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新概念英语4笔记 Lesson 1:Finding fossil man

(2010-10-25 10:00:54)




电话:   18673249903     15256271132


We can read of things that happened 5,000 years ago in the Near East, where people first learned to write.
But there are some parts of the world where even now people cannot write. The only way that they can preserve their history is to recount it as sagas----legends handed down from one generation of storytellers to another. These legends are useful because they can tell us something about migrations of people who lived long ago, but none could write down what they did. Anthropologists wondered where the remote ancestors of the Polynesian peoples now living in the Pacific Islands came from. The sagas of these people explain that some of them came from Indonesia about 2,000
years ago.
But the first people who were like ourselves lived so long ago that even their sagas, if they had any, are forgotten. So archaeologists have neither history nor legends to help them to find out where the first‘modern men’ came from.
Fortunately, however, ancient men made tools of stone, especially flint, because this is easier to shape than other kinds. They may also have used wood and skins, but these have rotted away. Stone does not decay, and so the tools of long ago have remained when even the bones of the men who made them have disappeared without

ROBIN PLACE Finding fossil man

New words and expressions 生词短语
recount /ri'kaunt/ v.叙述/ ' rei'kaunt/ 再数一次
record / ' rek[d/ /ri' kC:d/ 第一个音节带重音,名前动后
叙述:recount : emotionless 重复
depict: a little emotional

narrate: temporal&spacial 根据时间或空间顺序描述。
saga /'sa:g[/ n.英雄故事 描述的内容mostly real 北欧海盗活动的故事
legend /'ledV[nd/ n.传说,传奇 unreal e.g robin hood
anthropologist/ 'AnWr['pCl[dVist/ n.人类学家
   philosophere :philo+sopher|爱+智慧=哲学家
   philanthropist : 慈善家(对人有爱心的人)
   anthropology :人类学
   带-gy结尾的都是学科:biology 生物学geography 地理学 ecology 生态学
remote/ ri'm[ut/ n.遥远
ancestor / 'Ansest[/ n.祖先
    an- 在前面
    forefather,forebear ,predecessor祖先
rot/ rCt/ v.烂掉
    leave me rot.=leave me along
    rot to death.
    soon ripe,soon rotten.
    decay 国家民族逐渐衰亡 decompose 逐渐衰竭 deteriorate关系逐渐恶化
trace /treis/ n.痕迹,踪迹

trace the problem
    i follow your trace=i follow where you go
polynesia 波利尼西亚
      polyandric: a wife with more than one husband
      polygeny : a husband with more than one wife
flint /flint/ n.燧石 flinting hearted
fossil / ' fCsl/ n. 化石cobble 鹅卵石
Notes on the text 课文注释
read of 读到
谈到:speak of ,talk of ,know of,hear of
near east:近东 mediterranean, south europe,north afric
far east
oral(spoken) language is earlier than written language.
precede :什么在什么之前,不用比较,直接跟名词
counterpart: two things or two people have the same position
oral(spoken) language is earlier than written counterpart.


preserve: 保留,保存(腌制)
如果句中有only,那后面的表语结构就要用to do sth,而不是doing sth.
storyteller: 讲故事的人
fortuneteller, palmreader: 算命先生
migration :移民1)migrant
v. migrate:迁移,迁徙
migratory bird:候鸟
none: no body
people+s 民族
if they had any: 即便是有
his relatives,if he had any,never went to visit him when he was hospitalized.
find out千方百计,费尽周折=explore
modern men :the men who were like ourselves
however-anywhere you want ,加逗号
but,yet-不加标点,only at the beginning of the sentence
may also have:表推测
hide:兽皮 cowhide:牛皮
without (any) trace:无影无踪


Lesson 2 Spare that spider 别伤害蜘蛛


Why, you may wonder, should spiders be our friends ? Because they destroy so many insects, and insects include some of the greatest enemies of the human race. Insects would make it impossible for us to live in the world; they would devour all our crops and kill our flocks and herds, if it were not for the protection we get from insect-eating animals. We owe a lot to the birds and beasts who eat insects but all of them put together kill only a fraction of the number destroyed by spiders.
Moreover, unlike some of the other insect eaters, spiders never do the least harm to us or our belongings.
Spiders are not insects, as many people think, nor even nearly related to them. One can tell the difference almost at a glance for a spider always has eight legs and an insect never more than six. How many spiders are engaged in this work on our behalf ? One authority on spiders made a census of the spiders in a grass field in the south of England, and he estimated that there were more than 2,250,000 in one acre, that is something like 6,000,000 spiders of different kinds on a football pitch. Spiders are busy for at least half the year in killing insects. It is impossible to make more than the wildest guess at how many they kill, but they are hungry creatures, not content with only three meals a day. It has been estimated that the weight of all the insects destroyed by spiders in Britain in one year would be greater than the total weight of all the human beings in the country.

T. H. GILLESPIE Spare that Spider from The Listener

New words and expressions 生词短语
flocks and herds 牛群和羊群
   /flCk/ the birds of the same feather flock together.物以类聚,人以群分
              you are the same flock.也可指人
   herd多指牛群cowherdcowboythrong and crowd swarm
owe /[U/ vt.感激欠 i owe you.i owe you a big favor. 欠issue
     obligeindebt appreciate----常用口语词 正式:gratefulthankful
beast /bi: st/ n 兽形容人野蛮无比,不能用animal 形容
fraction / 'frAkF[n/ n.小部分 分数,小数 a fraction of rice will suffice
           on one's behalf 代表...利益

I beat you on your behalf.我打你是为你好 on behalf of somebody /something
e.g on behalf of chinese government on behalf of =represent
authority /C:'WCriti/ n.权威authorize批准 authoritative权威性的 authoritarian独裁的
-tarian带有这种词缀的词都是坏词 dictator独裁者dictatorial独裁的
authorities 1.权威(可单数可复数) 2.当局(复数)
census /sens[s/ n.统计数据the fifth national population census.censor审查
                      censorious 挑剔的,挑刺的
acre /'eik[/ n.英亩 1acre=4047square meters
football pitch 足球场 football yardfootball court football field
be content with 满足于 满足作表语,不能出现定语结构
He is content with status quo.contented heart :心满意足的人
spare /spZ[/ v. 不伤害,宽恕spare meHe doesn’t spare himself.
I spare no efforts to learn english.( spare no efforts: 不遗余力作什么)
Notes on the text 课文注释
why, you may wonder-you may wonder why插入语 先不管插入语,弄清句子结构
you may wonder why spiders should be our friends?插入语位置不固定
why以疑问句 开头
why,you may wonder,the problem of pollution befalls human beings.
why,you may wonder,one of my friends is so kindhearted.
tear into pieces
dear enemy
greatest enemies:天敌dying enemycrying enemy
human race:人的种族,一般不加复数,表示一个总称词
impossible 和possible 永远不要以人开头
It is impossible for somebody to do something.
likely可以以人做主语。i am likely to go. probable 也不以人做主语
they would表示假设
devour狼吞虎咽devour the food
make a cake of myself make a god of myself
devour the book
it虚拟语气 前面是主句,下面是条件句
If it were not for:如果这不是因为
I would not survive if it were not for his timely help.
but for 一定是虚拟语气 =if it were not for
owe感激,欠 i owe you.
引出主题all of them put together:把他们堆到一起
destroyed 后置定语,重心转到 spider 谓语动词是kill

Modern alpinists try to climb mountains by a route which will give them good sport, and the more difficult it is, the more highly it is regarded. In the pioneering days, however, this was not the case at all. The early climbers were looking for the easiest way to the top because the summit was the prize they sought, especially if it had never been attained before. It is true that during their explorations they often faced difficulties and dangers of the most perilous nature, equipped in a manner which would make a modern climber shudder at the thought, but they did not go out of their way to court such excitement. They had a single aim, a solitary goal--the top!
It is hard for us to realize nowadays how difficult it was for the pioneers. Except for one or two places such as Zermatt and Chamonix, which had rapidly become popular, Alpine villages tended to be impoverished settlements cut off from civilization by the high mountains. Such inns as there were were generally dirty and flea-ridden; the food simply local cheese accompanied by bread often twelve months old, all washed down with coarse wine. Often a valley boasted no inn at all, and climbers found shelter wherever they could--sometimes with the local priest (who was usually as poor as his parishioners), sometimes with shepherds or cheesemakers. Invariably the background was the same: dirt and poverty, and very uncomfortable. For men accustomed to eating seven-course dinners and sleeping between fine linen sheets at Home, the change to the Alps must have been very hard indeed.

