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所有关于烹饪十一-摩洛哥菜

(2009-03-31 13:52:00)
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所有关于烹饪十一-摩洛哥菜

Sunday, December 21st, 2008 星期日, 2008年12月21号

Moroccan cuisine is one of the most diversified cuisines in the world.摩洛哥菜是最多样化的美食世界。 The reason is because of the interaction of Morocco with the outside world for centuries.原因是相互作用的摩洛哥与外部世界的数个世纪。 The cuisine of Morocco is a mix of Arab, Berber, Moorish, Middle Eastern, Mediterranean, African, and Jewish influences.美食摩洛哥是一个混合阿拉伯,柏柏尔人,摩尔人,中东,地中海,非洲,和犹太人的影响。 Thecooks in the royal kitchens of Fez, Meknes, Marrakech, Rabat andTetouan refined Moroccan cuisine over the centuries and created thebasis for what is known as Moroccan cuisine today.厨师在皇家厨房菲斯,梅克内斯,马拉喀什,拉巴特和得土安完善摩洛哥菜千百年来创造的基础,被称为摩洛哥菜今天。

Beingat the crossroads of many civilizations, the cuisine of Morocco hasbeen influenced by the native Berber cuisine, the Middle Easterncuisines brought by Arabs, the Arabic Andalusian cuisine brought by theMoriscos when they left Spain, the Turkish cuisine from the Ottomans aswell as the Jewish cuisine.处于十字路口,许多文明的一道菜,摩洛哥一直受到本地柏柏尔美食,中东美食带来的阿拉伯人,阿拉伯语安达卢西亚美食所带来的Moriscos当他们离开西班牙,土耳其菜的土耳其人,以及作为犹太人的菜肴。

The history of Morocco is reflected in its cuisine.摩洛哥的历史反映在它的美食。 Politicalrefugees left Baghdad in the Middle Ages and settled in Morocco,bringing with them traditional recipes that are now common in Morocco,but forgotten in the Middle East.政治难民离开巴格达中世纪和解决在摩洛哥,使他们的传统食谱现在正在共同在摩洛哥,但忘记了在中东地区。 Weknow this because there are striking similarities between a 12thcentury collection of recipes by Al-Baghdadi, and contemporary Moroccandishes.我们知道这一点,因为有惊人的相似之处12世纪之间收集的食谱由Al -巴格达迪,和当代摩洛哥菜。 A signature characteristic is cooking fruit with meat, such as quince with lamb, or apricots with chicken.签字特点是烹饪水果与肉类,如木瓜与羊肉,或杏鸡。 Furtherinfluences upon Moroccan cuisine came from the Morisco (Muslimrefugees), who were expelled from Spain during the Spanish inquisition.进一步影响各国摩洛哥菜来自Morisco (穆斯林难民) ,谁被赶出西班牙在西班牙宗教裁判所。

According to Paula Wolfert, a specialist of Moroccan cuisine and author of a renowned book on the subject:据保Wolfert ,专家摩洛哥美食和知名作者的书的主题:
“     To my mind four things are necessary before a nation can develop a great cuisine. “在我看来是必要的四件事之前,一个民族可以建立一个巨大的菜肴。 The first is an abundance of fine ingredients, a rich land.首先是丰富的优良成分,具有丰富的土地。 Thesecond is a variety of cultural influences: the history of the nation,including its domination by foreign powers, and the culinary secrets ithas brought back from its own imperialist adventures.二是各种文化的影响:历史上的国家,包括其统治的外国势力,而且烹饪秘密它带回了从自己的帝国主义的冒险。 Third,a great civilization, if a country has not had its day in the sun, itscuisine will probably not be great; great food and a great civilizationgo together.第三,一个伟大的文明,如果一个国家没有其每天在阳光下,它的美食可能不会很大;伟大的食物和一个伟大的文明一起去。 Last,the existence of a refined palace life, without royal kitchens, withouta Versailles or a Forbidden City in Peking, without, in short, thedemands of a cultivated court, the imaginations of a nation’s cookswill not be challenged.最后,存在着一种精致宫廷生活,但皇家的厨房,没有凡尔赛或紫禁城在北京,没有简单地说,要求的耕地法院,想象一个国家的厨师将不会受到质疑。 Morocco, fortunately, is blessed with all four.摩洛哥,幸运的是,是得天独厚的所有四个。    

