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解读留园景物配置元素

(2007-10-23 16:40:37)
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  Some Glimpse of Elements of Garden Design

The approach to the interior 曲径通幽

The entrance was specially built for visitors. In the past the owner and his family had living quarters just next door with the garden close behind them and they were connected by interior passages. So this was the guest’s entrance very simply decorated and unattractive. No attempt was made to attract public attention. In those days, even the inhabitants in the neighborhood had no idea of Shangri-la that existed behind the high walls.

留园的这个入口处是为游人准备的。在过去,园林的主人和他的家庭住在园林隔壁。宅院紧靠园林并且有一条路径与其相连。使主人可以直达园林。因此,园林入口处装饰的比较简单,不为人们注意。因为在当时,主人不想让别人知道这里有座花园,甚至连他们的邻居都不知道这座高墙后面世外桃源。

 

What one sees at the entrance is only a small square court behind the front vestibule and the beginning of a narrow dark passage. Now we walk through the passage to get to the interior.

在我们经入口处进入留园后。我站在这个前厅里所看到的只是一个不大四方的庭院和一条又狭窄和灰暗的走廊的一端。现在让我们沿着这条走廊走进里面去看看。

 

we come to this small court, here the place seems to open up a little with an extra space off the high wall. A few rocks and plants are arranged against the white wall to give it a minor touch of landscaping to break the plain color of the wall.

现在我们来到这个小庭院,在这里我们似乎感到空间开阔了些,在墙角这边,有几块假山石,几株植物,点缀其间,与白墙形成鲜明的对照,通过这种点缀景物的手法,起到了打破墙面白色的单调感觉的效果。

 

This technique was in great fashion among the garden builders of old times. A great garden master of the Ming dynasty Joshing use to teach his followers to take the whitewashed wall as a sheet of paper and paint it with rocks. Evidently his advice has been widely accepted, for you can find similar examples in many other spots of Suzhou`s gardens. When there is sunshine, the shadows of the rocks and trees and bamboo will be projected onto the wall. An open court like this is a familiar sight in the Chinese house and is called the well of heaven which suggests that it is a primary source of lighting.

这种技巧在中国古代造园工匠中很流行。明代有位造园大师就曾经教他的弟子以白墙为纸,点缀假山的技法。显然他的这种技法广为后人所接受。因为你可以在苏州许多园林中看到类似手法运用的例子。当一缕阳光照射在假山、树木和竹子上时,它们的影子就映照在白色的墙上,这样的庭院在中国的一般家庭宅园也能被看到,人们叫它“天井”即采光/光源的意思。

 

Here we have come to the interior of the garden with things really opening up for us .What we have just passed through is a narrow and zigzag covered walk in dim light and two small confined courts scantily decorated, the whole thing gives us a depressed feeling with little sense of space .That is exactly how the designer wants us to feel. The long and slow approach to the interior is meant to prepare the visitors for something that is going to greet him as a surprise, the confined space is used as a sort of prelude to a second space with real impressive dimensions.

现在我们已经进入了园林的内部,一路所看到的景物和空间也逐步开阔起来,刚才走过的是一条狭窄的和弯弯曲曲的走廊,光线暗淡,所看到的两个庭院装饰简洁的,一路上给人一种压抑感和空间狭小的感觉。而这正是园林设计者想要取得的效果:让游人慢慢的行进在长长的走廊之中进入园林内部。这个过程中,让他们有个心理准备,好戏在后头,前面将有新的惊喜在里面等着他们。这条长廊就像剧目的开场白一样,把景致由小变大。由暗变亮的展现在游人面前。

 

花窗

The latticed windows

The six window are showing different designs of latticework they are a very important element of Suzhou`s garden we call them floral windows.

这里的六扇窗户显示了不同的设计风格,我们称他们为花窗。他们在苏州的园林中具有很重要的作用。

 

One of the things that’s very special about this garden is the colorful variety of such windows. Each of them is different, no two windows look exactly alike. Their decorative patterns go very well with the white wall. In Suzhou, we have counted more than three hundred patterns from the classical gardens. Their frames appears frequently in square and rectangles, some of them have round,hexagonal and fan shapes. Their lattice work comes in two types of forms geometrical and natural. Understandably the geometrical form is composed of straight lines, curves and circles. The natural form of latticework refers to those depicting flowers, birds, animals and sometimes human figures.

在留园中,与众不同的就是色彩丰富,形状各异花窗。没有一个花窗看上去是一样的。花窗的形状也是多种多样,与白色的墙面相互映衬。在苏州园林中,这样形状各异的花窗多达300种。花窗的形状有方型、长方型、有些是圆形、有些是六角型 或者是扇型的。花窗主要是两种形式 几何形状和自然形状。几何形状主要是直线型的和曲线型的,而自然形状的花窗主要取自花鸟、动物,有时也是有人物形象。

 

The materials required in making the lattice patterns are mainly bricks, wood and arched roof tiles. But in some complex designs the craftsman has to rely on iron wires and plates shrouded with flax fibers or linen and then covered with plaster. The lattice windows not only function to allow light to pour in, but they furnish the walls with vivid ornamentations. Besides they serve as a kind of interplay between two separate spaces like what we see here. The six windows are like a protective screen that prevents a clear view of the scenery inside, but at the same time they allow us to feel intimately related to the other space because we do have a faint picture of the landscape behind the wall. So while there is a feeling of suspension, there is also the impression of depth.

花窗的制作材料主要取自砖木和瓦等材料。对一些比较复杂的图案,工匠们采用金属铁丝和薄铁皮片与其他织物或衬垫编制成网状物再用泥灰覆盖而成。花窗的作用不仅是为了采光的需要,而且也是作为单调墙面的点缀品和装饰品,除了以上功能以外,花窗还有一个功能,就是他们作用于两个不同的空间之间,很好的分割空间的作用。就像我们在这里所看到的6扇花窗 他们的作用就是像一个保护屏风,将两边的景致分割开来。同时有让游人隐约感觉的花窗对面的景色,这样,让我们一方面感到有一种悬念,另一方面又让我们有一种景深的印象。

Speaking of windows we mustn’t forget those with open frames. In most cases the open window is not just a functional device, it acts as a picture frame by which to capture vistas beyond. Behind each open window there is always something to focus on.

谈到园林的窗,我们不能不提及另一种漏窗。在大多数情况下,漏窗的作用不仅是功能性的装饰,同时漏窗还可以作为图画框,将园林的景致收尽眼底。在每一个漏窗后面总是有景可看的。

 look at the wall of the pavilion here there are two octagonal windows in the opposite wall there is only one opening an instance of avoiding symmetry if we look through the window of both walls.

 

 

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