New words and expressions 生词短语
1、 alpinist(1.1)/'$lpinist/n.登山运动员
climber mountaineer
Alps(1.16)/$lps/ n.阿尔卑斯山脉 Alpine(1.9)/$lpain/adj.阿尔卑斯山的
2、 attain(1.4)/+'tein/ v.到达
to get to
to arrive at/in
to attain one’s goal=realize
attain youth 永葆青春
to attain the top/peak/summit 达到顶点
attainment (n) attainments 成就 accomplishment
3、perilous(1.5)/'peril+s/adj.危险的 peril
avalanche 雪崩
4、shudder (1.5)/'M)d+/ v.不寒而栗
shudder:quick and sudden
tremble:long and very obvious
5、 go out of one’s way
专门 by the way 顺路 too much for me 受不起
6、 court (multiple meanings 多义词)
朝廷朝臣 courtier
courteous 彬彬有礼的
娱乐场 足球场 soccer/football court 高尔夫球场 golf court
招致骄兵必败 pride courts failure
solo 独唱
7、 solitary(1.6)/'s&lrt+ri/adj.唯一的
solitude 孤独
I live in solitude.=I live a lonely life.
8、 pioneer(1.2)/?pai+'n+/ v.开辟,倡导;n.先锋,开辟者
9、 impoverish(11.9-10)/$m'p&v+rM/v.使贫困
罗素名言:A great many man will cheerfully face inpoverishment if they can secure
ruin for their rival,hence present level of taxation.
coarse throat 嗓子哑
sore throat
coarse fare
refined fair 细粮
coarse and refined
in a coarse manner 粗暴无礼
He boasted that of his knowledge.
The center boasts a team of high qualify(qualified researchers.)
parish 教区
羊 herd
sheep shep

Notes on the text 课文注释
1、Route 路线 Road道路
2、good sports :stimulus 刺激thrilling 震撼、兴奋
3、regardregard sb with sth(感情词 love \hatred\horror\respect)
    Dad, I regard you with horror.爸爸,我很害怕你。
4、pineering days, ancient (先人时期)
5、not at all 根本不 case 这回事
6、be doing 表达当时的行动(状态)
7、top:顶点 summit 山顶peak 山顶
    The scenery is at the peak of the mountain.无限风光在险峰。
    I am at the top of the world.我在世界之巅。Summit meeting 峰会
8、 attain 到达 conquer 征服
9、be of the most perilous naturenature 特点、特性
    the most perilous difficulties and dangers
    学会 be of the + adj+noun 结构 He is the kindest man. =He is the man of the kindest man.
10、equipped 表示当时的一种伴随。
11、in a manner 以这样的方式
12、make sb do sth (省 to 结构)
13、at the thought 一想到 ,mention 一提到,idea 一想到
       这个结构后面加介词 of 原文即 at the thought of their poor equipment
14、go out of one’s way 刻意intentionally eye catching 引人注目的
15、the real living conditions 真实生存状况
16、nowadays 插入语,现在回想起来,可在句首、句末
17、except for 把其中的一部分扣除
18、tend to be 倾向于
19、settlement 生存地、驻扎地
20、cut off=which are cut off
21、flea ridden 跳蚤
22、as they were 可以这么说,插入语 还有 as it were
    This book is , as it were, his life portrait.这本书,可是说,是他的人生写照。
23、local 当地的
24、wine 低度酒 alcohol 酒精 alcoholic 酒鬼
25、boast 拥有 priest 牧师shepherd 牧羊人 invariably=all the same
26、dirt and poverty, and very uncomfortable (结构不符合习惯,不可学)
27、course 一道菜
28、must have been 表推测
29、be accustomed to ,be used to + 名词、动名词
    I am used to the life in Bejing.I am used to living in Bejing.
30、早餐:scratch a meal 中午餐:snack 快餐 晚餐:dinner
31、the change to
Education brings great change to his outlook/view on life.

Lesson 4 Seeing hands 看手 

In the Soviet Union several cases have been reported recently of people who can read and detect colours with their fingers, and even see through solid doors and walls. One case concerns an eleven-year-old schoolgirl, Vera Petrova, who has normal vision but who can also perceive things with different parts of her skin, and through solid walls. This ability was first noticed by her father.
One day she came into his office and happened to put her hands on the door of a locked safe.
Suddenly she asked her father why he kept so many old newspapers locked away there, and even
described the way they were done up in bundles.
Vera's curious talent was brought to the notice of a scientific research institute in the town of UIyanovsk, near where she lives, and in April she was given a series of tests by a special commission of the Ministry of health of the Russian Federal Republic. During these tests she was able to read a newspaper through an opaque screen and, stranger still, by moving her elbow over a child's game of Lotto she was able to describe the figures and colours printed on it; and, in another instance, wearing stockings and slippers, to make out with her foot theoutlines and colours of a picture hidden under a carpet. Other experiments showed that her knees and shoulders had a similar sensitivity. During all these tests Vera was blindfold; and, indeed, except when blindfold she lacked the ability to perceive things with her skin. lt was also found that although she could perceive things with her fingers this ability ceased the moment her hands were wet.

New words and expressions 生词短语

    to make out 费尽心机辨出
I looked thoroughly for my elderly mother, finally I make her out .
Yeah, I remembered, I finally make him out.
I perceive a fly in my teacup.
2、elbow one’s way (用肘)挤出
elbow one’s way out of the crowed.挤出人群
Notes on the text 课文注释
Flash 中没有详细讲解 


Lesson 5 No Room in the Ark 诺亚方舟无容身之地 

The gorilla is something of a paradox in the African scene. One thinks one knows him very well.
For a hundred years or more he has been killed, captured, and imprisoned, in zoos. His bones have been mounted in natural history museums everywhere, and he has always exerted a strong fascination upon scientists and romantics alike. He is the stereotyped monster of the horror films and the adventure books, and an obvious (though not perhaps strictly scientific) link with our ancestral past.
Yet the fact is we know very little about gorillas. No really satisfactory photograph has ever been taken of one in a wild state, no zoologist, however intrepid, has been able to keep the animal under close and constant observation in the dark jungles in which he lives. Carl Akeley, the American naturalist, led two expeditions in the nineteen-twenties, and now lies buried among the animals he loved so well. But even he was unable to discover how long the gorilla lives, or how or why it dies, nor was he able to define the exact social pattern of the family groups, or indicate the final extent of their intelligence. All this and many other things remain almost as much a mystery as they were when the French explorer Du Chaillu first described the animal to the civilized world a century ago.
The Abominable Snowman who haunts the imagination of climbers in the Himalayas is hardly more elusive.

New words and expressions 生词短语

(good article : five stars 该文写得不错。)

the + n.(s) 表示一类: the gorilla(s)
scene 场景
in the African scene : Africa as the background
gather palace 聚集地
something of a paradox 自相矛盾(人对猩猩的观点) contradictory ideas about him
主题句:One thinks one knows him very well.
问题:Yet the fact is we know very little about gorillas.
Their ideas vary。人们对他的观点相差很大。
For a hundred years or more 一百年甚至更多(包括一百年)
For more than one hundred years 一百多年
西方,动物一般用人称代替。本文中,gorillas 用 him 代替。另外有:cat – she, dog – he .
imprisoned 关起来圈养
be mounted in natural history museums 陈列在自然历史博物馆

He exert a strong fascination upon(on) Sb. 施加给人们强大的魅力
exert … on … 施加(压力)
impose … on … ,例如 impose influence on , impose pressure on
上句可表示为 He have a strong fascination for Sb.
或 The gorilla is always fascinating to Sb.
alike adv.相同,一样 adj.只能做表语。例如:
The two are alike. 这两人真像。
形容词只要以 a 开头,99.99%都做表语。不能做定语词。
例如:asleep , awake ,afloat 等
He is the stereotyped monster of the horror films and the adventure books.
stereotyped – old time 老样子horror films 恐怖片
film (英) movie (美)the stereotyped monster 经典模式
省略主语 and (he is) an obvious (…) link with our ancestral past
link with … 与…相联系our ancestral past (n.)
through not perhaps strikly scientific
through 引导的从句主语和主句相同,可以省略。
Eg: I arrived at the meeting , though (I was ) late.
Yet 与 however ,表示转折,意思完全相同。但 yet 用在句首,however 加标点,可以用

No really satisfactory photograph has ever been taken of one in …
Take picture / photograph 照相
of one 定语后置,satisfactory photograph of one。主要是为了句子的平衡。One 指 gorilla
in a wild state 在野生状态下
keep the … under … observation 把某事处于观察之下
keep the city clean 保持城市清洁
close and constant observation 持续不断的观察
Eg: I have to keep the boy under close control.
To control the boy very strikly.

插入语:however intrepid = no matter how intrepid 无论多么英勇
Eg: No man , however intelligent , is perfect.
No palace, however peaceful and tranquil , is a paradise.
lies buried here among the animals he loved so well
形容词做状语:lie awake , lie crouched
lifespan 寿命
how long the gorilla lives
因为猩猩的寿命客观存在,所以 live 用一般现代时。
Organ’s decay 器官衰竭
Nor 引导否定并列句,与 unable 并列
生活方式:group living , individual living
智力:intelligence – IQ , intelligence qoutient
CIA – the Central Intelligence Agency of America
CID – Criminal investigation Division 重案组,罪犯调查科
All this and many other thing remain (amost as much ) a mystery (as ) they were.
as much as 同 the same as
…remain a mystery the same as they were.
He is as much a musician as a writer.= He is both a musician and a writer.
civilized world 文明世界
savaged world 野生世界
civilized : to get away from wild life
中文中的“文明单位”不能用 civilized , 应该用 model 或 pace setting unit
I’m a pace soldiery。我是排头兵。
The Abominable Snowman who haunts the imagination of climbers in the Himalayas is hardly more elusive.
Abominable Snowman 作比较,省略 gorilla


Lesson 6 Youth 青年 

People are always talking about' the problem of youth '. If there is one—which I take leave to doubt--then it is older people who create it, not the young themselves. Let us get down to fundamentals and agree that the young are after all human beings--people just like their elders. There is only one difference between an old man and a young one: the young man has a gloriousfuture before him and the old one has a splendid future behind him: and maybe that is where the rub is.
When I was a teenager, I felt that I was just young and uncertain--that I was a new boy in a huge school, and I would have been very pleased to be regarded as something so interesting as a problem. For one thing, being a problem gives you a certain identity, and that is one of the things the young are busily engaged in seeking.
I find young people exciting. They have an air of freedom, and they have not a dreary commitment to mean ambitions or love of comfort. They are not anxious social climbers, and they have no devotion to material things. All this seems to me to link them with life, and the origins of things. It's as if they were in some sense cosmic beings in violent an lovely contrast with us suburban creatures. All that is in my mind when I meet a young person. He may be conceited, illmannered, presumptuous of fatuous, but I do not turn for protection to dreary cliches about respect for elders--as if mere age were a reason for respect. I accept that we are equals, and I will argue with him, as an equal, if I think he is wrong.