Morocco produces a large range of Mediterranean fruits and vegetables and even some tropical ones.摩洛哥产生大量的地中海水果和蔬菜,甚至一些热带的。 The country produces large quantities of sheep, cattle, poultry, and seafood which serve as a base for the cuisine.该国生产大量的羊,牛,家禽,海鲜,以此作为基础的菜肴。

Spices are used extensively in Moroccan food.香料广泛应用于食品摩洛哥。 Whilespices have been imported to Morocco for thousands of years, manyingredients, like saffron from Tiliouine, mint and olives from Meknes,and oranges and lemons from Fez, are home-grown.虽然香料已导入到摩洛哥数千年来,许多成分,如从Tiliouine藏红花,薄荷和橄榄从梅克内斯,和橙子和柠檬从非斯,是土生土长的。 Commonspices include karfa (cinnamon), kamoun (cumin), kharkoum (turmeric),skingbir (ginger), libzar (pepper) , tahmira (paprika), anis seed,sesame seed, kasbour (coriander), maadnous (parsley), zaafrane beldi(saffron) and mint.共同香料包括karfa (肉桂) , kamoun (孜然) , kharkoum (术), skingbir (姜) , libzar (辣椒) , tahmira (辣椒) ,阿尼斯种子,芝麻, kasbour (香菜) ,maadnous (香菜) , zaafrane beldi (藏红花)和薄荷。

The midday meal is the main meal, with the exception of the holy month of Ramadan.中午吃饭是主餐,除了斋月。 The typical formal meal begins with a series of hot and cold salads, followed by a tagine.典型的正式晚餐开始了一系列的热点和冷沙拉,接着是tagine 。 Bread is eaten with every meal.面包吃的每一顿。 Often a lamb or chicken dish is next, followed by couscous topped with meats and vegetables.往往是羊肉或鸡肉菜是明年,其次是库斯库斯搭配肉类和蔬菜。 A cup of sweet mint tea is commonly used to end the meal.一杯甜薄荷茶常用结束餐。 It is common for Moroccans to eat using the fingers of their hand, and use bread as a “utensil.”是很常见的摩洛哥人吃用手指的手,和使用面包作为一个“器具” 。

The main Moroccan dish most people are familiar with is couscous, an old delicacy probably of Berber origin.主要摩洛哥菜大多数人都熟悉的是库斯库斯的老美味可能的柏柏尔血统。

Beef is the most commonly eaten red meat in Morocco.牛肉是最常见的食用红肉在摩洛哥。 Lamb is preferred, but is not as common due to its higher cost.羔羊是首选,但并不常见,由于其成本较高。 Poultry was historically used and the importance of seafood is increasing in Moroccan food.家禽使用和历史的重要性,越来越多的海鲜在摩洛哥食物。 Thebreed of sheep in North Africa has much of its fat concentrated in itstail, which means that Moroccan lamb does not have the pungent flavorthat Western lamb and mutton can have.品种绵羊在北非有很多的脂肪集中在它的尾巴,这意味着摩洛哥羊肉没有刺鼻的味道,西方羊肉和羊肉可以。

Among the most famous Moroccan dishes are Couscous, Pastilla (also spelled Bsteeya or Bastilla), Tajine, Tanjia and Harira.其中最有名的摩洛哥菜库斯库斯, Pastilla (还阐述Bsteeya或Bastilla ) , Tajine , Tanjia和Harira 。 Althoughthe latter is a soup, it is considered as a dish in itself and isserved as such or with dates especially during the month of Ramadan.虽然后者是一个汤,它被认为是菜本身并担任这种或日期特别是在斋月期间。

Sweets are not usually served at the end of a Moroccan meal.糖果通常不送达在结束对摩洛哥餐。 Seasonal fruits are typically served at the end of meals.时令水果通常送达年底的饭菜。 A common dessert is kaab el ghzal (”gazelle’s horns”), which is a pastry stuffed with almond paste and topped with sugar.一个共同的甜品是kaab报ghzal ( “羚羊的角” ) ,这是一个装满杏仁饼贴和突破糖。 Anotherdessert is ” Halwa shebakia ” it is honey cake, which is essentiallypretzel-shaped pieces of dough deep-fried and dipped into a hot pot ofhoney and sprinkled with sesame seeds.另一个甜品是“ Halwa shebakia ”这是蜂蜜蛋糕,基本上是椒盐脆饼形件面团炸和下跌到火锅的蜂蜜,撒上芝麻。 Halwa Shebakia are cookies eaten during the month of Ramadan. Halwa Shebakia是cookies吃在斋月期间。 Zucre Coco are coconut fudge cakes. Zucre可可椰子蒙混蛋糕。

