use PayPal means not only does eBay turn buyers into clients (as a pure auction venue its clients used to be predominantly sellers) but for each new PayPal registration it achieves via the eBay auction site it also earns offsite revenue when the resulting PayPal account is used in non-eBay transactions. In its Q1 2008 results, total payment volume via PayPal increased 17 percent, but off the eBay auction site it was up 61 percent.

For most listing categories, eBay sellers are permitted to offer a variety of payment systems such as Paypal, Paymate, ProPay, and Moneybookers.

eBay runs an affiliate program under the name eBay Partner Network. eBay affiliate marketers were originally paid a percentage of the eBay seller's transaction fees, with commissions ranging from 50% to 75% of the fees paid for an item purchased. In October 2009, eBay changed to an affiliate payout system that it calls Quality Click Pricing, in which affiliates are paid an amount determined by an undisclosed algorithm. The total earnings amount is then divided by the number of clicks the affiliate sent to eBay and is reported as Earnings Per Click, or EPC.

 

 

 

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