New words and expressions 生词短语

sb. take leave to do sth. 允许某人做某事,冒昧做某事
get down to sth.认真研究 get down to +名词/动名词
glorious 光辉灿烂的
rub 难题
teenager 青少年
for one thing 原因之一,有一点是…连接词… for another
identity 身份
air of freedom 无拘无束air:神态、气势
dreary 沉郁的
ambition 追名逐利
cosmic being 宇宙人 human being 人
violent 强烈的,暴力的
suburban 见识不广的,有偏见的
conceited 自高自大的
presumptuous 自以为是的,放肆的
fatuous 愚蠢的
cliché 陈词滥调
I take leave to say…
我冒昧地说…I take leave to be frank
恕我直言。口语:maybe I’m too bold… or .
say …
I’m bold enough… or.
Allow myself to
Take one’s leave = take leave 离开(正式用法)
Would you please take your leave?
What a bore. What a nuisance.
What a trial
What a jerk.
get down to + 名词/动名词
例:我开始学习了。 I get down to my studies.
to- 介词同义词: be engaged in
glory n. 光荣
(rosy ,shining , brilliant , magnificent , gorgeous)
in one’s glory: 在某人的鼎盛时期
in one’s dayin one’s golden days
in one’s prime timein the pride of one’s life
rub 摩擦
at odds 有矛盾
have words with sb. 和…拌嘴
Do you get the rub?Do you get the picture?
Do you catch me ?Do you get me ?
I get down to learning my book.
What’s the range?问年龄
Teenager 14 到 18Under thirteen.Adolescent: 13 到 16
Juvenile 青少年Youth 20 到 30
Air :神态(多用复数) He always puts on airs. 摆谱
Arrogant airs : 傲气 Bureaucratic airs : 官气Finicky airs 娇气
Dreary 同: drearisome a.无味,无聊
Sterile : 枯燥无味Monotonous: 乏味无聊
Gloomy: 沉闷lifeless: 无生气的
I have ambition for going abroad/to gao abroad.
Fish …(wealth and fame)
Chase …(fame and gains)
Pursue …
Cosmic 宇宙
Cosmonaut 宇航员 = astronaut Astro-/aster 天体
Disaster Cosmic place :大都市 Metropolis: 大都市

Violentnonviolence 非暴力
狂风:violent wind暴死:violent death
vehement 猛烈的
suburb 郊区
urbane: 有礼貌的 short-sighted 目光短浅的
narroe-minded/small-mindedinsular 绝缘,目光短浅的 provincial
conceited 自高自大的
骄傲的 conceit(n.)pride 自豪
big-headed 头发胀的 cocky 自负的
chicken 胆小鬼 sweller 膨胀的over-confident
people are always talking about ‘ the problem of youth’.
Are talking _ 到目前为止一直讨论
‘the problem of youth ’ 加引号,引用。
-which I take leave to doubt 插入语 “我冒昧的说”,表示怀疑
-If there is any,同样表示怀疑
straight forward 开门见山
it is older people who creat it.—强调句
let us (speaker exclusive) – Let’s (speaker inclusive)
get down to fundamentals
fundamental = basic 基本的
fundamentalist 信奉正统基督教的人
after all – 退一步
like – (介词) 省略了谓语 are
people are just lije their elders
glorious future 光辉的未来
splendid future 光辉的未来(已过去的,对老年人而言)
where the rub is 症结所在,问题就出在这
hatred : 憎恨ironical 讽刺的,用反语的 uncertain 后面省略用法


I would have been 虚拟语气
Something 重要的东西You are somebody. 你是重要人物
So .. as … 后置定语
出色: outstanding
stand out 站出来,鹤立鸡群
cut figure 崭露头角
one of the things 正是其中之一
seeking = looking for exciting 令人激动的
air of freedom 无拘无束
= carefree , freedom from care
commitment 专注(to + 名词/动名词)
love = seek 追求 mean 意味着,小气卑鄙 = disgusting
anxious 虎视眈眈的
polish 擦,磨 apple polisher 溜须拍马
bootlicker 拍马屁者
to me 在我看来(插入语)
no devotion to 热爱(贬) material things 物质享受
life 生机
lifeless 没生机的,死气沉沉的
link with 把什么联系起来 origin 起源
as if 虚拟假设
in some sence 可以这么说吧(插入语 )
in contrast with 与…比较
violent 强烈= strong
lovely 生动的,完美的
后置的同位语- suburban creatures
前面用得是 – cosmic beings
mediocre 平庸的
idol 偶像 idiot 傻瓜
conceited 自负
ill-mannered 粗暴
presumptuous 自以为是的
fatuous 愚蠢无比的
turn for protection to 寻求保护
dreary = boring cliché 沉郁的
cliché 陈词滥调,老生常谈
original 原本的
turn to 求助

Lesson 7 The sporting spirit 运动精神 

I am always amazed when I hear people saying that sport creates goodwill between the nations, and that if only the common peoples of the world could meet one another at football or cricket, they would have no inclination to meet on the battlefield. Even if one didn't know from concrete examples (the 1936 Olympic games, for instance) that international sporting contests lead to orgies of hatred, one could deduce it from general principles.
Nearly all the sports practised nowadays are competitive. You play to win, and the game has little meaning unless you do your utmost to win. On the village green, where you pick up sides and no feeling of local patriotism is involved, it is possible to play simply for the fun and exercise: but as soon as the question of prestige arises, as soon as you feel that you and some larger unit will be disgraced if you lose, the most savage combative instincts are aroused. Anyone who has played even in a school football match knows this. At the international level sport is frankly mimic warfare. But the significant thing is not the behaviour of the players but the attitude of the spectators: and, behind the spectators, of the nations. who work themselves into furies over these absurd contests, and seriouslybelieve--at any rate for short periods--that running, jumping and kicking a ball are tests of national virtue.

New words and expressions 生词短语

goodwill n. 友好
cricket n.板球
inclination n.意愿
contest n. 比赛
orgyn. 恣意,放荡
competitive a. 竞争性的
pick up 随意挑选
side n. 队
patriotism n. 地方观念 爱国主义
involvevt. 卷入
at any rate 无论……,至少…….
prestige n. 声誉
disgrace vt. 使丢脸
combative a.好斗的
frankly ad.坦率地
mimic a.与….极相似
behaveiour 行动

Notes on the vocabularies 词语注释

goodwill=friendship n.友好
      goodwill games:友好运动会
      goodwill visit:友好访问
      pay a goodwill visit to
      official visit:官方正式访问
      state visit:国事访问
cricket n.板球 as merry as a cricket(蟋蟀) 形容心情高兴,快乐无比
inclinationn. 意愿
       be inclined to do sth表示强烈的意愿
      I am inclined to take toefl.
      show inclination tofollow one's inclination 随心所欲
contestn. 比赛
      近义词:competition game match tournament race
      contest:a group of judges
 beauty contest选美比赛
      competition:socially 抽象使用
 Social competition is fierce.
 Dog eat dog.人吃人。形容竞争激烈。
      game:physically ,mentally
      match:quite important
      China won the 2002 World Cup match.
 cycle racing 自行车比赛
 car racing 赛车
orgy n.恣意,放荡
      revelry in 狂欢
      I revelry in my success.
      on a spree
      The girl is on a shoping spree.
      combative-贬义词 同 aggressive
      compete with sb. for sth.
pick up 随意挑选
side 队

      involve oneself in scandal be involved in
      prestigious a.享有声誉的 Qinghua university is very prestigious.
      近义词:fame renown(renowned 著名的) reputation eminence
      disgraceful 丢脸 Your essay is very guaceful.
      stigmaa(污点) vt.stigmatizeRobbery stigmatizes him.
      inhuman 残忍无比 nonhuman (非人类的)
combative a.好斗的
frankly ad.坦率地
      Frankly speaking(To be frank) 坦白的说candid 坦白的straightly 直率的
mimic a.与……相似
      similar-可作定语和表语 Our ideas are similar. We have similar ideas.
      Great minds think alike.英雄所见略同。
behaviour 行动 举止
      Behave oneself.规矩点儿。
      audience 听众 audial 听
      spectacle: 壮丽景色;眼镜
      into 后接表示感情的词
      furious a.—强于 anger,annoyance,aggravation
      rage---suddenly & quickly
      近义词 illogical irrational senseless ridiculous
      r 开头的形容词的反义词前面加 ir
      l 开头的形容词的反义词前面加 il
at any rate 无论,至少=at least

