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所有关于诗歌三十八-现代派诗歌

(2009-03-30 16:51:00)
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所有关于诗歌三十八-现代派诗歌

Wednesday, December 3rd, 2008 星期三, 2008年12月3号

Modernistpoetry in English is generally considered to have emerged in the earlyyears of the 20th century with the appearance of the Imagists.现代派诗歌在英语被普遍认为已出现了早期的20世纪的外观意象。 Incommon with many other modernists, these poets wrote in reaction to theperceived excesses of Victorian poetry, with its emphasis ontraditional formalism and ornate diction.同许多其他现代主义,这些诗人中写道知觉反应过度的维多利亚诗歌,其重点是传统的形式主义和辞藻。 Inmany respects, their criticism echoes what William Wordsworth wrote inPreface to Lyrical Ballads to instigate the Romantic movement inBritish poetry over a century earlier, criticising the gauche andpompous school which then pervaded, and seeking to bring poetry to thelayman.在许多方面,他们的批评回声什么威廉华兹华斯序中写道抒情歌谣煽动浪漫主义诗歌运动在英国的一个多世纪前,批评左岸和浮夸的学校,然后弥漫,并力图使诗歌的门外汉。

In general, modernists saw themselves as looking back to the best practices of poets in earlier periods and other cultures.一般来说,现代看到自己回首的最佳做法在较早时期的诗人和其他的文化。 Theirmodels included ancient Greek literature, Chinese and Japanese poetry,the troubadours, Dante and the medieval Italian philosophical poets(such as Guido Cavalcanti), and the English Metaphysical poets.其模式包括古希腊文学,汉语和日语诗歌, troubadours ,但丁和中世纪的意大利哲学诗人(如吉卡瓦尔康蒂)和英国玄学诗人。

Much of early modernist poetry took the form of short, compact lyrics.许多早期现代主义诗歌的形式是短,结构紧凑的歌词。 As it developed, however, longer poems came to the fore.因为它的发展,但是,不再诗来前列。 These represent the main contribution of the modernist movement to the 20th-century English poetic canon.这些代表的主要贡献的现代主义运动, 20世纪英语诗歌佳能。
Modernistpoetry is a mode of writing characterised by two main features: thefirst is technical innovation through the extensive use of free verseand the second a move away from the Romantic idea of an unproblematicpoetic “self” directly addressing an equally unproblematic ideal readeror audience.现代诗是一个模式的写作特点是两个主要特点:一是技术创新,通过广泛使用的自由诗和第二脱离的浪漫想法不成诗“自我”直接处理同样不成理想读者或观众。

The questioning of the self and the exploration of technical innovations in modernist poetry are intimately interconnected.讯问的自我探索和技术创新中的现代诗是密切相互关联的。 Thedislocation of the authorial presence is achieved through theapplication of such techniques as collage, found poetry, visual poetry,the juxtaposition of apparently unconnected materials and combinationsof all of these.位错的作者的存在是实现这些技术的应用作为拼贴,发现诗歌,视觉诗歌,并列显然无关的材料和组合,所有这些。 Thesetechniques are used not for their own sake but to open up questions inthe mind of the reader regarding the nature of the poetic experience.这些技术的使用而不是为了自己,而是开放的问题,考虑到读者的性质诗意经验。 These developments parallel changes in the other arts, especially painting and music, which were taking place concurrently.这些发展变化,并行其他艺术,特别是绘画和音乐,这是同时进行。

Another important feature of much modernist poetry in English is a clear focus on the surface of the poem.另一个重要特征非常现代派诗歌的英语是一个明确的重点表面的诗。 Muchof this focuses on the literal meaning of the words on the page ratherthan any metaphorical or symbolic meanings that might be imputed tothem.这在很大程度上集中于字面意义的词语在网页上,而不是任何隐喻或象征意义,可能归咎于他们。 Thisapproach to writing is reflected in Ezra Pound’s advice to youngwriters (in his 1937 book The ABC of Reading) to “buy a dictionary andlearn the meanings of words” and TS Eliot’s response when asked themeaning of the line “Lady, three white leopards sat under a junipertree in the cool of the day” from Ash Wednesday (1927): “It means‘Lady, three white leopards sat under a juniper tree in the cool of theday’”, he replied.这种做法书面反映在庞德咨询青年作家(在其1937年的美国广播公司的图书阅读),将“购买字典和学习的意义”和艾略特的反应时问的含义线“夫人,三个白豹坐在了Juniper树在凉爽的一天”从圣灰星期三( 1927年) :“这意味着'夫人,三个白豹坐在了Juniper树在凉爽的一天” ,他回答。 Also pertinent is William Carlos Williams’s 1944 declaration: “A poem is a small (or large) machine made out of words”.还应当是威廉卡洛斯威廉斯的1944年宣言: “一首诗是一个小(或大)机的话” 。

