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动词被动语态用法讲解

(2012-07-29 00:23:29)
标签:

杂谈

分类: 英语初级语法

一、概述
语态是动词的一种形式,用来说明主语和谓语的关系。英语的动词可分为主动语态(active voice)和被动语态(passive voice)。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。主动语态和被动语态可以相互转化。
She typed a letter. (主动,主语She是type动作的执行者)
A letter was typed by her.(被动,主语A letter是typed动作的承受者)
Granny takes care of the girl. (主动,主语Granny是take care of动作的执行者)
The girl is taken care of by Granny. (被动,主语The girl是take care of动作的承受者)
二、被动语态
1、被动语态的概述
被动语态表示句子的主语是动作的承受者,也就是动作的对象,一般说来只有及物动词才有被动语态。
Farming tools are being sent to the countryside. 农具正运往农村。
He had been invited to teach at a university there.他被邀请在那儿的一所大学任教。
2、构成
其构成为“be+及物动词的过去分词”。助动词be有人称、数和时态的变化,其变化规则与be作为连系动词时完全一样。现以动词see为例列表如下:

时 
一般式 
进行式 
完成式
现在时 am
is     seen
are am
is  being seen
are has
been seen
have
过去时 was
seen
were was
being seen
were 
had been seen
将来时 shall
seen
will   shall
have been seen
will
过去将来时 should
be seen
would   should
have been seen
would