Notes on the text 课文注释
amazed: surprised,astound,astonished
 The news surprised me.
 I was surprised by the news.
 I am astonished to hear the news.
         You should not say”The news astonished me”.
if only:
1. 表虚拟,当“真好”讲,后面无任何主从句。
   If only I had a pair of wings.我要有双翅膀就好了。
   If only I could fly to the moon.
2. 作为条件句=as long as,后面须有主句。
the background of the 1936 Olympic games :二战时在德国柏林举行,希特勒举办的目的为
        了宣传他的 national supremacy(民主优越性)。然而,事与愿违,本届奥运会出现了
        一位独领风骚的田径大王-美国黑人运动员,杰西•欧文斯,他共获得 4 枚金牌,
        让希特勒 disgrace(颜面尽失),后人评论“the 1936 Olympin games is a mistake”,而
        且称为 political tragedy,影射希特勒的种族歧视,导致极端的仇恨,引发二战。
neagly all 基本肯定
green: 绿地
frankly: 真正的
mimic warfare:模拟战争
      battle field-fight to win,commander,do your utmost,blood,lose life,machine guns
      sport field—play to win,coach,do your best ,sweat,lose life,hand leg foot
fury over 对…愤怒

Lesson 8 Education 教育

Parents have to do much less for their children today than they used to do, and Home has become much less of a workshop. Clothes can be bought ready made,washing can go to the laundry, food can be bought cooked, canned or preserved, bread is baked and delivered by the baker, milk arrives on the doorstep, meals can be had at the restaurant, the works' canteen, and the school dining-room.
It is unusual now for father to pursue his trade or other employment at Home, and his children rarely, if ever, see him at his place of work. Boys are therefore seldom trained to follow their father's occupation, and in many towns they have a fairly wide choice of employment and so do girls. The young wage-earner often earns good money, and soon acquires a feeling of economic independence.
In textile areas it has long been customary for mothers to go out to work, but this practice has become so widespread that the working mother is now a not unusual factor in a child's Home life, the number of married women in employment having more than doubled in the last twenty-five years. With mother earning and his older children drawing substantial wages father is seldom the dominant figure that he still was at the beginning of the century. When mother works economic advantages
accrue, but children lose something of great value if mother's employment prevents her from being
Home to greet them when they return from school.

New words and expressions 生词短语

laundryn.洗衣店 customarya.通常的,司空见惯的
pursuevt. 从事,进行substantiala.相当的
traden.手艺 accruevi.增长
Notes on the vocabularies 词语注释
laundryn.洗衣店 I go to the laundry.我去洗衣服了。
can (美国常用) tin(英国常用)
can the fruit 水果罐头
ready-made food to heat it
preserved vegetables 腌菜nutritious
bean curd:豆腐

reserve 预定 I’d like to reserve two tickets.
  Please reserve a table for six.
conserve 常用于深林的保护 避免造成不必要的浪费
preserve 保存目的是使其保有鲜活力,保鲜
pursuevt. 从事,进行
I’m pursuing English.我正在学英语。
China pursues the opening policy.中国实施开放政策。
还有‘追求’的意思 He is pursuing the girl.
A cold pursues me.感冒使我精神不振。(幽默的说法)
pursuit-名词 更加正式 in the pursuit of
tradesman 手艺人craftsman 手艺人
spokesman 发言人
statesman 政治家politician 玩弄权术的人
Jack of all trades,master for none.各行都懂一点,但都不精。
Two of a trade never agree.同行是冤家。
occupy v.I’m occupied.我正忙着。
employee employer 强调雇用和被雇佣的关系 unemployment 失业
profession:宗教词 preach 布道pray 祈祷
  该词被赋予了崇高的含义,常形容 highly skilled 如 IT ,engineer
custom n. 风俗 某一个种族或部落所遵循的原则
               When in Rome,do as the Romans do.入乡随俗。
               beijinger 哪国人哪个地区人都加个 er
convention(usually accepted):世界都认可的规范和习俗
draw money 赚钱 The novel draws well.小说很畅销。
best-seller 最畅销 Movies draws well.很卖座。
land moneyland:得到 I land very profitable work.我得到个肥差。
considerable 相当的 fair sizable
I draw considerable money.我赚大钱。
considerate :体谅的 He is very considerate.
只能作不及物动词interests accrue利息增长
accumulatepilebuild upamass 都可作及物动词
grow :增长(不及物动词),种庄稼

Notes on the text 课文注释
do much less much far 放在比较级之前表示程度词I’m far better.
used to:过去(一般习惯的动作)I used to walk for a while after supper.
and :表示结果
workshop:作坊 专题研讨会 同义词 symposium
much less :越来越不像表示程度词much more 越来越像
ready-made: 现成的 作 but 方式状语
The meal is ready-made.饭好了,可以吃了。
go to: 拟人手段
cooked:熟食fast foodsnackcanned:罐头食品preserved:腌制的
works=factory (机械的,大型的) plant(大型工厂) mill(加工木头的工厂) company(泛指)
canteen:食堂(self-help)cafeteria(高档的,餐馆的自助餐) dining-room:学生食堂
if ever :即便有的话也是不多
      补全句子:….if ever,he can see him……
paternal society:父系社会
follow their father’s occupation 子承父业
wide choice:大量的选择机会
coeducation:男女同校primary school:私塾
In your family ,who is the bread-earner?
相对而言,wage 给 labours而 salary 给白领阶层
good money 赚大钱
acquires:获得(easily get)
Man acquires the ability to speak.强调自然获得
obtain 费尽劳力
feeling of economic independence:经济独立感
sence of honor/pride/responsibility/master/humor/guilt
superiority complex:优越感complex:情节inferior complex:自卑感
textile areas:纺织业地区如英国的 Manchester
it has long been customary 早就习以为常
maternal society:母系社会
working mother:职业母亲
more than doubled:远远超出了以前的两倍
but this practice has become so widespread that the working mother is now a not
unusual factor in a child’s Home life,the number of married women in employment
having more than doubled in the last twenty-five years。
the number of married women……years 是个省略谓语的独立主格句,主语与主句的
something 后置定语 be of 结构
smething valuable greatly/smething greatly valuable
prevent from

Lesson 9 Curiosities of Animal Life 动物生活趣闻 

Not all sounds made by animals serve as language, and we have only to turn to that extraordinary discovery of echo-location in bats to see a case in which the voice plays a strictly utilitarian role.
To get a full appreciation of what this means we must turn first to some recent human inventions. Everyone knows that if he shouts in the vicinity of a wall or a mountainside, an echo will come back. The further off this solid obstruction the longer time will elapse for the return of the echo. A sound made by tapping on the hull of a ship will be reflected from the sea bottom, and by measuring the time interval between the taps and the receipt of the echoes the depth of the sea at that point can be calculated. So was born the echo-sounding apparatus, now in general use in ships.
Every solid object will reflect a sound, varying according to the size and nature of the object. A shoal of fish will do this. So it is a comparatively simple step from locating the sea bottom to locating a shoal of fish. With experience, and with improved apparatus, it is now possible not only to locate a shoal but to tell if it is herring, cod, or other well-known fish, by the pattern of its echo.
A few years ago it was found that certain bats emit squeaks and by receiving the echoes they could locate and steer clear of obstacles--or locate flying insects on which they feed. This echo-location in bats is often compared with radar, the principle of which is similar.

L10 Thoughts in Wilderness
In our new society there is a growing dislike of original, creative men. The manipulated do not understand them; the manipulators fear them. The tidy committee men regard them with horror, knowing that no pigeonholes can be found for them. We could do with a few original, creative men in our political life—if only to create some enthusiasm, release some energy--but where are they? We are asked to choose between various shades of the negative. The engine is falling to pieces while the joint owners of the car argue whether the footbrake or the handbrake should be applied. Notice how the cold, colourless men, without ideas and with no other passion but a craving for success, get on in this society, capturing one plum after another and taking the juice and taste out of them. Sometimes you might think the machines we worship make all the chief appointments, promoting the human beings who seem closest to them. Between midnight and dawn, when sleep will not come and all the old wounds begin to ache,I often have a nightmare vision of a future world in which there are billions of people, all numbered and registered, with not a gleam of genius anywhere, not an original mind, a rich personality, on the whole packed globe. The twin ideals of our time, organization and quantity, will have won for ever.



L11 Spies in Britain

Alfred the Great acted as his own spy, visiting Danish camps disguised as a minstrel. In those days wandering minstrels were welcome everywhere. They were not fighting men, and their harp was their passport. Alfred had learned many of their ballads in his youth, and could vary his programme with acrobatic tricks and simple conjuring.
While Alfred's little army slowly began to gather at Athelney, the king himself set out to penetrate the camp of Guthrum, the commander of the Danish invaders. These had settled down for the winter at Chippenham: thither Alfred went. He noticed at once that discipline was slack: the Danes had the selfconfidence of conquerors, and their security precautions were casual. They lived well, on the proceeds of raids on neighbouring regions. There they collected women as well as food and drink, and a life of ease had made them soft.
 Alfred stayed in the camp a week before he returned to Athelney. The force there assembled was trivial compared with the Danish horde. But Alfred had deduced that the Danes were no longer fit for prolonged battle : and that their commissariat had no organization, but depended on irregular raids.
So, faced with the Danish advance, Alfred did not risk open battle but harried the enemy. He was constantly on the move, drawing the Danes after him. His patrols halted the raiding parties: hunger assailed the Danish army. Now Alfred began a long series of skirmishes--and within a month the
Danes had surrendered. The episode could reasonably serve as a unique epic of royal espionage!
L12 The Language of Hollywood

What characterizes almost all Hollywood pictures is their inner emptiness. This is compensated for by an outer impressiveness. Such impressiveness usually takes the form of truly grandiose realism.
Nothing is spared to make the setting, the costumes, all of the surface details correct. These efforts help to mask the essential emptiness of the characterization, and the absurdities and trivialities of the plots. The houses look like houses, the streets look like streets; the people look and talk like people; but they are empty of humanity, credibility, and motivation. Needless to say, the disgraceful censorship code is an important factor in predetermining the content of these pictures. But the code does not disturb the profits, nor the entertainment value of the films; it merely helps to prevent them from being credible. It isn't too heavy a burden for the industry to bear. In addition to the impressiveness of the settings, there is a use of the camera, which at times seems magical. But of what human import is all this skill, all this effort, all this energy in the production of effects, when the story, the representation of life is hollow, stupid, banal, childish ?

