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天柱山国家地质公园博物馆陈列大纲1

(2007-09-19 08:59:01)
标签:

人文/历史

 

天柱山国家地质公园

  Tianzhu Mountain National Geopark(TMNG)

 

前言

Preface

天柱山国家地质公园位于安徽省潜山县境内,西北襟连大别,东南濒临长江。公园分为南北两片(区),北区为天柱山花岗岩峰丛地貌园区,面积为102.72km2,南区为水吼新店——牌楼超高压变质带科学考察园区,面积为32.4km2。园区最高峰天柱峰,海拔1488.4m,峻拔高耸,一柱擎天,四周群峰环拱,颇有深藏于层峦迭嶂中之势,故名天柱山、潜山。春秋时期,这里为皖伯大夫封地,故又名皖公山、皖山。

 Tianzhu Mountain National Geopark(TMNG) is located in Qianshan County of Anhui Province, with its north-west linked to Dabie mountain and southeast facing the Yangtze River. The Geopark is divided into two parts: the North District and the South District. The North District is characterized by Tianzhu mountain granite peak cluster landform with an area of 102.72 km. The South District is the area of scientific investigation of ultrahigh pressure metamorphic zone with an area of 32.4 km from Xindian, Shuihou Township to Pailou Village. The highest peak in the Geopark is the Tianzhu Peak, 1488.4m in altitude, towering and lofty like a huge pillar uprising into the sky, surrounded by groups of peaks, which are deeply hidden there one upon another, with stunning sights. Therefore it is called Tianzhu mountain (Skyscraping Pillar) or Qianshan(Hidden mountain). During the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 B. C.), the location was conferred as an enfeoffment on Earl Wan, a senior official in feudal Kingdom of Wan , so it is also called Wangongshan or Wanshan hereafter.

   园区内地质遗迹资源丰富,不仅有独特多样的花岗岩峰丛地貌与水文地质景观,更有为世界瞩目的超高压变质带及其特征岩石——榴辉岩和古新世脊椎动物化石、新石器晚期文化遗址,集中反映了18亿年以来天柱山地区地质演化历史及人文史。

 Tianzhu Mountain National Geopark is rich in the resources of geological heritage, boasting not only the landscapes of unique diversiform granite peak cluster landform and hydrogeology, but also attention-focused significant ultrahigh pressure metamorphic zone and its featured rock -- eclogite, fossils of vertebrates of Paleocene Epoch and the historical and cultural sites of the late Neolithic Age, which concentratedly reflect the history of  geological evolution for 1.8 billion years as well as human history in the area of Tianzhu Mountain.

 

建立天柱山国家地质公园旨在开展地质遗迹的全面保护与合理利用,支持与提升该地区经济、文化和环境的可持续发展,寓科普性与游乐性于一体,打造一流的科考基地、科普场所与旅游胜地。

The establishment of the Tianzhu Mountain National Geopark aims at strengthening the overall protection of geological sites and making reasonable use of them so as to support and promote the sustainable development in local economy, civilization and environment, integrate science popularization and entertainment and build up a first-rate place for scientific research and exploration as well as tourism.

 

天柱山国家地质公园概况 

公园的前身载体——天柱山风景名胜区,严格采取三级保护区与一个外围保护带的方法进行保护与建设,确保了自然景观的完整性,生物种类多样性,地质遗迹的原始状态。

Survey of Tianzhu Mountain National Geopark

    The location of Tianzhu Mountain National Geopark, Tianzhu Mountain National Park, has been protected and built strictly in accordance with Grade 3 protection region surrounded by a periphery protection belt in order to make sure to protect the integrity of natural scenery, biological diversity and original state of geological remains.       

   

天柱山国家地质公园的位置图

Location Map of Tianzhu Mountain National Geopark

 

天柱山国家地质公园卫星影像图

Satellite Photographic Map of Tianzhu Mountain National Geopark

 

天柱山国家地质公园地质图

Geological Map of Tianzhu Mountain National Geopark

 

天柱山国家地质公园概况

Survey of Tianzhu Mountain National Geopark(TMNG)

 

(照片说明文字)(Illustrations)

2005年9月国土资源部批准天柱山国家地质公园,总评分位于第四批国家地质公园第四名

The Ministry of Land and Resources of PRC approved Tianzhu Mountain National Geopark in September, 2005, which was ranked as NO. 4 of the 4th group of national geoparks based on the general appraisal.

