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疑难解析

(2011-07-23 10:33:17)
标签:

杂谈

分类: 英语学习
 1. It's a city in Xinjiang about four hours by bus from Urumqi. 它是一座离乌鲁木齐乘汽车4小时远的新疆的城市。

  four hours by bus 是“乘公共汽车4小时”的意思。

  这句话还可以说成: It's a city in Xinjiang about four hours' drive from Urumqi.

  另外一种说法是: It takes about four hours to drive from Urumqi to a city in Xinjiang. 例如:

  The nearest post office is a quarter by bike from the village. = The nearest post office is a quarter's ride from the village. = It takes a quarter to ride from the village to the nearest post office. 骑车去离乡村最近的邮局需要一刻钟。

  2. I like Kashi , also known as Kashgar. 我喜欢喀什,也作为喀什噶尔而闻名。

  be known as ... = be famous as ..., 是“作为……而闻名”的意思。另外还有两个有用的短语:“be known for ...”(因……而闻名)和“be known to ...”(被……所知道)。例如:

  Lu Xun was known as a great writer. 鲁迅作为一位著名的作家而闻名。

  Lu Xun was known for his book. 鲁迅因他的书而闻名。

  Lu Xun was known to all the people in China. 鲁迅被全中国的人所知。

  第三句话还可以说成:It's known that Lu Xun was a great writer.

疑难解析(I)

1. It's so big that when you sail on it, you can't see the land. 它那么大,以至于当你在其中航行时,都看不见陆地。

  so...that引导结果状语从句,表示“太……以至于……”的意思。例如:

  He ran so fast that nobody else could catch up with him. 他跑得太快了,以至于没有其他人能赶得上他。

  The museum was so interesting that the boys didn't want to leave it.这个博物馆太有趣了,以至于孩子们不愿离开。

  so that与so...that不同,so that多用于引导目的状语从句,意思是“为了、以便”。例如:

  She bought a dictionary so that she could look up the words in it.她买了一本字典,以便能够在其中查找单词。

  The farmers look after their corn and wheat carefully so that they can have a good harvest next autumn.农民们小心地照看他们的玉米和小麦,以便明年秋天能有个好收成。

  so that还可以引导结果状语从句,意思是“所以,因此”。例如:

  I was caught in the rain, so that all my clothes got wet. 我赶上了雨,因此我的衣服全都湿了。

  2. When I lived in Michigan, I swam as far as 2 kilometres at one time.当我住在密歇根的时候,我曾经游过两千米远。

  as far as表示“远至,直到所提到之处为止”。否定句可以用so far as代替。 例如:

  We did not go so(as)far as the bridge. 我们没有走到桥那么远。

  as far as还可以表示“就……而言”。例如:

  As far as I know, it is impossible for my sister to accept your present.据我所知,我妹妹不可能接受你的礼物。

  at one time是过去时的时间状语,意思是“曾经、以前”。例如:

  At one time, there were not so many cars on the street. 以前马路上没有那么多的车。

  3. What two words is this word made up of? 这个单词是由哪两个单词组成的?

  be made up of是“由……组成;由……构成”的意思。例如:

  The football team is made up of eleven players. 这个足球队由11名球员组成。

  The sentence is at least made up of twenty words. 这个句子至少由20个单词组成。

  与be made搭配所构成的介词词组还有:

  be made of 由……制成(看得出原材料);

  be made from 由……制成(看不出原材料);

  be made by由(某人)制造;

  be made in 在(某地)制造;

  be made into 被加工成(成品);

  be made for 为……制造。

  例如:Desks and chairs are made of wood. Paper is made from wood, too.

  桌椅是由木头制成的,纸也是由木头制成的。

  The delicious mooncake was made by my mother. 这个可口的月饼是我妈妈做的。

  Pottery is usually made in China. 瓷器通常是在中国制造的。

  The stones can be made into a bridge. 石头能够被制成桥。

  This kind of toy is made for children under five years old.

  这种玩具是为五岁以下儿童制做的。

  4. Then when the earth started to warm up, the glacier melted and formed the Great Lakes. 当地球开始变暖时,冰河融化并形成五大湖泊。

  warm up是个动词短语,我们常见warm作形容词,表示“暖和的”,在这里warm up表示“(使……)变暖”。例如:

  It's cold outside. Come in and warm yourself up. 外边很冷。进来暖和一下吧。

  form在这里用作动词,表示“形成”,它也可以用作名词,表示“形式、样式”。例如:

  Group activities help to form a man's character. (v.)集体活动对于一个人性格的形成有帮助。

  It's important for you to form a good habit at the beginning.(v.)对你来说,一开始就形成良好的习惯是很重要的。

  Different countries have different forms of government. (n.) 不同国家有不同形式的政府。

  form作名词时,还可以作“表格”讲。例如:

  If you want to take part in the game, you should fill in the form first. 如果你想参加比赛,应该先填表格。

  5. The factories would put their waste into the Lakes. 工厂把它们的废物扔进湖里。

  would在这里不表示过去将来时态,不是will的过去式,它表示过去的习惯和倾向。例如:

  He would visit some places of interest whenever he had a holiday. 每当他放假的时候,就参观一些名胜。

  would表示“(过去)经常”,在用法上与used to有不同之处。

  (1)表示过去持续的情况或状态用used to,would不与状态动词搭配。例如:

  There used to be a hospital near the factory. 在工厂附近曾有一家医院。

  (2)与现在或将来比较而表示“以前经常”,用used to。例如:

  He won't spend so much money on books as he used to.他不再像以前一样在书籍上花那么多的钱了。

  6. Pretty soon the Lakes' ecosystem was not right any more. 很快,湖的生态系统不再好了。

  pretty在这里是个副词,意思为“十分,相当”,用法类似于very,quite。例如:

  After he arrived in Shanghai, I received his letter pretty soon. 在他到上海之后,我很快收到了他的来信。

  另外,pretty也可用作形容词,表示“漂亮的,好看的”,一般用来形容女性或小而精致、可爱的物品。

  7. Many areas would become deserts and many animals would lose their homes and maybe die out.很多的地区将成为沙漠,很多的动物将失去家园并可能灭绝。

  die out的意思是“灭绝,绝迹,完全消失”。例如:

  Dinosaurs died out for some reasons we don't know.因为一些我们未知的原因,恐龙灭绝了。

疑难解析(II)

1. There was no reply. 没有答复。

  reply在句中用作名词,表示“答案;答复;回答”。 例如:

  She shook her head and made no reply. 她摇摇头,没有回答。

  The teacher is waiting for the reply to her question. 老师正在等待她的问题的答案。

  reply还可以用作动词,后面常接从句或reply to sb. / sth. 例如:

  Before you reply to me, you must think it about carefully. 在你回答我之前,你必须仔细考虑一下这件事。

  I replied to her letter as soon as I received it.我一收到信就给她回了信。

  2. I invited him to our party. 我邀请他来参加我们的聚会。

  invite 表示“邀请”,常用结构为“invite sb. to… ”(邀请某人去某地)或“invite sb. to do sth.”(邀请某人去做某事)。例如:

  I will invite you to my home someday. 有一天我要邀请你去我家。

  She invited us to have dinner, but we refused. 她请我们吃饭,但我们拒绝了。

  3. I waited and waited until finally a bright scene came on. 我等着,等着,直到最后一个明亮的画面出现。

  come on在这里是“出现”的意思,这个短语有多种含义。例如:

  Night came on, and the Christmas trees lighted up. 夜幕降临,圣诞树都亮了起来。(出现)

  All the plants in the garden are coming on nicely. 花园里所有的植物生长得都很好。(生长)

  You'd better go now. I will come on later. 你最好现在走吧。我一会儿过去。(跟随)

  How's your English coming on? 你的英语进展如何?(进展)

  He is coming on in the next scene. 他将下一个出场。(出场)

  What time does the news come on? 这条新闻什么时间播放?(上演;播放)

  Come on! We are going to be late. 快点!我们要迟到了。(快点;加油)

  4. To make a loud noise usually because of anger or fear. 发出大的噪音经常是因为生气或害怕。

  because of是“因为,由于”的意思,后面加名词或名词短语,与because不同之处在于because后面接原因状语从句。例如:

  I was late because of the heavy rain. 因为这场大雨我迟到了。

  I was late because the heavy rain stopped me. 因为大雨的阻止,所以我迟到了。

  We paid attention to her because of her loud voice. 我们因为她的大嗓门而注意到她。

  We paid attention to her because she spoke in a loud voice. 因为她的大嗓门,我们注意到了她。

  5. A kind of corn that is heated until it breaks open and becomes soft and white. 一种玉米加热直到破裂并变软变白。

  heat 在这里是动词,是“使……加热”的意思。例如:

  Water can be heated in the sun. 水在太阳下能够被加热。

  heat还可以用作名词,表示“热度、热量”。例如:

  The sun gives us light and heat. 太阳给了我们光和热。

疑难解析(3)

 1. Do you believe in dragons? 你相信(世界上)有龙吗?

  believe in sb. / sth. 相信某人/某物的存在;信任某人/某事的正确性;信赖。例如:

  He believes in doing plenty of exercises for his health. 他相信多做运动必有好处。

  He doesn't believe in ghosts in the world. 他不相信世界上有鬼的存在。

  而believe sb. / sth. 则表示“相信某人的话属实;相信某物的真实性”。例如:

  I believe him. = I believe what he says.我相信他的话。

  2. Although there was a village on the island, nobody was there to give them a warm welcome. 尽管岛上有个村庄,但没有人来热烈欢迎他们。

  (1)although 和(even)though均可用于句首或从句之首,与动词连用,though较为通俗。例如:

  Although / Though / Even though we all tried our best, we lost the game. 虽然我们都已尽了最大的努力,但还是输掉了比赛。

  He went to the party at last, though / although / even though he didn't like it. 他虽然不喜欢,但最后还是去了聚会。

  (2)句中give them a warm welcome表示“热烈欢迎他们”,welcome为可数名词,意为“欢迎”。例如:

  We received a warm welcome. 我们受到了热烈欢迎。

  另外,welcome还有形容词和动词的词性。例如:

  You are always welcome at our house. (adj.) 我们家永远欢迎你。

  We were welcomed at the door by the children. (v.) 孩子们在门口欢迎我们。

  3. She saw that the island of Komodo is small: no more than 280 square kilometres. 她看到科莫多是一个小岛,仅仅280平方公里。

  (1)本句主句中的动词使用的是一般过去时,而宾语从句中动词用的是一般现在时。这是因为,宾语从句表达的是客观存在的事实。又如:

  The teacher told the students that the moon is the satellite of the earth. 老师告诉学生们,月亮是地球的卫星。

  (2)句中的no more than相当于only,表示“仅仅,只不过”。例如:

  The old woman ate no more than a piece of bread. 那个老太太仅吃了一片面包。

  4. They ate a quick lunch, drank some water, and began to hike. 他们匆匆地吃过午饭,喝了点水,然后就开始徒步旅行。

  句中的lunch既可用作可数名词,也可用作不可数名词。不加修饰词时,常作不可数名词用;加上修饰词后常作可数名词用。例如:

  What did you have for lunch yesterday? 你昨天午饭吃的什么?

  They each brought a lunch with themselves. 他们每个人都带了午饭。

  5. Tian Feng told her to be patient. 田峰告诉她要耐心。

  patient adj. 有耐性的;忍耐的;容忍的。例如:

  The sellers should be patient with their customers. 售货员应该对顾客有耐心。

  它的名词形式为patience,“耐性;耐心”。另外,

  patient也可作名词使用,意为“病人”。

  6. It lies between two larger islands.它位于两个大的岛屿之间。

  lie在课文中的意思是“位于”,它还有其它一些含义,如“位于……;躺;平放;存在;展现”等。例如:

  The city lies to the east of ours. 这个城市位于我们城市的东面。

  The town lies on the coast. 该城位于海边。

  The letter lay open on his desk. 那封信摊开在他桌上。

  The valley lay at our feet. 峡谷展现在我们脚下。

  He lay on the grass, reading a book. 他躺在草地上看书。

  7. Li Hua was eager to see dragons.李华渴望见到龙。

  be eager to do sth. 是“渴望做某事”之意,be eager for... 是“渴望……”的意思。例如:

  He was eager for success. 他渴望成功。

  Jenny was eager to go to the dinner party. 詹妮渴望去参加那个宴会。

疑难解析(4)

1. What an adventure!多么刺激的一次冒险啊!

  adventure (n.) 奇遇,冒险的经历。例如:

  A flight in an aeroplane used to be quite an adventure. 从前,乘飞机飞行是一件相当冒险的事。

  The explorer told the students about his adventure in the Arctic. 探险家把他在北极的奇遇讲给学生们听。

  2. Have your classmates suggest other good words to use in your ad. 让你的同学们针对你的广告提出使用其他好词语的建议。

  (1)have sb. do sth. 让某人去做某事。例如:

  The mother had her daughter tidy up the room last Friday. 上周五妈妈让她女儿整理了房间。

  注意:have是使役动词(make , let , have)中的一个,后面常接不带to的不定式做宾语补足语。

  (2)suggest (v.)

  ① 提议,建议。例如:

  They suggest going to the park. 他们提议去公园。

  I suggest finishing it now. 我建议现在做完这件事。

  suggest + (that) + sb. (should) + do sth.。例如:

  He suggested we (should) go to see a film. 他建议我们应该去看电影。

  ② 暗示,示意,显示。例如:

  Are you suggesting(that) I'm not suited for the job? 你的意思是说我不适合这份工作吗?

  His expression suggested anger. 他面带怒容。

  suggest的名词形式为suggestion。

  3. Thanks for having me as your guest. 感谢你招待了我。

  (1)thanks for doing sth. 为某事表示感谢。例如:

  Thanks for helping me with my maths. 感谢你帮我学数学。

  Thanks for inviting me to dinner. 感谢你邀请我来吃饭。

  (2)have... as... 意为“把……当做……看待”。as在此处为介词,可译成“看做,当做,作为”。例如:

  I have her as my sister. 我把她当作妹妹看待。

  另外,regard... as...与treat... as... 也有“把……当做……看待”之意。

  4. The tour guide introduces a tourist to the rest of the group. 导游把一名游客介绍给组里的其他人。

  introduce... to... 意为“把……介绍给……”。例如:

  Please introduce yourself to your classmates. 请向你的同学们做个自我介绍。

  另外,introduce还可表示“把(新事物)引进/引入到……”。例如:

  The company will introduce a new product next year. 公司明年将引进一种新产品。

疑难解析(5)

1. During the break, Li Lei happened to see Paul's mark on the report of a chemistry experiment. 在课间休息时,李雷碰巧看到保尔化学实验报告的成绩。

  当happen 表示“发生”时,是不及物动词,后面不能接宾语,没有被动语态。它总是以事情作主语,通常不用人作主语。如:

  How did it happen? (误:How was it happen? )这事是怎样发生的?

  A car accident happened yesterday. (误:He happened a car accident yesterday. )昨天发生了一起车祸。

  如果某人发生了什么情况,该用介词to。如:

  What happened to the boy? 那个男孩出了什么事?