注意:含有情态动词的谓语变化为被动语态时,由“情态动词(can, may must, have to等)+be +动词的-ed形式。含有“be going to , be to, used to, be about to”等结构的复合谓语变为被动语态时,其构成为“be going to (be to, used to, be about to)+ be +动词的-ed形式”构成。
巧记:被动特点强调宾(语), 用be加上过去分(词),行为对象做主语,逻辑主语by引。
I need one more stamp before my collection is completed . 我的邮集还需要一张邮票就完成了。(一般现在时被动语态)
- I've been told the sports meet might be put off.有人告诉我说运动会可能延期举行。(现在完成时的被动态)
-Yes, it all depends on the weather. 是,这完全看天气而定。
The water will be further polluted unless some measures are taken. 如果不采取措施该地区的水污染会更加严重。(一般将来时的被动语态)
I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should reject the offer. 给了我五分钟时间来决定是否接受这些馈赠。(一般过去时态的被动语态)
If city noises are not kept from increasing, people will have to shout to be heard even at dinner table 20 years from now如果不阻止城市噪音污染扩大,从现在算起20年后,即使人们在餐桌边吃饭时也必须大喊才能听得见。(一般现在时被动语态的否定)
He must be prevented from going. 必须阻止他去。(含有情态动词的被动语态)
The life of the milu is being studied there. 在那里正进行着对麋鹿生活习惯的研究。(现在进行时的被动语态)
He said that the books would be given to the students.他说这些书将发给学生。(过去将来时的被动态)
巧记:被动不离“be”“p.p.”,主谓一致莫忘记,句中时态要留意,“进行”易漏一个“be”。
3、被动语态的使用范围
(1)不知道或没必要指出动作的执行者
当我们不知道谁是动作的执行者,或者没有必要指出谁是动作的执行者时。这时不用by短语。
This jacket is made of cotton. 这件上衣是棉料的。
English is spoken in Canada. 加拿大讲英语。
(2)为了强调动作的承受者时
Visitors are requested not to touch the exhibits.要求参观者不可触摸展品。
The store is run by the trade union. 这家店是工会办的。
The song was composed by a student. 这首歌是一个学生谱写的。
(3)出于策略、委婉、礼貌等不提出动作的执行者
You are said to be active recently. 据说你最近很活跃。
The plan was generally considered not practical. 普遍认为这个计划不实用。
It’s said that he would come back soon. 据说他很快就会来。
常用于如下短语:
It’s not known that… ……不得而知     It’s said that… 据说……
It’s reported that… 据报道……        It’s not decided that…尚未决定
It’s believed that… 据认为……        It’s announced that…据宣布……
巧记:动作谁做的不知道,说出谁做的不必要,接受动作者要强调,用被动语态最为妙。
4、主动语态变为被动语态
主动语态变为被动语态要遵循以下原则:主动句中的宾语变为被动结构的主语(如果是人称代词,宾格变为主格);把主动句中的谓语变为被动结构;主动句中的主语变为by介词短语(如果是人称代,主格变为宾格),有时介词短语可省去。
(1)含有单个宾语的主动句变为被动句
 在一般情况下,将主动句中的宾语变为被动句的主语,动词变为被动语态,主动句的主语变为by的宾语,但是短语可以不要。
Everyone likes the book. (active voice)大家都喜欢这本书。
→The book is liked by everyone. (passive voice)这本书受大家喜欢。
He wrote a letter. (active voice)他写了一封信。
→A letter was written by him. (passive voice)他写了一封信。
(2)含有复合宾语的主动句变为被动句
有些动词后面可以跟“宾语+补足语”结构,这种结构被称作复合宾语。含复合宾语的主动结构变为被动结构时,只将主动结构中的宾语变为被动结构中的主语,宾语补足语保留不动,这时它就成了主语补足语。可以充当宾语补足语的有名词、形容词、动词不定式、V-ing和V-ed等。
 ①行为动词
They advised her to take the medicine. (active voice)他们劝她吃这种药。
→She was advised to take the medicine. (passive voice)她被劝告吃这种药。
They named the boy John. (active voice)他们给这男孩取名约翰。
→The boy was named John. (passive voice)这男孩被取名为约翰。
We found him working in the factory. (active voice)我们发现他正在工厂干活。
→He was found working in the factory. (passive voice)他被发现正在工厂干活。
②感官动词和使役动词跟不定式作宾补时
在主动句中,动词不定式做感官动词(see, watch, hear等)和使役动词(make ,have)的宾语补足语,通常省去动词不定式符号to。但改为被动结构后,要把省略了to再加上。
They made him go there alone. 他们让他自己去那里。
→He was made to go there alone. 他被迫自己去那里。
I saw him cross the road and enter the bank. 我看到他穿过马路到银行去了。
→He was seen to cross the road and enter the bank. 有人看见他穿过马路到银行去了。
注意:动词是let时,其被动结构中不定式仍不带to。
They let John go.他们让约翰走。
→John was let go. 约翰不得不走。
(3)含有双宾语的主动句变为被动句
①直接宾语是名词、代词时
有些动词(give, tell, buy等)在句中做谓语时可有两个宾语(直接宾语和间接宾语),又称双宾语。含双宾语的主动结构变为被动结构时,可以将其中一个宾语变为主语,另一个保留不动。一般是将主动结构的间接宾语变为被动结构的主语。当直接宾语变为被动结构的主语时,间接宾语前应加介词to(有时可以省去)或for。
She gave me the book.(active voice)她给了我这本书。
→I was given the book.(passive voice)有人送给我一本书
→The book was given to me. (passive voice)。这本书是别人送的。
My mother gave me a pencil.妈妈送给了我一支铅笔。
→I was given a pencil by my mother.我妈妈给了我一支铅笔。
→A pencil was given(to)me by my mother. (介词to可以省略)这支铅笔是妈妈给的。
Father bought me a new coat.爸爸给我买了一件新上衣。
→I was bought a new coat. 有人给我买了一件新上衣。
  →A new coat was bought for me. (介词for不可省略)这件新上衣是别人给我买的。
注意:被动句中两个间接宾语对比时,其前的介词to不可省略。
This apple is given to me, not to you. 这个苹果是给我的,不是给你的。
②直接宾语是从句时
如果直接宾语是从句时,一般只能构成以间接宾语为主语的被动句。
Someone told me where the accident had happened. (passive voice)有人告诉我事故是在何处发生的。
→I was told where the accident had happened. (passive voice)我被告知事故在何处发生。
He asked me whether the meeting was to be put off. 他问我会议是否推迟。
→I was asked whether the meeting was to be put off. 有人问我是否要推迟会议。
(4)带宾语从句的主动句换为被动句
①带宾语从句的主动句换为被动句时,通常用it作为被动结构的形式主语。
Nobody knew whether there was gold left in the mine.(active voice)无人知道矿中是否还有黄金。