 

评审会场

The Appraisal Conference Hall

 

全国政协副主席罗豪才视察

Luo Haocai, vice-chairman of the National Committee of the CPPCC, is inspecting TMNG

许志琴院士与李元副部长在一起

Xu Zhiqin, academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS) is together with Li Yuan, vice-minister of the Ministry of Land and Resources of China

 

常印佛院士主持评审会

Chang Yinfo, academician of CAS, is chairing the Appraisal Conference

 

徐树桐教授作学术报告

Professor Xu Shutong is making an academic report

 

国土部地环司司长姜建军视察

Jiang Jianjun, Director-general of the Department for Geological Environment, MLR, is inspecting TMNG

 

安徽省国土厅副厅长张祖旺视察

Zhang Zuwang, Deputy-director of Department of land and Resources of Anhui Province, is inspecting the Geopark

 

大别山造山带研讨会野外现场

The field site of the Seminar for the Dabie Mountain Orogenic Belt

 

美国地质学家考察取样

American geologists are investigating and sampling in the Geopark

 

1997年10月,第12届全国旅游地学年会在天柱山召开

The 12th Annual Meeting of National Tourism Geosciences was held in Tianzhushan in October, 1997.

天柱山形成的地质背景

天柱山国家地质公园位于华北板块、扬子板块之间的大别山造山带,地质背景十分独特。

Geological Setting of the formation of Tianzhu Mountain

    Tianzhu Mountian National Geopark is located in Dabie mountain orogenic belt between the North China Plate and the Yangtze Plate, with the geological settings of distinctive features.

 

地层:

Stratum:

 

岩浆岩:

Magmatite:

 

构造:

Structure:

 

天柱山地质演化史

History of Geological Evolution of Tianzhu Mountain

1、         前中元古代,本区处于华北与扬子板块间大洋坳陷环境,发育次深海─浅海槽盆相火山─沉积建造, 8亿年左右的晋宁运动,天柱山地区发生了强烈的构造岩浆活动,形成了天柱山花岗岩的基底(扬子板块结晶基底)。

1. During the pre-Mesoproterozoic Era, the Tianzhu Mountain area was situated within the oceanic depression environment between the North China Plate and the Yangtze Plate, where the formation of volcano sediments of troughlike and basinlike facies developed from sub-deep sea to shallow sea. It was Jinning Movement (about 800 Ma) that caused the strong tectonic magma activity to occur in the area of Tianzhu Mountain and thus the Tianzhu granite fundus (Yangtze plate crystal fundus)came into being.

 

2.晋宁运动后,华北与扬子板块之间有海洋板块相隔,奥陶纪末至志留纪初,华北与扬子板块之间的洋壳向华北板块南缘俯冲,在华北板块南缘形成活动大陆边缘,晚古生代早期,南北板块之间的洋壳俯冲完毕,两个大陆板块开始碰撞,结束了本区海盆发育历史。印支运动时期,扬子板块洋壳俯冲完毕后,其陆壳继续强烈向华北板块俯冲。俯冲到100Km以下深度的陆壳,发生了超高压变质作用,形成了含柯石英和金刚石的榴辉岩以及榴辉岩相的岩石。在距今220-210百万年间,超高压变质岩因其密度低于地幔而引起的浮力使之与下伏岩石圈拆离,开始快速折返至与其密度相当的地壳底部。

2. After Jinning Movement, there was an interval of ocean plate between the North China Plate and the Yangtze Plate. The ocean crust between the North China Plate and the Yangtze Plate subducted towards the southern margin of the North China Plate from the end of Ordovician Period to the beginning of Silurian Period, and then an active continental edge was formed at the southern margin of the North China Plate. During the early stage of Late Paleozoic Era, the ocean crust subduction stopped between the North China Plate and the South China Plate when the two continental plates began to collide only to end the development history of the ocean basin in this area. During Indo-China Movement Period, after the subduction of the ocean crust of the Yangtze Plate stopped, its continental crust continuously subducted towards the North China Plate strongly. And when it subducted to the continental crust more than 100km deep, therefore ultrahigh pressure metamorphic process took place so as to form eclogite containing coesite and diamond as well as rocks of eclogite facies. During 220-210 Ma, buoyancy resulted from the fact that the density of the ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks was lower than that of mantle caused the ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks to take apart from underneath lithosphere and begin rapidly to rise back to the bottom of the crust with the equivalent density to it.