  当happen 后接动词不定式时,是“碰巧”的意思,这时可用人作主语。如:

  I happened to meet him on my way home. 我在回家的路上碰巧遇到他。

  He happened to know the place. 他碰巧知道这地方。

  2. I wonder how you've done so well in every chemistry experiment. 我想知道你每次的化学实验是怎么样做得如此出色的。

  (1) wonder 表示“觉得奇怪、惊奇”时,可接that引导的宾语从句。若后接名词或代词宾格,须加介词at或about。如:

  I wonder that the boy made such a rapid progress. 我感到十分惊讶,那个男孩进步那么快。

  I wonder at his rudeness. 我对他的粗鲁感到奇怪。

  He was wondering about that. 他对此事觉得好奇。

  (2)wonder表示“想知道”时,后常接what, who, why, where等引导的宾语从句。如:

  I wonder why James is always late for school.我想知道为什么詹姆斯上学总是迟到。

  He is wondering how to do it. 他想知道怎么做这件事。

  3. Oh, that sounds interesting. 哦,这听起来真有趣。

  (1)sound在此句是连系动词,意为“听起来”,后面接形容词或名词。如:

  His explanation sounds all right. 他的解释似乎有道理。

  Your idea sounds a good one. 你的想法听起来很好。

  (2) sound 作名词时,泛指自然界的各种声音、声波等。如:

  He opened the fridge without a sound. 他悄悄地打开冰箱。

  Light travels faster than sound. 光波比声波传播得快。

  (3)sound 作形容词,意为“健全的;坚实的;稳固的”。如:

  I've repaired the roof and it's quite sound now. 我修了屋顶,现在它挺坚固的。

  4. He put a finger in his mouth, tasted it and smiled, looking rather pleased. 他把一只手指放进嘴巴,尝了尝,笑了,看上去相当高兴。

  The mixture tasted terrible. 混合物的味道尝起来太不好了。

  第一句中的taste 是及物动词,意为“尝;品尝”。如:

  Can I taste your drink? 我可以尝一尝你的饮料吗?

  第二句中的taste是系动词,后接形容词作表语,意为“尝起来”。如:

  The cake tastes like the pumpkin. 这糕点吃起来有南瓜味。

  另外,taste 还可作名词,意为“味道;口味”。如:

  The cake has a sweet taste. 这蛋糕有点甜味。

  5. What impressed me most in Xi'an was the Terra Cotta Warriors. 西安使我印象最深的是兵马俑。

  (1) What impressed me most in Xi'an是一个主语从句,在句子中充当主语。如:

  What he said just now is correct. 他刚才所说的话很对。

  (2) impress sb. 意为“使某人印象深刻”。如:

  This book didn't impress me at all. 这书没有给我留下任何印象。

  impress sb. with sth. 意为“某物给予某人深刻印象”。如:

  The students impressed their teacher with the careful work. 学生们的认真学习给老师留下了深刻的印象。

  sb. be impressed by / with sth. 某人被某事所感动。如:

  The students were all impressed by/with the teachers' hard work. 学生们被老师的辛勤工作所感动。

  impress sth. on/upon sb. 使某人铭记某事。如:

  I impressed the importance of his work on/upon him. 我使他知晓工作的重要性。

  6. Soon all the land he passed looked green and lovely, and the farmer was pleased to look at it. 很快,他走过的所有的路看上去都很青春和美丽,农夫很高兴地看着这一切。

  (1)“be pleased to+动词原形”意为“很高兴做某事”。如:

  I'm very pleased to meet you. 很高兴遇见你。

  (2) be pleased with 意为“对……感到满意;喜欢……”。如:

  The teacher is pleased with the boy's homework. 老师很满意这男孩的作业。

  (3) be pleased at 意为“对(听到或看到的)事感到高兴”。如:

  He must be pleased at the news. 听到这个消息他一定会很高兴。

  (4) be pleased about 意为“因……而感到高兴”。如:

  They were obviously pleased about his presence. 他们对他的出席显然感到很高兴。

  (5)“be pleased+ that 从句”意为“对……感到高兴”。如:

  I'm very pleased that you have decided to come. 你决定来我很高兴。

疑难解析(6)

1. Joyce, do you know that there's an island named after a holiday? 乔伊斯,你知道有一个小岛是以节日的名字命名的吗?

  be named after... (=give the same name as) 是一种被动结构,意为“以(随)……的名字命名”。如:

  Buildings are often named after their designers. 建筑物常以它们的设计者名字来命名。

  The company is named after his name. 这家公司是以他的名字命名的。

  2. Some think that people from Peru made the Moai thousands of years ago. Others think that aliens from space made the Moai and left them as some kind of message. 一些人认为几千年前来自秘鲁的人制作了“莫埃”,其他的人认为来自宇宙的外星人制作了“莫埃”,并把它们作为某种信息留下。

  (1) others= other people,意为“其他的人”,表示除去一部分以后的另一些,但不是剩下的全体,有列举未尽的意味在内,常和some搭配构成some...others句型。如:

  There are a lot of people in the park. Some are walking, some are looking at the flowers, others are boating. 公园里有许多人。有些人在散步,有些在赏花,另一些人在划船。

  (2) 此句中的some意为“某个”,指未知的或未确指的人、地点或事物,后面的名词用单数形式。如:

  He went to some place in Africa. 他到非洲某地去了。

  3. Rachel wasn't sure if she should go after school to meet this person. 雷切尔不敢肯定她放学后是否要去见那个人。

  be sure意为“确信”、“确定”,其常见结构主要有以下几种:

  (1) be sure +宾语从句,表示主语对宾语从句所涉及到的事物人作出的判断,意为“确信某事一定会……”。

  ① be sure+that从句。如:

  I'm sure that he will pass the exam. 我确信他一定会通过考试。

  ②be sure+what / which / who / whether / when / where / if等从句,常用于否定句中。如:

  I'm not sure where I put it. 我不能肯定我把它放在哪儿了。

  He's not sure what the speaker will talk about. 他无法肯定演讲者将谈些什么。

  (2) be sure+不定式,所表示的内容是说话人的一种判断,认为句子主语“必然”、“必然会”、“准会”做什么。如:

  They are sure to come early. 他们一定会来得很早。

  It is sure to be fine. 天肯定会晴。

  (3) be sure of /about +动名词/名词,意为“确信……”、“对……有把握”。但接名词时,be sure of 侧重指主语对某抽象事物的确信无疑;而be sure about则侧重指主语对某具体事物的确信无疑。如:

  He is sure of success. 他自信会成功的。

  I think so, but I'm not sure about it. 我是这样想的,但是没有把握。

  若后接反身代词,则只能用be sure of,意为“有自信心”。如:

  Joan will sit for an important examination next week, but she is not sure of herself. 琼下周要参加一个重要考试,但她对自己没有十分把握。

疑难解析(7)

1. Not only over one billion people living inside China, but also many Chinese outside China speak it. 不仅住在中国的10万多人说它,而且住在中国之外的中国人也说它。

  Everything spoken or written in one language is translated into the other five. 每一个用一种语言所说或所写的东西都被翻译成其它五种。

  这两句中的living和spoken or written都作后置定语,后置定语可以用现在分词或过去分词充当,在句子中应用哪一种,由它前面被修饰的名词与它的关系决定,主动关系用现在分词作后置定语,被动关系则用过去分词作后置定语。例如:

  All the students sitting in the classroom pay attention to listening to the teacher. 坐在教室里的所有同学都注意听老师讲。(students与sitting是逻辑上的主谓关系)

  Everything borrowed from others should be returned as soon as possible. 每一件向别人借的东西都应该尽快归还。(everything与borrowed是被动关系)

  2. Each star stood for one state. 一颗星代表一个州。

  stand for是“代表、象征”的意思。例如:

  Many Chinese people believe that red stands for good luck. 很多中国人相信红色象征好运。

  GNP stands for the gross national product. GNP代表国民生产总值。

  3. But the new country continued to grow. 但是这个新国家持续增长。

  continue指“继续、持续”的意思,可用于不中断的继续或中断后的继续。有以下几种用法:

  ① continue + adv.

  The rain continued till late last night. 雨继续下到昨天深夜。

  The discussion continued after a break. 那项讨论在短暂的休息之后继续进行。

  ② continue + n.

  I'll continue my study have for another year. 我将在这里继续学习一年。

  ③ continue + adj.

  The weather continued cold in March. 三月的天气仍然很冷。

  ④ continue + to do / doing

  He continued to read / reading when I spoke to him. 当我跟他说话时,他仍然在继续阅读。

  4. To fail in the competition is very disappointing. 竞赛中的失败是很令人失望的。

  disappointing是形容词,表示“令人失望的、扫兴的”,多用来修饰事物,disappointed表示“失望的、沮丧的”,用来修饰人的心理。例如:

  His mark of the final exam is disappointing. 他的期末成绩令人失望。

  His mark of the final exam made his parents disappointed. 他的期末成绩使他的父母失望。

  be disappointed后面可以加at / about / with / to do或that从句。例如:

  She was disappointed at the film which her sister spoke highly of. 她对她姐姐高度赞扬的那部电影很失望。

  He was disappointed to see the rubbish on the road. 他看见路上的垃圾,感到失望。

  I was disappointed that I had lost the game. 我对输了比赛感到失望。

疑难解析(8)

1. We give thanks to God for all that we have got. 我们因所得到的东西而向上帝感恩。

  give(one's) thanks to sb. for sth.表示“因为某事而向某人致谢”,这个短语中的thanks是名词,表示“感谢、谢意”,与thanks搭配的短语还有:express one's thanks表达谢意, return thanks to sb.答谢, say thanks to sb.道谢。例如:

  How can I return thanks to you for saving my life? 我怎么答谢你对我的救命之恩呢?

  The peasants gave thanks to God for the good harvest. 农民们因大丰收而向上帝感恩。

  动词形式是thank,形容词形式是thankful。因此“因某事向某人致谢”还可以说成thank sb. for(doing) sth.或be thankful to sb. for sth.。例如:

  I must thank my teacher for helping me a lot. 我必须感谢老师给我那么多的帮助。

  We are thankful to the old man for giving us the message. 我们感谢这位老人给我们这个信息。

  2. About twenty years after the first settlers arrived in New England, fighting often broke out between the settlers and Indians. 在第一批移民到达新英格兰大约20年后,移民与印第安人之间就常常爆发战斗。

  break out为动词短语,表示“突然爆发”,多指火灾、战争等。例如:

  Fire broke out in the neighbourhood last night. 昨夜附近发生了火灾。

  When did the Second World War break out? 第二次世界大战是什么时候爆发的?

