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(2009-03-30 15:54:00)



Monday, November 17th, 2008 星期一, 2008年11月17号

Aserver is a computer dedicated to providing one or more services over acomputer network, typically through a request-response routine.服务器是一台计算机专门提供一个或多个服务的计算机网络,通常是通过请求响应例行公事。 Theseservices are furnished by specialized server applications, which arecomputer programs designed to handle multiple concurrentrequests.Examples of server applications include mail servers, fileservers, web servers, and proxy servers.这些服务是由专业的服务器应用程序,这是计算机程序设计的处理多个并行requests.Examples的服务器应用包括邮件服务器,文件服务器, Web服务器,以及代理服务器。

Serverused as an adjective, as in server operating system, refers to theproduct’s ability to handle multiple requests, and is said to be“server-grade”.服务器作为一个形容词,如在服务器操作系统,是指产品的能力,处理多个请求,并且被认为是“服务器级” 。 A server operating system is intended or better enabled to run server applications.服务器操作系统是有意或更好的功能来运行服务器应用程序。 Thedifferences between the server and workstation versions of a productcan vary from the removal of an arbitrary software limits due tolicensing, as in the case of Windows 2000, or the addition of bundledapplications as in Mac OS X Server.之间的区别服务器和工作站版本的产品可以去除不同的任意软件,由于许可证限制,如Windows 2000或增加捆绑应用在Mac OS X服务器。

A server can also refer to a computer that has been set aside to run a specific server application.一台服务器能同时参阅计算机已拨出运行特定的服务器应用程序。 Forexample, when the software Apache HTTP Server is used as the web serverfor a company’s website, the computer running Apache is also called theweb server.例如,当软件Apache HTTP服务器作为Web服务器的公司的网站,计算机运行的Apache也被称为Web服务器。 Server applications can be divided among server computers over an extreme range, depending upon the workload.服务器应用可分为Server计算机之间的一种极端的范围,这取决于工作量。

Serveris also used as a designation for computer models intended for use inrunning server applications under heavy workloads, also calledoperating units often unattended and for an extended period of time.服务器也被用作指定的计算机模型用于运行服务器应用程序根据工作量繁重,还要求经营单位常常无人看管,并在较长的时间。 Whileany workstation computer is capable of acting as a server, a servercomputer usually has special features intended to make it more suitable.虽然任何工作站计算机能够作为服务器,服务器计算机通常有特殊功能旨在使其更适合。 These features can include a faster CPU, faster and more plentiful RAM, and larger hard drives.这些功能可以包括一个更快的CPU ,更快和更丰富的内存和更大容量的硬盘。 Moreobvious distinctions include redundancy in power supplies, networkconnections, and storage devices as well as the modular design ofso-called Blade servers often used in server farms.更明显的区别包括冗余电源,网络连接,存储设备,以及模块化设计所谓的刀片服务器通常用于服务器农场。

Aserver appliance refers to network-connected computer appliances or“appliance hardware” that provide specific, dedicated applications to anetwork.服务器设备是指网络连接的计算机设备或“硬件设备” ,提供具体的,专门的应用软件到网络。 Useof the term appliance indicates the marriage of software and hardwarein a single system that is not heavily customizable such as GoogleSearch Appliance.使用这个词表明了婚姻设备的软件和硬件在一个单一的系统,不是重如谷歌定制的Search Appliance的。 Suchappliances are expected to work out-of-the-box with littlecustomization and sometimes remain the sole property of the companythat produced them.这种设备预计将制定出型的小方块,定制,有时仍然是唯一的财产,他们公司生产的。 The simplest appliances include switches, routers, gateways, and print servers.最简单的设备包括交换机,路由器,网关和打印服务器。