Theroots of English-language poetic modernism can be traced back to theworks of a number of earlier writers, including Walt Whitman, whoselong lines approached a type of free verse, the prose poetry of OscarWilde, Robert Browning’s subversion of the poetic self, EmilyDickinson’s compression and the writings of the early EnglishSymbolists, especially Arthur Symons.的根源英语诗歌现代主义可以追溯到作品的一些较早的作家,其中包括沃尔特惠特曼,他的长期接触线的一种自由诗,散文诗歌的王尔德,罗伯特勃朗宁的颠覆诗意的自我,艾米莉狄金森的压缩和著作的早期英语Symbolists ,特别是阿瑟西蒙斯。 However,these poets essentially remained true to the basic tenets of theRomantic movement and the appearance of the Imagists marked the firstemergence of a distinctly modernist poetic in the language.然而,这些诗人基本上仍然是真正的基本原理和浪漫主义运动的外观意象的第一次出现了明显的现代主义诗歌的语言。 Oneanomalous figure of the early period of modernism also deservesmention: Gerard Manley Hopkins wrote in a radically experimentalprosody about radically conservative ideals (not unlike a later EzraPound), and he believed that sound could drive poetry.一个异常的数字初期现代还值得一提:杰拉德曼利霍普金斯在写给根本实验韵律大约根本保守理想(不同于稍后庞德) ,他认为,良好的可驱动诗歌。 Specifically,poetic sonic effects (selected for verbal and aural felicity, not justimages selected for their visual evocativeness) would also, therefore,become an influential poetic device of modernism.具体来说,诗音效果(选择语言和听觉幸福,而不仅仅是为他们选定的图像视觉evocativeness )也将因此成为一个有影响力的现代主义诗设备。

Theorigins of Imagism and cubism are to be found in two poems by TE Hulmethat were published in 1909 by the Poets’ Club in London.起源的意象和立体主义都在两首诗的特休姆说,被刊登在1909年的诗人俱乐部在伦敦举行。 Hulme was a student of mathematics and philosophy who had established the Poets’ Club to discuss his theories of poetry.休姆是一个学生的数学和哲学谁设立了诗人俱乐部讨论他的理论的诗歌。 Thepoet and critic FS Flint, who was a champion of free verse and modernFrench poetry, was highly critical of the club and its publications.诗人和评论家财政司司长弗林特,谁是冠军的自由诗和现代法国诗歌,是非常关键的俱乐部,其出版物。 From the ensuing debate, Hulme and Flint became close friends.从随后的辩论中,休姆和弗林特成为亲密的朋友。 Theystarted meeting with other poets at the Eiffel Tower restaurant in Sohoto discuss reform of contemporary poetry through free verse and thetanka and haiku and the removal of all unnecessary verbiage from poems.他们开始与其他诗人在埃菲尔铁塔餐厅在苏荷,讨论改革的当代诗歌通过自由诗和短歌和俳句,并拆除了所有不必要的措辞从诗歌。

The American poet Ezra Pound was introduced to this group and they found that their ideas resembled his.美国诗人庞德介绍了该组研究人员发现,他们的想法很像他。 In 1911, Pound introduced two other poets, HD and Richard Aldington, to the Eiffel Tower group.在1911年,庞德介绍了其他两个诗人, HD和理查德奥尔丁顿,以艾菲尔铁塔组。 Both of these poets were students of the early Greek lyric poetry, especially the works of Sappho.这两个诗人是学生的早期希腊抒情诗,特别是作品的萨福。 In October 1912, he submitted three poems each by HD and Aldington under the rubric Imagiste to Poetry magazine.在1912年10月,他提出了三个诗每个房屋署和奥尔丁顿的标题下Imagiste以诗歌杂志。 Thatmonth Pound’s book Ripostes was published with an appendix called TheComplete Poetical Works of TE Hulme, which carried a note that saw thefirst appearance of the word Imagiste in print.当月庞德的图书出版与Ripostes附录所谓完整的诗歌作品特休姆,进行了一份说明,第一次看到这个词的出现Imagiste印刷。 Aldington’s poems were in the November issue of Poetry and HD’s in January 1913 and Imagism as a movement was launched.奥尔丁顿诗歌是在11月的诗歌和HD的在1913年1月和意象作为运动已经展开。 The March issue contained Pound’s A Few Don’ts by an Imagiste and Flint’s Imagisme. 3月份载庞德的几点注意事项的Imagiste和弗林特的Imagisme 。 The latter contained this succinct statement of the group’s position:后者载有简洁的声明本集团的立场

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