Woman pouring mint tea into tea glasses in a Moroccan village女子浇注薄荷茶到茶眼镜在摩洛哥村

The most popular drink is green tea with mint.最流行的饮料是绿茶薄荷。 Traditionally,making good mint tea in Morocco is considered an art form and thedrinking of it with friends and family members is one of the importantrituals of the day.传统上,取得良好的薄荷茶在摩洛哥被认为是一种艺术形式和饮用水的IT与朋友和家人是一个重要的仪式的一天。 The technique of pouring the tea is as crucial as the quality of the tea.浇注技术的茶是一样重要的质量茶。 The tea is accompanied with hard sugar cones or lumps.茶是伴随着辛勤糖锥或肿块。

Moroccan tea pots have long, curved pouring spouts and this allows the tea to be poured evenly into tiny glasses from a height.摩洛哥壶长期以来,弯曲浇注龙卷和这使得茶倒入均匀成细小的玻璃从高处。 To acquire the optimum taste, glasses are filled in two stages.获得最佳口味,眼镜填补分两个阶段进行。 The Moroccans traditionally like tea with bubbles, so while pouring they hold the teapot high above the glasses.摩洛哥人喜欢传统茶泡沫,因此,虽然他们持有的浇筑茶壶高空眼镜。

The tea is sold all around the country for 2-3 dh per cup although it is often served free when you are negotiating a purchase.茶叶销售全国各地的2-3鮬每杯虽然它常常是免费的服务时,正在谈判购买。 You can also buy it as loose tea from all kinds of markets around the country for various prices.您也可以购买它的松散的茶叶从各种市场在全国各地为不同的价格。

Selling fast food in the street has long been a tradition, and the best example is Djemaa el Fna square in Marrakech.卖快餐在街上一直是传统,最好的例子是Djemaa萨尔瓦多活检平方米在Marrakech 。 Startingin the 1980s, new snack restaurants started serving “Bocadillo” (whichis a Spanish word for a sandwich, widely used in Morocco).从1980年代开始,新的小吃餐馆开始服务“ Bocadillo ” (这是一个西班牙语单词的一个三明治,广泛应用在摩洛哥) 。 Thoughthe composition of a bocadillo varies by region, usually the bocadillois a baguette filled with salad and a choice of meats, fish (usuallytuna), or a dense egg omelette.虽然组成bocadillo因区域而异,通常bocadillo是一个充满了面包沙拉和选择的肉类,鱼类(通常金枪鱼) ,或密集的鸡蛋煎蛋。

Dairy product shops (Mahlaba in Moroccan Arabic) are open throughout cities in Morocco.乳品店(马赫拉巴在摩洛哥阿拉伯语)的开放城市在摩洛哥。 Thosemahlabas generally offer all types of dairy products, juices, andbreakfasts as well as bocadillos, competing with former establishedsnack restaurants.这些mahlabas普遍提供所有类型的乳制品,果汁,和早餐以及bocadillos ,竞争前设立小吃餐厅。

The late 1990s experienced the opening of franchises of multinational fast food chains, especially in major cities. 20世纪90年代后期经历了开幕式特许经营的快餐连锁店的跨国公司,特别是在主要城市。

The tea is sold all around the country usually around 2-3 dh a cup.茶叶销售全国各地的约2-3鮬通常一杯。 One could also purchase it from supermarkets around the country for different prices.人们还可以购买来自全国各地的超市不同的价格。

Couscous is one of the most popular North African dishes globally.库斯库斯是最受欢迎北非菜全球。 Markets,stores and restaurants in Europe, especially in France and lately theUK feature tajines, couscous, preserved lemons and Moroccan spices.市场,商店和餐馆在欧洲,尤其是在法国和英国最近功能tajines ,库斯库斯,保存柠檬和摩洛哥香料。

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