Hardware requirements for servers vary, depending on the server application.硬件要求服务器不同,这取决于服务器应用程序。 Absolute CPU speed is not as critical to a server as it is to a desktop. CPU速度是绝对没有的关键服务器,因为它是一个桌面。 Servers’duties to provide service to many users over a network lead todifferent requirements like fast network connections and high I/Othroughput.服务器的职责提供服务的许多网络用户的不同需求导致像快速网络连接和高I / O吞吐率。 Sinceservers are typically accessed over a network, servers emphasizefunction over form, without regard to aesthetics like appearance andnoise level, because users may never lay eyes on the machine itself.由于服务器通常使用的网络,服务器强调功能重于形式,没有考虑到美学一样的外观和噪音水平,因为用户可能永远奠定眼睛的机器上本身。 Servers may accordingly run in headless mode without a monitor in order to free up processing cycles for other tasks.服务器可能因此在头模式运行不带显示器,以便释放处理周期的其他任务。 In general, a server becomes more specialized and therefore more efficient as unnecessary and unused services are eliminated.一般来说,一台服务器变得更加专业,因此更有效地为不必要的和未使用的服务被取消。 Forthis reason, many servers lack a graphical user interface, or GUI,because it consumes resources that could be allocated elsewhere.出于这个原因,许多服务器缺乏一个图形用户界面,或图形用户界面,因为它消耗的资源,可用于其他地方。 Similarly, servers often lack audio and USB interfaces.同样,服务器往往缺乏音频和USB接口。

By definition, servers provide services, but it is not always possible to predict when users will need those services.根据定义,服务器提供服务,但它并非总是能够预测何时用户需要这些服务。 Forthis reason, servers are often online for weeks or months withoutinterruption, making hardware durability extremely important.为此,服务器通常在线的数周或数月而不中断,使硬件的耐用性非常重要。 Althoughservers can be built from commodity computer parts, mission-criticalservers use specialized hardware with low failure rates in order tomaximize uptime.虽然服务器可以建立商品电脑零件,关键任务的服务器使用专门的硬件故障率低,以便最大限度地利用时间。 Forexample, servers may incorporate faster, higher-capacity hard drives,larger computer fans or water cooling to help remove heat, anduninterruptible power supplies that ensure the servers continue tofunction in the event of a power failure.例如,服务器可能将更快,更高容量的硬盘,更大的电脑风扇或冷却水,以帮助消除热量,和不间断电源,确保服务器继续运转,在发生电力故障。 These components offer higher performance and reliability at a correspondingly higher price.这些组件提供更高的性能和可靠性在一个相对较高的价格。 Thedominant paradigm in servers is parallel computing, and thushigh-performance servers are often placed in rack-mountedconfigurations to save space inside server rooms or “closets.” Thesespecial rooms help mute the large amount of noise produced and alsorestrict physical access to the system administrators for securitypurposes.占主导地位的范式服务器是并行计算,因此,高性能的服务器往往放在机架安装配置,以节省空间内服务器机房或“厕所。 ”这些特殊的房间帮助静音大量的噪音,也限制物理访问对系统管理员的安全目的。

Servershave a unique property in that, the more powerful and complex thesystem, the longer it takes for the hardware to turn on and beginloading the operating system.服务器有一个独特的财产中,更强大的和复杂的系统,不再需要硬件来打开并开始加载操作系统。 Servers often do extensive preboot memory testing and verification and start up of remote management services.服务器通常广泛先启动内存测试和验证,并启动远程管理服务。 Thehard drive controllers then start up banks of drives sequentially,rather than all at once, so as not to overload the power supply, andafterwards they initiate RAID system prechecks for correct operation ofredundancy.硬盘控制器然后开办银行的硬盘顺序,而不是一次,以免超负荷的电源,然后,他们开始RAID系统的正确运行prechecks的冗余。 It is not uncommon for a machine to take several minutes to turn on and yet not require a restart for the next calendar year.这并非罕见的机器需要几分钟时间来打开,但不要求重新启动的下一个日历年。

Some popular operating systems for servers — such as FreeBSD, Solaris, and Linux — are derived from or are similar to UNIX.一些流行的操作系统的服务器-如FreeBSD , Solaris和Linux操作系统-来自或类似Unix 。 UNIXwas originally a minicomputer operating system, and as serversgradually replaced traditional minicomputers, UNIX was a logical andefficient choice of operating system for the servers. UNIX的本来是小型机操作系统,服务器逐渐取代了传统的小型机, UNIX的是一个合乎逻辑的和有效的选择操作系统的服务器。 UNIX-based systems, many of which are free in both senses, are the most popular.基于UNIX的系统,其中许多是免费的在感官,是最受欢迎的。