 

3.中生代燕山早期,华北、扬子板块已完成对接拼合,形成了新的统一的克拉通地块,构造运动已转入陆内造山阶段,引起广泛的岩浆作用和混合岩化作用,天柱山花岗质岩基大规模侵入,形成了区内天柱山花岗岩峰林胚胎,并导致超高压变质带进一步折返,并最终出露地表。燕山中、晚期,受太平洋板块活动影响,形成强烈的北东向、北北东向桐城—太湖断裂带。超高压变质带被桐城—太湖断裂带拖曳、切断。燕山期末,本区构造格局基本稳定。

3.During the early stage of Yanshan Movement in the Mesozoic Era, when the North China Plate had completed joining the Yangtze Plate to become a new united Craton massif, the tectonic movement turned to intracontinental orogenic stage, resulting in widespread magmatic activity and migmatization so that Tianzhu granitic batholith intruded the area on a large scale to form an embryo of the granite peak forest in the Tianzhu mountain area and ultrahigh pressure metamorphic zone further retraced its way, and consequently outcropped on the crust surface. During the mid-late stage of Yanshan movement, NE-NNE Tongcheng --Taihu huge fault belt was formed due to the effect of Pacific Plate activity. The ultrahigh pressure metamorphic zone was pulled and cut off by Tongcheng --Taihu fault belt. At the end of Yanshan Movement, the tectonic framework in the area was fundamentally stable.

 

4. 喜山运动使桐城—太湖断裂带再次复活,西侧天柱山岩体多次上升,形成花岗岩峰林地貌;东侧下降,形成新生代断陷盆地。第四纪新构造运动差异性升降,现代地貌逐步形成。

4. Himalaya movement caused the Tongcheng --Taihu fault belt to reactivate to the effect that the western Tianzhu mountain rock body uplifted for several times to form granite peak forest landform and its east side dropped to form fault basin of Cenozoic Era. Due to the differential elevation and subsidence by Neotectonic movement in Quaternary Period, the modern landform in the Tianzhu mountain area gradually came into existence.

 

天柱山地质公园地质遗迹类型

Types of Major Geosites of TMNG

1、       花岗岩峰林与峰丛相间地貌

1. Granite landform of peak forest alternating with peak cluster

①天柱山奇峰:为早白垩世侵入的中细粒花岗岩组成,一般由节理、劈理、断裂、流水及风化等地质作用形成,海拔千米左右山峰有45座,形成峰林与峰丛相间奇观。

① The Tianzhu mountain grotesque peaks: They are composed of intrusive mid-granule granite in the early Cretaceous Period and were generally formed by geological function such as joints, cleavages, faults, running water eroding and weathering. There are 45 peaks with an altitude of about 1,000m above sea level here to compose a marvelous spectacle of peak forest alternating with peak cluster.

 

柱状峰         Pillar Peak

锥状峰         Cone Peak

穹状峰         Dome Peak

脊状峰         Ridge Peak

 

②天柱怪石

一般由水平与垂直节理,差异风化、崩塌和流水等地质作用形成的特殊形态地质体。

② Tianzhu grotesque rocks

They are a variety of specially shaped geological bodies with distinctive features, generally caused by geological processes such as horizontal and vertical joints, differential weathering, collapse and running water eroding.  