  可与break搭配的短语还有:

  break down打破、毁坏; break open裂开、破裂; break into破门而入,等等。

  3. The Great Spirit decided to teach her a lesson, she would have no face, nor could she talk to the people, the birds, or the animals of the forest. 大神决定给她一个教训:她将没有脸,也不能和人、鸟或森林中的动物讲话。

  teach sb. a lesson的意思是“给某人一个教训”。例如:

  The accident which was caused by carelessness taught him a lesson forever. 那个由粗心引发的事故给了他一个永久的教训。

  “nor +助动词/情态动词/系动词+主语”是倒装句,表示“也不”,同neither,肯定句用so。例如:

  I haven't been abroad, nor has she. 我没出过国,她也没有。

  I shall follow Lei Feng's example, so will my brother. 我将以雷锋为榜样,我弟弟也是。

  4. They picture the place with palm trees, beaches, and Hollywood, where so many famous movies have been made. 在他们的想象中,那里有棕榈树、海滩,还有拍摄了许多著名电影的地方——好莱坞。

  picture 在此处为动词,表示“想象,设想(某事物)”的意思,与imagine的意思相同。常加名词或动名词。例如:

  Can you picture life without electricity? 你能想象没有电的生活吗?

  She pictured getting a chance of going abroad for further study. 她想象着得到一次出国深造的机会。

  He pictured to himself the family having a picnic in the countryside. 他想象全家人在乡村里进行野餐的情景。(picture常与to连用,后接反身代词)。

  5. Most importantly, people realized that they must learn to care for their living environment. 最重要的是人们意识到了必须学会关注他们的生存环境。

  (1)realize是及物动词,表示“领悟,认知(事实)或实现(希望或目的)”的意思。例如:

  He didn't realize his mistake until he failed several times. 直到他失败了好几次,他才意识到自己的错误。

  After his hard work, he realized his dream of becoming an engineer. 在他的辛苦努力下,他终于实现了成为工程师的梦想。

  (2)care for为动词短语,表示“照顾、照料”的意思,同义短语为take care of或look after。例如:

  She cares for the children as if they were her own. 她像照顾自己的孩子一样照顾这些孩子。

  care for还可以表示“喜欢,想要”的意思。例如:

  Would you care for some coffee? 你要不要来点儿咖啡?

  6. Hi, Harry, I just heard on TV that Highway 3 is jammed with cars. 嗨,亨利,我刚在电视上听到3号高速公路挤满了汽车。

  be jammed with的意思是“挤满”。例如:

  The corridors were jammed with a lot of school children. 走廊里挤满了小学生。

  jam还可以用作名词。例如:

  put jam on a piece of bread把果酱涂在一片面包上;a traffic jam交通阻塞;be in (get into) a jam 处于(陷入)困境。

疑难解析(9)

 1. I don't think she really cares what we'll give her. 我认为她真正关心不是我们送给她什么。

  care在这里是动词,表示“介意;在乎;关心”,通常用于否定句、疑问句和条件句中。常用结构为:

  (1)care about + 名词 在乎

  He doesn't care a bit about food and clothes. 他对于吃穿从不在乎。

  (2)care (about) + wh- 介意;在乎

  I don't care who will stand for your group to give a talk. 我不介意谁代表你们组来作演讲。

  (3)care to do 想要

  She doesn't care to tell us the truth. 她不想告诉我们事实。

  (4)care for喜欢;照顾

  I don't care for a man speaks a lot but does little. 我不喜欢只说不做的人。

  Who will care for the children if their mother leaves them? 如果这些孩子的妈妈离开他们,谁来照顾他们?

  2. How do you show your love for your mother? 你怎么向你妈妈表示你的爱?

  show one's love for sb 是“表示对……的爱”的意思。例如:

  The best way of showing your love to your teacher is to improve yourself in study. 最好的表达对老师的爱的方法是提高学习成绩。

  3. In the old days, workers had time off from work to visit their mothers. 过去,工人们放假去看望他们的母亲。

  off在此为副词,表示“不工作(不上班);休息(假)”的意思,可以和动词have, take, is, get, give等词一起使用。例如:

  The manager gave the workers only one day off each week. 经理每周仅给员工一天的假。

  She is tired of the boring life, so she wants to take a few days off. 她厌倦了乏味的生活,所以她想休息几天。

  4. After Mrs Jarvis died, her daughter carried on the same idea... 贾维斯女士去世后,她的女儿继承了她的想法……

  carry on为动词短语,表示“进行;继续”。后面加名词或动名词。例如:

  It's difficult to carry on our conversation in a crowded room. 在这么拥挤的房间里要继续进行我们的谈话是很困难的。

  与carry常用的搭配还有carry out, 表示“实施(计划);履行(义务、约定);进行(实验)”。例如:

  The orders must be carried out at once. 这些命令必须立刻实施。

  5. Read the following sentences and tell which festivals they refer to. 读以下的句子并说出他们所指的是哪些节日。

  refer to指“论及;说到;谈到;提及”,同义词为mention。refer的过去式和过去分词形式为referred,现在分词形式为referring, 名词形式为reference。例如:

  In his speech, he didn't refer to the problem which people discussed a lot. 在他的讲演中,他根本没有提到人们争论很多的那个问题。

  refer to还可以表示“参阅; 参考”。例如:

  When you write your composition, you can refer to any book you like. 当你写作文时,你可以参考你所喜爱的任何一本书。

  6. But not long after that , over 4000 people died as a result of the smog. 但那之后不久,又有4000多人因为烟雾死亡。

  as a result of为介词短语,表示“由于……(原因)”的意思,多引导状语。例如:

  He wasn't able to work as a result of falling off the horse. 他由于从马上摔下来,不能去工作了。

 

 

疑难解析(10)

 1. I was deeply impressed by the beautiful sights. 美丽的景色给我留下了深刻的印象。

  be impressed by表示“被……所感动;对……印象深刻”。例如:

  The audiences were impressed by the actor's performance at the party. 在晚会上,演员的表演给观众们留下了深刻的印象。

  I was deeply impressed by the song. 我被那首歌曲深深地打动了。

  2. I booked a ticket beforehand. 我事先预定了一张票。

  beforehand是“预先;事先”的意思。反义词为behindhand。例如:

  If you are coming, let me know beforehand. 如果你要来,请事先让我知道。

  When you go on a journey, it is a good thing to be beforehand with your packing. 当你出门旅行的时候,最好提前把行李整理好。

  book在这里是动词,意思是“预定(座、票)”。例如:

  Seats for the theatre can be booked beforehand. 戏院的票能够提前预定。

  3. About 200 million years ago, all the land in the world was joined together in one huge continent. 大约在两亿年前,世界上的所有陆地都是连在一起的一个巨大大陆。

  join在此处为及物动词,意思是“连接”,join还有“汇合;结合;加入”等涵义。例如:

  The two towns are joined by a railway. 那两座城镇由一条铁路连接起来。

  Where does this stream join the river? 小溪在什么地方汇入那条河?

  We don't know when she joined the army. 我们不知道她什么时候参军的。

  join ... to意思是“把……和……连接在一起”。例如:

  Let's join the rope to the end of the stick. 让我们把这根绳子和木棍的顶端接起来吧。

  4. Then it started to break into pieces. 后来,它(连成一体的大陆)开始分裂成若干块(陆地)。

  break into pieces的意思是“破裂成碎片”,break在这里为不及物动词,无需用被动语态。例如:

  The glass broke into pieces when it fell onto the floor. 杯子掉在地板上,摔成了碎片。

  break into还可以表示“闯入;侵入”。例如:

  The robber broke into the bank and took away a lot of money. 强盗闯进了银行并拿走了很多钱。

  5. Part of East Africa will break away from the rest of Africa. 东非的一部分将与非洲的其余部分分离。

  break away from是“挣脱;脱离;离开或(突然)逃走”的意思。例如:

  The thief tried to break away from the policeman, but he failed. 小偷企图从警察手中挣脱,但他失败了。

  rest在此处是名词,意思是“剩余、其余”,通常与定冠词the连用。例如:

  Some of the teachers are from the city, and the rest are from the country. 有些老师来自城里,其余的来自乡村。

  I want to spend the rest of my life in Paris. 我想在巴黎度过自己的余生。

疑难解析(11)

1. They didn't care for school very much. 他们不太喜欢学校。

  care for在句中表示“喜欢”,等于like,后接名词或动词-ing形式,它还可以表示“关照;照顾”的意思。例如:

  I don't care for a man who speaks a lot but does little. 我不喜欢只说不做的人。

  Thanks to Uncle Wang, the children were well cared for. 多亏了王叔叔对孩子们的细心照顾。

  2. Life to him seemed nothing but heavy work. 生活对他来说除去沉重的工作别无他物。

  (1)but常和表否定意义的词nobody, nothing, nowhere等连用,意为“除去;除……之外”。例如:

  We had no choice but to wait. 我们除了等待之外别无选择。

  There was nothing but an old picture in the room. 房间里除了一幅旧画之外什么也没有。

  He believes in nobody but his parents. 除了他的父母之外,他谁也不信。

  (2)seem表示“似乎;好象”,后面可接形容词、不定式或从句。例如:

  She seemed lively and lovely. = It seemed that she was lively and lovely. 她看上去活泼可爱。

  It seemed that they had lost the match. = They seemed to have lost the match. 看上去他们输了比赛。

  3. Oh, I don't dare, Tom. My aunt would beat me. Indeed, she would.不,我不敢,汤姆。我姑姑会打我的。真的,她会的。

  (1)dare作情态动词时,后接不带to的不定式,主要用于疑问、否定或条件句,表示“敢;敢于”。例如:

  How dare you speak rudely to your mother? 你怎么敢对你妈妈粗鲁地说话呢?