Server-orientedoperating systems tend to have certain features in common that makethem more suitable for the server environment, such as服务器为导向的操作系统往往有某些共同的特点,使它们更适合的服务器环境,如

* an optional or absent GUI, *可选的或没有图形用户界面,
* ability to reconfigure both hardware and software to some extent without restart, *能够重新硬件和软件都在一定程度上没有重新启动,
* advanced backup facilities to permit online backups of critical data at regular and frequent intervals, *先进的后勤设施,以允许联机备份关键数据,定期和频繁的间隔,
* transparent data transfer between different volumes or devices, *透明的数据传输不同的卷或设备,
* flexible and advanced networking capabilities, *灵活的和先进的网络功能,
* automation capabilities like daemons in UNIX and services in Windows, and *自动化能力像守护进程在UNIX和Windows中的服务,并
* tight system security, with advanced user, resource, data, and memory protection. *严格的系统安全,并通过先进的用户,资源,数据和内存保护。

Server-orientedoperating systems can in many cases interact with hardware sensors todetect conditions such as overheating, processor and disk failure, andconsequently alert an operator and/or take remedial measures itself.服务器为导向的操作系统也可以在许多情况下,与硬件的接口传感器检测条件,如过热,处理器和磁盘故障,因此,提醒经营者和/或采取补救措施本身。

Becausethe requirements of servers are, in some cases, almost diametricallyopposed to those of desktop computers, it is extremely difficult todesign an operating system that handles both environments well; thus,operating systems that are well suited to the desktop may not be idealfor servers and vice versa.由于服务器的要求是,在某些情况下,几乎截然相反的是台式电脑,是非常困难的设计的操作系统,处理两种环境良好,因此,作业系统,很适合于桌面上可能不理想用于服务器,反之亦然。 Regardlessof OS vendor, system configurations that are ideal for servers may beunsatisfactory for desktop use, and configurations that perform well onthe desktop may leave much to be desired on servers.不管操作系统厂商,系统配置,适用于服务器可能是不令人满意的台式机使用,配置,执行以及在桌面上可能会留下许多有待改进的服务器上。 This results in many operating systems’ release in both server and desktop versions.这一结果在许多操作系统释放在服务器和台式机版本。 Nevertheless,the desktop versions of the Windows and Mac OS X operating systems aredeployed on a minority of servers, as are some proprietary mainframeoperating systems, such as z/OS.然而,桌面版本的Windows和Mac OS X作业系统部署在少数的服务器,因为有一些专有的主机操作系统,如z / OS的。 The dominant operating systems among servers are UNIX-based and open source kernel distributions.占主导地位的操作系统在服务器之间是基于UNIX的开源内核和分布。
Therise of the microprocessor-based server was facilitated by thedevelopment of Unix to run on the x86 microprocessor architecture.兴起的基于微处理器的服务器提供了便利的发展的Unix上运行x86微处理器架构。 TheMicrosoft Windows family of operating systems also runs on x86hardware, and versions beginning with Windows NT have incorporatedfeatures that making them suitable for use as server operating systems.微软Windows系列操作系统也x86硬件上运行,并开始与版本的Windows NT已将功能,使它们适合用作服务器操作系统。

Whilethe role of server and desktop operating systems remains distinct,improvements in the reliability of both hardware and operating systemshave blurred the distinction between the two classes.虽然作用服务器和桌面操作系统仍然是不同的,改进的可靠性,硬件和操作系统之间的区别模糊的两班。 Today, many desktop and server operating systems share similar code bases, differing mostly in configuration.今天,许多台式机和服务器操作系统有着相同的代码库,主要是在不同的配置。 The shift towards web applications and middleware platforms has also lessened the demand for specialist application servers.转向web应用程序和中间件平台也减少了需求的专业应用服务器。

Almost the entire structure of the Internet is based upon a client-server model.几乎整个结构的互联网是基于客户服务器模式。 High-level root nameservers, DNS servers, and routers direct the traffic on the internet.高级别根域名服务器, DNS服务器,以及路由器的交通直接在互联网上。 There are millions of servers connected to the Internet, running continuously throughout the world.还有数以百万计的服务器连接到互联网,运行不断在世界各地。


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