→It was not known whether there was gold left in the mine. ( passive voice)矿中是否还有黄金无人知道。
We believed that he was ill.我们相信他病了。
→It was believed that he was ill. 都相信他病了。
②带宾语从句的主动句换为被动句时,可以改为不定式结构
He said the play was very interesting. 他说这台戏剧很有趣。
 →The play was said to be very interesting. 据说这台戏剧很有趣。
He reported that they had finished the project. 他报道说,他们已经完成了工程。
They were reported to have finished the project. 据报道,他们已经完成了工程。
(5)带有情态动词或be going to的主动句换为被动句
如果主动句带有情态动词或be going to(be about to, be to, used to, have to )等,在变为被动句时,情态动词或be going to等不变,只是后面的主动词变为被动语态。
He is going to give me a book. 他打算给我一本书。
→I am going to be given a book. 有人打算给我一本书。
We must take measures to stop pollution. 我们必须采取措施制止污染。
→Measures must be taken to stop pollution. 必须采取措施制止污染。
5、被动结构的时态
 被动语态的时态是由be的不同时态+及物动词的-ed形式来构成的
(1)一般现在时
一般现在时的被动结构是由“be的一般现在时(am/is/are)+及物动词的-ed形式”构成。
In some parts of the world, tea is served with milk and sugar. 在世界上有的地方,茶和奶一起喝。
Football is played all over the world. 全世界都踢足球。
Jack, you are wanted on the phone. 杰克,电话里有人找你。
I am asked to do the work. 有人让我干这件工作。
(2)一般过去式
一般过去式的被动结构是由“be的一般过去式(was/were)+及物动词的-ed形式” 构成。
Shortly after we were seated, a waiter came over to our table with a smile. 我们刚坐下,就一个服务员微笑着来到我们桌旁服务。
The building was built in 1559. 这座建筑是1559年建成的。
His leg was broken in an accident. 他的腿在一次车祸中骨折了。
(3)一般将来时
一般将来时的被动结构是由“be的一般将来时(shall/will be)+及物动词的-ed形式” 构成。
More factories will be built in my hometown. 我们家乡会建更多的工厂。
He will be taken to the park on Sunday. 星期天有人要带他到公园。
(4)现在进行时
现在进行时的被动结构是由“be的现在进行时(am/is/are being)+及物动词的-ed形式” 构成。
-Have you moved into the new house?你搬入新居了吗?
-Not yet.The rooms are being painted.还没呢,房间正在上油。
The life of the milu is being studied at present. 目前人们正在研究麋鹿的生活习惯。
A teaching building is being built now. 现在正建造一座教学大楼。
(5)过去进行时
过去进行时的被动语态是由“be的过去进行时(was/were being)+及物动词的-ed形式” 构成。
When I got there a new road was being built by them. 我到那里时,他们正在建一条新路。
Last time I went back to my hometown, a big factory was being built there. 上次我回家乡时,一座大工厂正在建造。
(6)现在完成时
现在完成时的被动语态是由“be的现在进行时(has/have been)+及物动词的-ed形式” 构成。
–I’ve been told the sports meet might be put off. 有人告诉我说运动会可能推迟。
-Yes, it all depends on the weather. 是的,这要看天气情况。
No permission has been given for anybody to enter the building. 不允许任何人进入该大楼。
All the preparations for the task have been completed and we're ready to start. 任务的准备工作业已完成,我么们准备开始。
(7)过去完成时
过去完成时的被动语态是由“be的过去完成时(had been)+及物动词的-ed形式” 构成。
He asked me how many English words had been learned by that year. 他问我到那年我学了多少英语单词。
By the end of last year, about 2 million Chinese characters had been translated into English. 到去年末,大约二百万个汉字翻译成了英语。
(8)将来完成时
将来完成时的被动语态是由“be的将来完成时(will/shall have been)+及物动词的-ed形式” 构成。
 The new book will have been finished by the end of the month.月底新书将会完成。
 The buiding will have been completed before he comes.他来之前,大楼将会竣工。
(9)过去将来完成时
过去将来完成时的被动语态是由“be的过去将来完成时(would/should have been)+及物动词的-ed形式” 构成。
 He said the articles should have been translated by six o’clock.他说代章将在六点钟之前翻译完毕。
 He told me that the dam would have been completed by December.他告诉我大坝将在12月前竣工。
注意:将来完成时和过去将来完成时很少用于被动结构,完成进行时没有被动结构。
6、含有情态动词或be going to 的被动语态
含有情态动词的被动结构是由“情态动词或be going to(be about to, used to, be to, have to等)+be+及物动词的-ed形式” 构成。
This bike can be mended in two hours. 两个小时内可修好该自行车。
The trees may be planted in spring. 春天可以种树。
The room must be kept clean. 房间必须保持整洁。
The flowers should be watered often. 应该经常给花浇水。
They have to be given a lot of money. 必须给他们很多钱。
7、短语动词的被动语态
通常只有及物动词才有被动语态,但有些短语动词相当于及物动词,可以有被动语态,但短语动词是一个不可分割的整体,变为被动语态时不可去掉构成短语动词的介词或副词。
Have you sent for the doctor?你派人去请医生了吗?
→Has the doctor been sent for?派人去请医生了吗?
They often made fun of her. 人们常拿她开玩笑。
→She was often made fun of. 她常被人取笑。
I promise that the matter will be taken care of. 我答应把这事放在心上。
The police found that the house had been broken into and a lot of thingsstolen.警察发现该房已被非法闯入,很多东西失窃。
Great changes have taken place in the city, and a lot of factories have been set up. 这个城市发生了很大变化,建了很多工厂。
-Why does Lingling look so unhappy?玲玲为什么默默不乐?
-She has been laughed at by her classmates. 她被同学嘲笑。
注意:主动结构的谓语动词为“不及物动词+名词+介词”构成的及物的短语动词时,通常把它看成一个整体。但也可将这类短语动词本身的名词用作主语,构成被动语态,尤其是在名词前有定语修饰时。
Good care must be taken of the babies particularly while they are ill. 必须仔细照料这些孩子,尤其是在他们生病时。
本文来自:【爱学啦】原文地址:http://www.ixuela.com/yingyu/yufa/12895.html

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