L13 Thames Waters

Oxford has been ruined by the motor industry. The peace which Oxford once knew, and which a great university city should always have, has been swept ruthlessly away; and no benefactions and research endowments can make up for the change in character which the city has suffered. At six in the morning the old courts shake to the roar of buses taking the next shift to  Cowley and Pressed Steel, great lorries with a double deck cargo of cars for export lumber past Magdalen and the University Church. Loads of motor-engines are hurried hither and thither and the streets are thronged with a population which has no interest in learning and knows no studies beyond servo-systems and distributors, compression ratios and camshafts.
Theoretically the marriage of an old seat of learning and tradition with a new and wealthy industry might be expected to produce some interesting children. It might have been thought that the culture of the university would radiate out and transform the lives of the workers. That this has not happened may be the fault of the university, for at both Oxford and Cambridge the colleges tend to live in an era which is certainly not of the twentieth century, and upon a planet which bears little resemblance to the war-torn Earth. Wherever the fault may lie the fact remains that it is the theatre at Oxford and not at Cambridge which is on the verge of extinction, and the only fruit of the combination of industry and the rarefied atmosphere of learning is the dust in the streets, and a pathetic sense of being lost which hangs over some of the colleges.

L15 The Consumer Social and the Law

When anyone opens a current account at a bank, he is lending the bank money, repayment of which he may demand at any time, either in cash or by drawing a cheque in favour of another person. Primarily, the banker-customer relationship is that of debtor and creditor--who is which depending on whether the customer's account is in credit or is overdrawn. But, in addition to that basically simple concept, the bank and its customer owe a large number of obligations to one another. Many of these obligations can give rise to problems and complications but a bank customer, unlike, say, a buyer of goods, cannot complain that the law is loaded against him.
The bank must obey its customer's instructions, and not those of anyone else. When, for example, a customer first opens an account, he instructs the bank to debit his account only in respect of cheques drawn by himself.He gives the bank specimens of his signature, and there is a very firm rule that the bank has no right or authority to pay out a customer's money on a cheque on which its customer's signature has been forged.It makes no difference that the forgery may have been a very skilful one: the bank must recognize its customer's signature. For this reason there is no risk to the customer in the modern practice, adoptedby some banks, of printing the customer's name on his cheques. If this facilitates forgery it is the bank which will lose, not the customer.

L16 The Search for the Earth's Minerals

The deepest holes of all are made for oil,and they go down to as much as 25,000 feet. But we do not need to send men down to get the oil out, as we must with other mineral deposits. The holes are only borings, less than a foot in diameter. My particular experience is largely in oil, and the search for oil has done more to improve deep drilling than any other mining activity. When it has been decided where we are going to drill, we put up at the surface an oil derrick. It has to be tall because it is like a giant block and tackle, and we have to lower into the ground and haul out of th. ground great lengths of drill pipe which are rotated by an engine at the top and are fitted with a cutting bit at the bottom.
The geologist needs to know what rocks the drill has reached, so every so often a sample is obtained with a coring bit. It cuts a clean cylinder of rock, from which can be seen he strata the drill has been cutting through. Once we get down to the oil,it usually flows to the surface because great pressure, either from gas or water,is pushing it. This pressure must be under control,and we control it by means of the mud which we circulate down the drill pipe. We endeavour to avoid the old, romantic idea of a gusher, which wastes oil and gas. We want it to stay down the hole until we can lead it off in a controlled manner.

Lesson 17 Learning to Live 学会生活

The fact that we are not sure what 'intelligence' is, nor what is passed on, does not prevent us from finding it a very useful working concept, and placing a certain amount of reliance on tests which 'measure' it.
In an intelligence test we take a sample of an individual's ability to solve puzzles and problems of various kinds, and if we have taken a representative sample it will allow us to predict successfully the level of performance he will reach in a wide variety of occupations.
This became of particular importance when, as a result of the 1944 Education Act, secondary schooling for all became law, and grammar schools, with the exception of a small number of independent foundation schools, became available to the whole population. Since the number of grammar schools in the countrycould accommodate at most approximately 25 per cent of the total child population of eleven-plus, some kind of selection had to be made. Narrowly academic
examinations and tests were felt, quite rightly, to be heavily weighted in favour of children who had had the advantage of highly-academic primary schools and academically biased Homes. Intelligence tests were devised to counteract this narrow specialization, by introducing problems which were not based on specifically scholastically-acquired knowledge. The intelligence test is an attempt to assess the general ability of any child to think, reason, judge, analyse and syntiesize by presenting him with situations, both verbal and practical, which arewithin his range of competence and understanding.

New words and expressions 生词短语

intelligence 智力 intelligent cute intellectual a.智力的 n.知识分子
pass on 衡量
(1)He passes on(=pass away=die)委婉语
(2)衡量 judge:to pass on 如:to pass on one's intelligence
(3)pass for 被认为 不能用被动,只能用主动
(4)pass 过了 pass grade
reliance 信赖,依靠
(1)rely=depend He relies on his parents.(parasite:寄生虫)(drag:负担)
(2)reliant reliable 值得信赖的 self-reliant 自力更生(=self-dependent)
working 起作用的
pill:药丸 dose:剂 Dose is working. efficient:指人效率很高,做事麻利 effective 有效果的
The pill does.
a wide variety 各种各样
a wide variety of goods . various variant:变化的 variantion 变化 very colored/formed
mult- multifunctional multinational multilateral talks bilateral:双边会谈
as a result of 由于…结果
As a result of his good performance, he got pay rise. Pay cut 减薪
consequence in result 后面一定不能出现 of
He performed well; in result he got a pay rise.in consequence
act 法案
pass bill motion pay bills act:第 1 幕 ,第 1 场 Today we got an act of got.
He always put on an act.摆谱
foundation 基金 Peking Normal University 北京师范大学 missionary

available 可用的
Is water available? 有水喝吗? Are you available?
Are you available for a chat?Is your bicycle available?
avail I avail myself of this opportunity to apply for this vacancy.
avail myself of 利用…的机会
make use of ;take advantage of
accommodate 容纳
The hall can accommodate 600 people. accommodate oneself to 适应
accommodating accommodation:住所 boarding and lodging
at most 最多 at least
counteract 抵消
counteractclockwise 逆时针转 counterintelligence 反情报 counterrevolution neutralize
act against
specialization 专门化
specialize speciality majorI specialize in chemistry.specialization 专业化
synthesize 综合 sympathy syndrome 并发症 synchronize 同步分
verbal 文字的oral 口头 verbal expression ;oral expression
competence 能力
competent incompetent 没有能力的 performance 实际的行为
Notes on the text 课文注释
British education system 第 1 段只有一句话 主语-the fact 谓语-does not prevent us 同位语
从句 nor:否定连接 passed on:衡量 useful ,working 两个词相近 placing 和 finding 并列
place….on….放置…..在上面=put reliance 依赖
superior inferior
even though we are not sure ….is,nor what is passed on….,and placing…文中更为高级
even though he stole,I find him a kind hearted man.
The fact that he stole,does not prevent me from finding him a kind hearted man.
tests 第 1 段形成文章的主题。
sample:样品,受试者 subjects puzzle 拼字游戏
of various kinds- various kinds of puzzles and problems
ability toability in 后面跟名词ability to:不定式


photograph He has ability to take a photos.ability in photography
have taken 主句是将来时 一般都用 if we take第一个动词:take 第二个动词:allow
if I master English,I will go abroad. I have master……
predict:预测he will reach—后置定语occupation:职业representative
make full use of his ability 人尽其才potential
it will allow us :我们就会,我们能够it—test 客观性
we can—主体在“我”,主观性强
科普性文章一般用 passiveWe can obtain the results. The results are obtained.
became ofbecame:系动词 be of importance
secondary schooling 中学教育
谓语:became availableexcept
secondary schooling :12-18 岁higher education:19-23 岁
elementaryhigh school:junior high school, senior high school
nine year compulsory educationhigh taxall free
compulsory courses :必修课optional/selective courses
grammar schools:文法学校technical schools:技校
since:由于 accommodate:容纳 approximately:about
test eleven-plus:11 岁以上selection:选拔制度
quite rightly:有理由认为 heavily weighted
highly-academic 高度学术性的学校test oriented 应试教育
academically biased Homesbiased:偏 侧重于
scholal:学者 ,学术scholastically biased Homes :书香门第
My mom is biased toward my sister.
were felt to be :被人们感觉到
The weather is felt to be uncomfortable.强调感受
intelligence testsdevised :被设计 specialization:专业化
intelligence tests 侧重 universal ability应试的方向问题
assess:评估的意思 general ability:综合能力 random:随意
progressive:递进 gravity 重力
更侧重于 practical
西方教育强调 free talk第 1 段做为重点
ability to solve puzzles and problems of various kinds
have takenit will allow us
This became of particular importance 系表结构+of 结构
grammar schoolbecame available toeleven-plus
were felt…...to be heavily weighted in favour of ……
highly-academic academically biased
scholastically-acquired think,reason,judge,analyse,synthesize

Lesson 18 The Social Founction of Science 科学的社会作用

Two factors weigh heavily against the effectiveness of scientific in industry. One is the general atmosphere of
secrecy in which it is carried out, the other the lack of freedom of the individual research worker. In so far as any
inquiry is a secret one, it naturally limits all those engaged in carrying it out from effective contact with their fellow scientists either in other countries or in universities, or even , often enough , in other departments of the same firm. The degree of secrecy naturally varies considerably. Some of the bigger firms are engaged in researches which are of such general and fundamental nature that it is a positive advantage to them not to keep them secret. Yet a great many processes depending on such research are sought for with complete secrecy until the stage at which patents can be taken out.