 

鹦哥石 Psittacine rock

象鼻石Trunk rock

皖公神像Statue of Lord Wan

祖孙乐Grandpa caressing his grandson

阳元石 Phallus rock

霹雳石 Split rock

蜒蚰石Slug rock

 

③天柱洞穴和峡谷

有因构造裂隙风化而成的洞穴,多数为峰巅崩塌岩石叠置于峡谷而成,知名洞穴有53处。

③ Tianzhu Caves and canyons

Some caves were formed by weathering of structural fissures of rocks while most caves were formed due to rocks collapsing and falling from peaks, which were superimposed within the canyons. There are 53 well-known caves altogether in the Tianzhu mountain area.

  

天柱峡谷多为断层、节理形成

The Tianzhu canyons were mostly formed because of faults and joints.

 

神秘谷及其洞穴

大天门

奇谷天梯

总关寨

.

Mysterious vale and its caves

 Great heavenly gate

Heavenly ladder in the Queer gorge

General Pass Citadel

 

2、水文地质遗迹

①瀑布:

多沿断层崖或节理面通过水流冲蚀作用而成。

2. Hydrogeological sites

①     Waterfalls:

They were mostly formed by running water erosion action along fault cliffs or joint planes.

 

琼阳瀑

 Qiongyang waterfall

 

龙潭瀑

Longtan waterfall

 

②井潭:

多为花岗岩沟谷内流水冲蚀或淘蚀形成大小不一的椭圆状、葫芦状、洞窟状的深水潭。

②     Well ponds:

They were mostly formed by running water eroding or sapping action within granite gullies into deep water ponds with different sizes and various shapes, e.g. oval-shaped, gourd-shaped and cave-shaped.

 

③山溪性河流:

大多为流水沿构造破碎带侵蚀而成,前山有潜水,后山有皖水。

潜水

皖水

③     Rivers originated from gills and gullies:

 Rivers here were mostly formed by running water eroding along structural fracture zones.There is Qianhe River at the front of the Tianzhu mountain and Wanhe River at the rear.

 

Qianhe River

Wanhe River 

3.世界瞩目的大别山超高压变质带区

3.The worldwide attention-focused Dabie mountain ultrahigh pressure metamorphic zone

 

位于公园的南片地区,出露大量高压——超高压榴辉岩、硬玉石英岩、榴闪岩、大理岩、片麻岩等,其中以含金刚石的榴辉岩、含柯石英的榴辉岩、硬玉石英岩最具代表性。

Dabie mountain ultrahigh pressure metamorphic zone is located in the south of TMNG, where there are varieties of outcrops of high & ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks of eclogite, jadeite quartzite, garnet amphibolite, marble and gneiss etc, which are mainly characterized by eclogite bearing diamond, eclogite containing coesite and jadeite quartzite.

  

1987年,我国地质学家许志琴首先在天柱山西边榴辉岩中发现柯石英。

Dr. Xu Zhiqin, a Chinese geologist, first discovered coesite in the eclogite in the west of Tianzhu mountain in 1987.

 

1992年,安徽地质科学研究所徐树桐教授在天柱山地区发现变质成因的微粒金刚石,这在世界范围内是变质岩中的第二例,榴辉岩中的首例。

In the Tianzhu mountain area in 1992 Prof. Xu Shutong from Anhui Institute of Geosciences discovered metamorphogenic granule diamond, which is the first example  within eclogite and the second one within metamorphic rocks in the world.

  

天柱山地区因而成为大别山超高压变质带的立典之地。

Therefore, the Tianzhu mountain area has become a model  place for geoscientific research on Dabie mountain ultrahigh pressure metamorphic zone.

 

 超高压变质带的硬玉石英岩

Jadeite quartzite of ultrahigh pressure metamorphic zone

 

野外露头

Outcrops

 

薄片

Thin section

 

 超高压变质带榴辉岩中柯石英和金刚石

Coesite and diamond in the eclogite of the ultrahigh pressure metamorphic zone

 

韩长冲大理岩中透镜状榴辉岩和片麻岩中条带状榴辉岩

Lens-shaped eclogite of Hanchangchong marble and banded eclogite of gneiss

 

  新店大理岩中含金刚石的透镜状榴辉岩和布丁状榴辉岩

Diamond-bearing lens-shaped eclogite of Xindian marble and pudding-shaped eclogite

 

条带状榴辉岩褶皱

Banded eclogite fold

 

超高压变质岩褶皱

Ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rock fold

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