  I dare not go out at nigh. 我不敢夜间外出。

  I know he was wrong, but I daren't tell him. 我知道他错了,但我不敢告诉他。

  (2)dare还可以用作实义动词。例如:

  She wanted to ask a question but didn't dare. 她想问问题,却又不敢。

疑难解析(12)

 1. An excited crowd of passengers is standing on platform 6. 一群兴奋的乘客站在6号站台上。

  crowd在句中是名词,表示“人群;一群人”,a crowd of在句中作主语时,谓语应用第三人称单数形式。例如:

  He pushed his way through the crowd. 他从人群中挤出一条路。

  A crowd of young people is willing to help stop the flood. 有一群年轻人愿意去抗洪。

  crowd还可以用作动词,表示“聚集;拥挤”。例如:

  People crowded around to get free tickets. 人们为了得到免费的票而争先恐后。

  crowded是形容词,表示“拥挤的;挤满的”。例如:

  There is no room for you in the crowded bus. 在这辆拥挤的公共汽车上没有你的地方了。

  2. The train is ready to board. 可以开始上(火)车了。

  Everyone gets in a queue to board the train. 每个人都排队上火车。

  以上两句中的board都是动词,意为“上(船、火车、飞机等)”。例如:

  Flight BA193 for Paris is ready for passengers to board. 乘坐飞往巴黎的BA193 班机的旅客现在可以登机了。

  Then we boarded the ship and travelled across the Pacific by it. 然后我们上了船,乘它横渡了太平洋。

  on board表示“在(船、火车、飞机)上”。例如:

  When the ship hit the iceberg, there were over 1000 passengers on board. 当大船撞到冰山的时候,有1000多名乘客在船上。

  原文中的be ready to的意思是“几乎;就要”。例如:

  My head feels as if it is ready to burst. 我的头好像要爆炸了。

  be ready to do还可以表示“愿意、乐于(做某事)”。例如:

  He is ready to listen to the advice of wiser men.他乐于听聪明人的建议。

  3. Well, neither do we, usually. 嗯,我们通常也不。

  “neither / nor + be / 助动词 / 情态动词 + 主语(主格)”是否定倒装句的用法,意为“……也不……”。例如:

  She hardly understood what we said, nor did her brother. 她几乎不理解我们所说的话,她的兄弟也不。

  She will not swap her book for your picture, neither shall I. 她不会用她的书换你的图片,我也不会。

  4. I’m sure it’s quite a story. 我确信它是个不同寻常的故事。

  quite a / an用于无形容词修饰的单数名词前,常表示褒义,表示“(某人或某事物)不寻常的;了不起的”的意思。例如:

  Edison was quite an inventor. 爱迪生是个了不起的发明家。

疑难解析(12)

 1. If you knock into someone by mistake, say “Excuse me ” or “ I’m sorry ”. 如果你误撞到某人,请说“对不起”或“很抱歉”。

  knock into sb. 表示“撞在某人身上”。例如:

  She was in such a hurry and knocked into her teacher. 她太着急了,撞在了老师身上。

  knock... into... 还可以表示“把……敲进……”。例如:

  The worker knocked a long strong stick into the earth. 那个工人把一根又长又粗的木棍敲进土壤里。

  与knock搭配的短语还有:knock out打败;knock off (口语)停止 (工作);knock up (英口语)敲门叫 (人)起床;knock down (车等) 撞倒 (人);knock in敲进(钉子)等。

  by mistake表示“误会;错误地”,由于疏忽、健忘所致。例如:

  I'm sorry I took your umbrella by mistake yesterday. 对不起,我昨天错拿了你的雨伞。

  2. When speaking to an old person, stay on your feet. 与年长的人讲话时,要保持站立。

  stay on one's feet意为“站着”,表示状态。例如:

  She felt tired after staying on her feet for nearly an hour. 站了将近一小时后,她感觉累了。

  本单元还有一个关于stay的句子。例如:

  It's also bad manners to stay silent if your teacher asks a question. 如果你的老师提出问题,你不出声,也是不礼貌的。

  stay silent表示“不声不响;保持安静”,同义短语为“keep quiet”。stay在这里是系动词。

  与stay搭配的短语还有:stay out在外留宿;stay up熬夜,通宵不睡; stay in留在家里,不外出

  “When speaking to an old person... ”中省略了you are,这是因为在从属连词when,while,as,if,unless,though / although等引导的状语从句中的主语与主句的主语相同,从句中的主语与be可以省略。例如:

  While(he was)doing so, he felt harder and harder. 在做的过程中,他感觉到越来越难。

  They visited several places when(they were)travelling last year. 去年他们旅行时,游玩了好多地方。

  3. For example, in Britain or America it is not polite to ask people how much money they make in their jobs. 比如说,在英国或美国询问别人的收入是不礼貌的。

  good manners / polite of sb. to do sth.

  bad manners / impolite of sb. to do sth.

  表示“(某人)做某事是(有礼貌的/没有礼貌的)”。例如:

  It was polite of him to give his seat to an old man on the bus. 他在公共汽车上把座位让给老年人是有礼貌的。

  It's bad manners of people to talk loudly in public. 人们在公众场合大声谈话是不礼貌的。

  It's impolite of young people to quarrel with the old. 年轻人与老人争吵是不礼貌的。

  4. This may not be common in China, but is good manners in Britain or America. 这在中国不常见,但在英国或美国是好的习惯。

  common表示“普通的;常见的;平凡的”或“共有的;公众的;共同的”。例如:

  A dog is one of the commonest pets in families. 狗是最常见的家庭宠物。

  A great interest in music was common to them. 他们对音乐有着共同的兴趣。

  The new project is for the common good. 这项新的工程是为了公众利益。

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