Even more processes are never patented at all but kept as secret processes. This applies particularly to chemical industries, where chance discoveries play a much larger part than they do in physical and mechanical industries. Sometimes the secrecy goes to such an extent that the whole nature of the research cannot be mentioned. Many firms, for instance, have great difficulty in obtaining technical or scientific books from libraries because they are unwilling to have their names entered as having taken out such and such a book for fear the agents of other firms should be able to trace the kind of research they are likely to be undertaking.

New words and expressions 生词短语

weigh 起作用
(1) 称重:I weigh 100 pounds. I am 100 pounds in weight. How much do you weight?
What is your weight?
(2)起作用:It weighs much.这相当重要=matters
(3)对谁有利: weigh in favor ofbe weighed in favor ofload in favor of
be loaded in favor of
(4)对谁不利:be weighed againstload/be loaded against
The jugement weighs in favor of the defendant.(被告)原告:plaintiff
effectiveness 成效
work.,effective(有效果的)efficient 高效的effect:come into effect, take effect
in so far as 因此
since, in that, as for as sb, is concerned
赞成:sgree ,support ,stant by your side
inquiry 调查研究
inquiry into(scientific, a case)
inquire into sth.
inquire about(formal)
inquire after sb.
considerably 相当的
程度词considerate:体贴的, 考虑周到的
sb.+thoughtful, helpful, cooperative
I make considerable money.(=substantial)
positive 确实的
The result is positive. His words are positively right. 只做程度副词
He is positive in the class.(活跃、积累) positive:成阳性的
patent 获得…专利权
My invention is patented. I’ll/I’d like to paten my invention.
获得:take out a patent 专利局 patent office 专利人:patentee 专利权许可者
(adj.)明显的,显著的=obviousIt is patent that he loves the girl.
seek for 寻求
seek for freedomseek truthseek for true love seek for justiceseek after(指人) 过去
He is much sought after. 抢手 红得发紫The book is sought after.畅销
chance 偶然性的
It is my chance discovery.随便得到chance companion 萍水相逢
偶然发现的东西 I find it by chance. I chance to be there.
extent 程度

to some extent /degree
agent 情报人员
be likely to…可能会…..
Notes on the text 课文注释
Two factors:两个因素weigh against:不利heavily—副词 effectiveness:效果给出主题句
general secrecy 普遍存在的保密性atmosphere:氛围,气氛it—research
One …,the other the tack of freedom of the individual research worker.
My brother is a driver and my sister a nurse.
lack of freedom 没有自由度(个体区别)
general atmosphere(大环境)
research worker:研究者
In so far as 由于,因为


主语 it—resarchlimit=prewent:阻止,限制engaged in---后置定语
limit from :阻止contact 交流 effective 有效的 fellow scientists 同行
often enough 平凡 firm 公司
contact with 保持联系(v.) contact me(n.)keep contact with me
touchkeep in tuch
vary 变化=is diffientIt varies from one family to another.
be of 结构general 普遍的,基础的 fundamental 基础的
a positive advantage—主语
to them 对他们而言
it---not to keep them secret(形式主语)
be open to any advice and suggestion
yet—转折process 研究过程such research---general and fundamental
are sought for 被追求表示状语:with complete secrecy
where…..---表原因chance discoveries:偶然的发现
part:作用they do---chance discoveries
highly predictable 高度可预测性go to 达到
such….that 如此,以至于nature 本性,特点
for instance 比如说(插入语)
have great difficulty in obtaining technical or scientific books from libraries…..
difficulty=troublehave a difficulty=unwilling to do sth.
they are unwilling to 他们不想这样做
enter 进入,签名 sign 签名=have sth. done
have taken out 借书 for fear(虚拟)唯恐,担心trace 踪迹
have a difficulty in =unwilling to do sth.不愿做…..
I have a difficulty shopping with you.(强调客观性)
=I am unwilling to shop with you.(更强调主观性)
as 作为for fear 唯恐(一见这个词,就是虚拟语气)
in case , lest+(should ) do
so as not to (口)
trace=find:发现trace the route:寻觅踪迹
undertaking(=carry out) 从事Cheshire:郡=county
to such an extent 达到如此的效果
The student goes to such an extent that he is rude to his teacher.

Lesson 19 English Social Differences 英国社会的差异

 A gentleman is, rather than does. He is interested in nothing in a professional way. He is allowed to cultivate hobbies, even
eccentricities, but must not practise a vocation. He must know how to ride and shoot and cast a fly. He should have relatives in the army and navy and at least one connection in the diplomatic service. But there are weaknesses in the English gentleman's ability to rule us today. He usually knows nothing of political economy and less about how foreign countries are governed. He does not respect learning and prefers 'sport '.The problem set for society is not the virtues of the type so much as its adequacy for its function, and here grave difficulties arise. He refuses to consider sufficiently the wants of the customer, who must buy, not the thing he desires but the thing the English gentleman wants to sell. He attends anadequately to technological development. Disbelieving in the necessity of large-scale production in the modern world, he is
passionately devoted to excessive secrecy, both in finance and method of production. He has an incurable and widespread nepotism in appointment, discounting ability and relying upon a mystic entity called 'character,' which means, in a gentleman's mouth, the qualities he traditionally possesses himself. His lack of imagination and the narrowness of his social loyal ties have ranged against him one of the fundamental estates of the realm. He is incapable of that imaginative realism
which admits that this is a new world to which he must adjust himself and his institutions, that every privilege he formely took as of right he can now attain only by offering proof that it is directly relevant to social welfare.

New words and expressions 生词短语

professional n. 职业的
hobby n. 业余爱好
cast a fly 垂钓
govern vt. 治理
grave a. 严重的
inadequately ad. 不充分地
devoted a. 热心的
incurable a. 不可救药的
discount vt. 看轻
entity n. 存在,本质
quality n. 品质
realm n. 王国
privilege n. 特权
cultivate vt. 培养
eccentricity n. 怪癖
diplomatic service 外交部门
adequacy n. 适当
sufficiently ad. 充分地
disbelieve vt. 不相信
excessive a. 过分的
neotism n. 裙带关系
mystic a. 神秘的
narrowness n. 狭隘
estate n. 社会阶层
realism n. 现实主义adjust vt. 使适应
relevant a. 有关的difference n. 差异

1.professional n. 职业的 通常略写为 prof [反]amateur
[辨异]profession, occupation, job
profession “专业”,强调 highly skilled/highly educated, such as lawyer, doctor, IT engineer,
occupation: normal and general, everybody can have an occupation.
job 不仅指工作,还可以表示干活,例如家务活。
You did a good job.
[注意]technical/vocational school 职业学校
2.cultivate vt. 培养 [同]nurture, develop, foster
cultivate a hobby/habit
He is well cultivated/educated/bred/trained. 他很有教养。
3.hobby n. 业余爱好

辨异]mania, hobby, pastime, diversion
mania 颠狂,狂热,癖好 hobby n. 业余爱好
pastime 消遣diversion 消遣,指转移注意力,换换脑筋。
4.eccentricity n. 怪癖 [同]odd
eccentric 古怪的,怪癖的
concentric 同轴的,同心的
[辨异]eccentric, outlandish, grotesqueeccentric 古怪的,怪癖的
outlandish 异国风味的,奇异的,古怪的outlandish clothes 奇装异服
grotesque 怪诞的,艺术、美术、文学中的怪异派、怪异的作品
5.cast a fly 垂钓[同]go fishing, on the Fishing trip(悠闲垂钓)
cast a net 撒网,为了生存捕鱼
6.diplomatic service 外交部门
airline service 航空公司travel service/agency 旅行社
diplomacy 外交 diplomat 外交官
He is a diplomat. 他是一个左右逢源的人。He is a philosopher.
7.govern vt. 治理
government/governing body 政府governor 州长
governess 女家教benevolent government 仁政
8.adequacy n. 适当 [同]sufficient [反]inadequate
He often doubts his adequacy as a father.
=He often doubts whether he is adequate as a father.
[辨异]deficient, sparse, meager
deficient 没有足够的,缺乏的
sparse 稀少meager 贫乏的,不充分的,不足的The food is meager for winter.
9.grave a. 严重的
[同]solemn, serious, severe have one foot in the grave来日不多了
grave situation 严峻的形势 gravity 地球引力,严重
10.disbelieve vt. 不相信
dis- 多做动词的反义词disappear 消失disbelieve 不相信
11.devoted a. 热心的
[同]committed, dedicated
devote v.devote oneself to sthbe devoted to sth
[注意]to 后面一定要用名词或动名词
He devoted himself to researches.
He is devoted to researches. 他致力于研究。
She is devoted to her children.她太溺爱孩子了。
这里,devoted 相当于 spoil, pamper


12.excessive a. 过分的
[同]immoderate [反]moderate
Excessive studying bores/tires me.
Excessive smoking harms/does harm to the
Excessive smoking is dangerous.
extreme 极端的
13.incurable a. 不可救药的
cure 治疗
cure sb 为某人治病
cure sb of 治某人的……病
curable 可治疗的
to breathe one’s last 奄奄一息
He is beyond cure/remedy.
引申为他不可救药了。=He is rotten to the
People heat him to death.
I’m hungry to death.
[注意]不能说成 I starve to death.
14.neotism n. 裙带关系
It means giving of favors to his
relatives/relations by a person/man in the high
position or promoting the people closest to

backdoor “后门”
15.discount vt. 看轻
count 数
I count on him. 我看重/器重他。
discount 打折 以物做宾语
I discount what he sales.
contempt/belittle/look down on 以人做宾语
16.mystic a. 神秘的,带有宗教色彩
mysterious 则不带宗教色彩
occult 神秘的,玄妙的
supernatural 超自然的
metaphysical 形而上学的
garden of Eden 伊甸园
nether world 阴间
heavenly world 天堂
17.narrowness n. 狭隘
He is narrow-minded. 他心胸狭窄。
He is narrow-sighted/shortsighted.
narrow escape 九死一生
18.quality n. 品质
He is a man of quality. 他是一个高尚的人。
a lady of quality 贵妇
19.estate n. 社会阶层,房地产
class, hierarchy, stratification
real estate 不动产
personal estate 动产
estate agent 房地产商
20.realm n. 王国(抽象概念)
kingdom 具体概念
mental realm 思想境界
literature realm 文学界
flim/movie realm 电影界
[辨异]estate, domaln, sphere
estate 社会阶层
donaln name 域名
sphere 球,球形,球体,球面,范围,领域
realism n. 现实主义
realistic 现实主义的性格
realist 现实主义者[反]idealist 理想主义者
21.adjust vt. 使适应
adjust oneself tonew environment
be adjust to
He is well adjustd.
22.privilege n. 特权,英国英语常用
mp(member of parliament)议员
privileged class 特权阶层
underprivileged class 弱势阶层
privileged car/cab 专车
23.relevant a. 有关的
be relevant to 和…
24.difference n. 差异
make no difference 没关系
It makes no difference wheather you come or
make difference 关系重大
different from(英式英语)=different than (美


Notes on the text 课文注释
1.A gentleman is, rather than does.绅士不是通过行为做到的。这里的意思是“绅士”是与生俱
2.in a professional way=professional
3.be allowed:绅士这一阶层受社会的约束,不是随便什么都可以做的。
practise law= to be a lawyer
practise Medicine= to be a doctor
vocation: 职业 to offer help and aid, for example, priest, doctor, nurse
He is allowed to cultivate hobbies, even eccentricities, but must not practise a vocation.这句话的
意思是:绅士是绝对不能脱离他的阶层,不允许 mix with the masses(与大众为伍),否则就会
6.political economy:政治经济学
less about:更不要提
=not to mention/not to speak of
I know nothing of maths, not to mention English. 我不懂数学,就更别提英语了。
sport:指前面说的” ride and shoot and cast a fly”
8.The problem set for society is not the virtues of the type so much as its adequacy for its function:
set for society:做后置定语
the type= the kind= the class 阶层
so much as, not…… but, 前面有否定式,so much as= but
His success is not by talent so much as by energy.
It is not the hours that tell so much as the way we use them.
It is the man that behind the gun tells.
9.arise= apper,常搭配副词 here, there
pursue: 追求
10.attend to= be concerned with 关注
attend to 后面只能跟名词、动名词
While I am out/away, please attend to my house.
11.in finance and method of production:金融和生产方法
12.widespread: 普遍的
discounting ability:轻视才能
character= nature
in a gentleman’s mouth:在绅士的嘴里
the qualities he traditionally possesses himself:他自己传统上所拥有的品质
13.social loyalties= loyalty to society= social duties 社会职责
be loyal to 对……忠诚
have ranged against him one of the fundamental estates of the realm:已把自己放到这个王国中
range: 排列
range against: 作对
incapable of that imaginative realism:无法接受充满想像力的现实
14.admit= demand 要求
institution= custom 社会习俗
he formerly took as of right:他以前取得作为……的权力
took as= regard as 看待
took as of 是古英语用法,相当于今天的 took as
he is taken as a black sheep.
he can now attain only by offering proof that it is directly relevant to social welfare: 只能通过提
15.Lord Curzon, Miceroy of India, Invests the Maharajah of Cochin with the Star of India in
1903:派往印度的总督 Curzon 勋爵授予印度本土国王 Cochin“印度之星”。
invest in:投资
invest with:授予

Lesson 20 Man, the Unknown 人类—神秘的巨人 

In the organization of industrial life the influence of the factory upon the physiological and mental state of the workers has been completely neglected. Modern industry is based on the conception of the maximum production at lowest cost, in order that an individual or a group of individuals may earn as much money as possible. It has expanded without any idea of the true nature of the human beings who run the machines, and without giving any consideration to the effects produced on the individuals and on their descendants by the artificial mode of existence imposed by the factory. The great cities have been built with no regard for us. The shape and dimensions of the skyscrapers depend entirely on the necessity of obtaining the maximum income per square foot of ground, and of offering to the tenants offices and apartments that please them. This caused the construc tion of gigantic buildings where too large masses of human beings are crowded together. Civilized men like
such a way of living. While they enjoy the comfort and banal luxury of their dwelling,they do not realize that they are deprived of the necessities of life. The modern city consists of monstrous edifices and of dark, narrow streets full of petrol fumes,coal dust, and toxic gases, torn by the noise of the taxi-cabs, lorries and buses, and thronged ceaselessly by great crowds. Obviously, it has no been planned for the good of its inhabitants.

New words and expressions 生词短语
physiological a. 生理的
neglect vt. 忽视
consideration n. 考虑
descendent n. 子孙,后代
existence n. 生存
with no regard for 不关心
skyscraper n. 摩天大楼
gigantic a. 巨大的
luxury n. 豪华
monstrous a. 畸形的
petrol fumes 汽油味
edifice n. 大厦
ceaselessly ad. 不停地
mental a. 精神的
expand vi. 扩张
effect n. 影响
mode n. 方式
impose vt. 强加
deprive vt. 剥夺
tenant n. 租户
civilize vi. 使文明
dwelling n. 住所
edifice n. 大厦
monstrous a. 畸形的
petrol fumes 汽油味

1.physiological a. 生理的
physics/physical+ biology/biological
motel 汽车旅馆 motor+ hotel
smog 烟雾 smoke+ fog
biochemisty 生化 biology+ chemistr
anthrax 炭疽热
2.mental a. 精神的
mental work 脑力劳动
mental worker 脑力劳动者
physical/manual work 体力劳动
mental ground 思想境界
mental outlook 精神面貌
mental/natural age 心理/真实年龄
mental patient 精神病人
mental hospital 精神病院
mentality n. 智力
3.neglect vt. 忽视
[辨异]neglect, ignore
She is neglected at the party. 宴会上人们都
She is ignored at the party. 宴会上人们都不
4.expand vi. 扩张
expansion n. 扩充,开展,膨胀,扩张物,
consideration n. 考虑
take all into consideration 把一切都考虑在

My father/dad doesn’t give the consideration
to me.
5.effect n. 影响
[辨异]effect, influence, impact
effect (直观的,可以目睹的)影响
influence (潜移默化的,看不见的)影响
impact (突然的,瞬时的)影响
6.descendent n. 子孙,后代
descend v. 下去
ascend v. 上升
ancestor n. 祖先,祖宗

I’m a Chinese descendent.
offspring n. 儿女,子孙,后代 没有复数
posterity n. 子孙,后裔 没有复数
successor n. 继承人,继任者
7.mode n. 方式
mode of existence 生存方式
live a mouth-to-hand existence 生活过得不
make ends meet 勉强维持生活
8.impose vt. 强加
impose on (注意介词是 on)
wield(挥舞) on
My dad is imposing. 我爸爸威严无比。
9.with no regard for 不关心
The boss ran his Business with no regard for
the welfare of the workers.
10.skyscraper n. 摩天大楼
towering building 高耸入云的,象塔一样
highrise 高层的,高层建筑的
The is no scarcity of skyscraper in New York.
11.gigantic a. 巨大的
giant adj. 巨大的,庞大的
Yaoming is a gaint.
giant panda 大熊猫
huge adj. (体积)庞大
vast adj. (面积)巨大
volume n. 体积
12.civilize vi. 使文明
civilization n. 文明
civil adj. 全民的,市民的
savage adj. 野蛮的,野性的
13.luxury n. 豪华
luxuriant adj. 丰产的,丰富的,肥沃的,奢
The lady bought so many luxuries.
14.dwelling n. 住所 抽象概念 only used in
city dweller 城市人
residence n. 居住,住宅 比较正式
resident adj. 居住的; n. 居民
inhabit v. 居住,栖息
We inhabit the earth. 我们居住在地球。
注意 inhabit 后面没有介词。


15.deprive vt. 剥夺
deprive sb of sth 剥夺某人的……
I’m deprived. 我一无所有。
deprived class 贫民阶层
proletariat 无产阶级
bourgeois 资产阶级
possess 拥有
dispossess 抢夺
invest 投资
devest 剥夺
16.monstrous a. 畸形的
monster n. 魔鬼,怪物
He is a monster. 他奇丑无比。
gorilla n. 大猩猩
17.edifice n. 大厦
The whole edifice of his hope collapsed.
mansion n. 大厦
a dream of red mansions 红楼梦
west chamber 西厢记
18.petrol fumes 汽油味
petrol 汽油[英]
gasoline 汽油[美]
petroleum 石油
19.ceaselessly ad. 不停地
cease 的用法与 stop 一样
cease doing
cease to do
cease fire 停火

Notes on the text 课文注释
1. The article is about: 工业带来的巨大影响
In the organization of industrial life……在工业生活的组织方面
the influence of the factory ……has been completely neglected 工厂对工人的……影响完全被
upon 常用于书面语
on 常用于口语
the physiological and mental state of the workers 工人的身心状态
in the organization of social life→in social life→society
in family life→family life→in a family
academic 学术的
in academic life→at school
2.Modern industry is based on the conception of 现代工业是建筑在以……的概念的基础上
concept: very basic, very concrete idea
conception= notion 理念
the maximum production 最大的规模生产
at lowest cost 最低的成本
in order that……表目的,以使得
individual 这里指 manager, owner, CEO
3.It has expanded it 指 industry
without any idea= without giving any consideration 没有考虑
the true nature of the human beings 人的本性
the effects produced on …… the factory
produced 作后置定语
without giving any consideration to the effects produced on the individuals and on their
descendants 这是个歧义句
artificial intelligence 人工智能
4. have been built with 修建起来,完善起来
5.shape 形状
entirely= completely
income 收入
per square foot of ground 每一平方公尺,名词短语做状语,省略 by
necessity of 需求
offer sb sth/ offer sth to sb 向某人提供东西
6.this caused ……引发
masses 百姓
7.civilized man 文明人
8.enjoy 欣赏,享用
banal 平庸,庸俗
the necessities of life: 生活的自然,相互交际

9.moden city 现代都市
consist of 组成
monstrous edifices 奇形怪状的高楼大厦
dark, marrow streets 狭窄黑暗的街道
full of petrol fumes 充满了汽油味
coal dust 煤灰
[辨异]toxic, poisonous
toxic adj. 有毒的(含毒)
Smoking is toxic.
poisonous adj. 有毒的(全部含毒)
torn by the noise of the taxi-cabs, lorries and buses 夹杂着出租汽车、大卡车和公共汽车的喧闹

torn tear 的过去分词
I was torn by the choice of going aboard or staying Home.
taxi 来自法语,“费”的意思
cab: carriage
throng 拥挤
10.it 指城市
for the good of= for one’s benefits= for one’s behalf= for one’s interests= in the interest of sb

L21 Science Makes Sense

In the early days of the settlement of Australia, enterprising settlers unwisely introduced the European rabbit. This rabbit had no natural enemies in the Antipodes, so that it multiplied with that promiscuous abandon characteristic of rabbits. It overran a whole continent. It caused devastation by burrowing and by devouring the herbage which might have maintained millions of sheep and cattle. Scientists discovered that this particular variety of rabbit (and apparently no other animal) was susceptible to a fatal virus disease, myxomatosis. By infecting animals and letting them loose in the burrows, local epidemics of this disease could be created. Later it was found that there was a type of mosquito which acted as the carrier of this disease and passed it on to the rabbits. So while the rest of the world was trying to get rid of mosquitoes, Australia was encouraging this one. It effectively spread the disease all over the continent and drastically reduced the rabbit population. lt later became apparent that rabbits were developing a degree of resistance to this disease, so that the rabbit population was unlikely to be completely exterminated. There were hopes, however, that the problem of the rabbit would become manageable.
Ironically, Europe, which had bequeathed the rabbit as a pest to Australia acquired this man-made disease as a pestilence. A French physician decided to get rid of the wild rabbits on his own estate and introduced myxomatosis. It did not, however, remain within the confines of his estate. It spread through France where wild rabbits are not generally regarded as a pest but as a sport and a useful food supply, and it spread to Britain where wild rabbits are regarded as a pest but where domesticated rabbits, equally susceptible to the disease, are the basis of a profitable fur industry. The question bec


Lesson 22 Window in the Sea 海洋之窗

There has long been a superstition among mariners that porpoises will save drowning men by pushing them to the surface, or protect them from sharks by surrounding them in defensive formation. Marine Studio biologists have pointed out that, however intelligent they may be, it is probably a mistake to credit dolphins with any motive of life-saving. On the occasions when they have pushed to shore an unconscious human being they have much more likely done it out of curiosity or for sport,as in riding the bow waves of a ship. In 1928 some porpoises were photographed working like beavers to push ashore a waterlogged mattress. If, as has been reported, they have protected humans from sharks, it may have been because curiosity attracted them and because the scent of a possible meal attracted the sharks. Porpoises and sharks are natural enemies.
It is possible that upon such an occasion a battle ensued, with the sharks being driven away or killed. Whether it be bird, fish or beast, the porpoise is intrigued with anything that is alive. They are constantly after the turtles, the Ferdinands of marine life, who peacefully submit to all sorts of indignities. One young calf especially enjoyed raising a turtle to the surface with his snout and then shoving him across the tank like an aquaplane. Almost any day a young porpoise may be seen trying to turn a 300-pound sea turtle over by sticking his snout under the edge of his shell and pushing up for dear life. This is not easy, and may require two porpoises working together. In another game, as the turtle swims across the oceanarium, the first porpoise swoops down from above and butts his shell with his belly. This knocks the turtle down several feet. He no sooner recovers his equilibriu mthan the next porpoise comes along and hits him another crack. Eventually the turtle has been butted all the way down to the floor of the tank. He is now satis-fied merely to try to stand up, but as soon as he does so a porpoise knocks him flat. The turtle at last gives up by pulling his feet under his shell and the game is over.

New words and expressions 生词短语
porpoise n. 海豚 总称词(general) : dolphin n. 海豚科动物 / human --> man woman
shark n. 鲨鱼 / he is a shark 他是个大骗子
Marine Studio 海 洋 摄 影 室 marine 海 洋 submarine 潜 水 艇 marine product 海产 品
            fresh marine product 海鲜 mariner/sailor/seaman 水手
            studio: 工作室
unconscious a. 不省人事 <辨> conscientious 有良知的
narcose 昏迷的
beaver n. 海
ashore ad. 上岸 / 只要具有 a+动词/形容词,都是表语词 asleep, awake, acrawl, afloat, adrift
                         都具有表语特点 ,只能说 he is 不能用定语结构,不能说 asleep man.
scent n. 香味 scent 身体发出味道 fragrance—flower, tree, grass,香山 fragrant hills. / aroma
                    强烈的味道 / perfume : 香水(aroma)
ensue vt. 接着发生 ensue year: 来年(following year)
 preceding year : 前一年
intrigue vt. 引起兴趣 正式新闻体 journalism 常用 / 普通 arrest, capture, seize, grab,attention
The event is intriguing (interesting)
turtle n. 海龟 turtle-neck : 高领毛衣
indignity n.侮辱 dignity 尊严 / It is beneath his dignity for a gentleman to lie.
     stand on one’s dignity 保持尊严/
                        He stood on his dignity by rejecting the money his gived him.
       It is an indignity to say sorry in public.
       lose face , humiliation , insult 侮辱
shove vt. 硬推 There was much shoving on getting on the bus. / He shoved me to the ground.
aquaplane n. 驾浪滑水板 aqua 水+plane 木板
stick vt. 把------插入 I got the wrong end of the stick.我听不懂。
     I stick at Home. / I stick to my word. 我说话算数。
     I’m stuck on the movie.这部影片让我着迷。
     stick on: 迷恋 /The bad habit sticks to me . 这个坏习惯我就是改不了。
shell n. 动物身上的甲 bone and shell script 甲骨文
for dear life 拼命地 dear 宝贵的 chase sb. for dear life ./ dear enemy 天敌
oceanarium n. 水族馆 ocean + arium / rium:地点 stadium 工体 gymnasium :体育馆
swoop vi 猛扑 pounce 狮子老虎扑 海洋动物用 swoop
butt vt. 碰撞 I butt him in the stomach. / Can I butting (interrupt)?
belly n. 腹部 under chest; beer belly, belly laugh / stomach 胃
                    abdomen 医学用语, paunch 大腹便便
crack n. 重击 crack case 破案 / crack bottle 开瓶 / crack smile: 绽放笑容
                      crack book : 读书 / crack English : speak quickly , clearly, loudly

Notes on the text 课文注释
1. There has long been…
   long 表完成时 = for a long time, for long, 一般在助动词后
2. superstition : 迷信
3. 同位语从句 …mariners that ….
4. formation : 阵形 defensive : 防御型的 offensive : 进攻型的
5. however = no matter how
6. intelligent : 聪明 credit : 给…颁发奖赏 credit with

7. on the occasions (场合),接后置定语时只能用 when, 不能用 where
8. out of curiosity:出于好奇 out of instinct 出于本能 out of conscience 出于良心
9. bow waves of a ship 船头滑过的波浪 ,乘风破浪前进
10. waterlogged : 浸透的 mattress 木排,柴排
11. Whether it be… = Whether it(may/might) be… 表让步 ,无论是
12. constantly 不停地 be after 追逐
13. Ferdinands : bull 西班牙的斗牛 ,引申为容易受欺负的人
14. calf : 不到一岁的小动物
15. snout : 嘴 tank : 水池
16. equilibrium : 平衡 equal 是词头
17. no sooner than : as soon as
, scarcely / hardly… when
18. eventually : 最终(故事描叙一般用) 普通口语可用 finally,
19. 第二段篇幅过大 ,用 superstition 不严密,应该换成 legend。
20. 写文章一点要写清目的性:where, when , what time ….



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