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所有有关硬件的四-电脑冷却

(2009-03-30 15:52:00)
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杂谈

所有有关硬件的四-电脑冷却

Sunday, November 16th, 2008 星期日, 2008年11月16号

Computer cooling is the process of removing heat from computer components. 计算机冷却的过程中清热从计算机部件。

Acomputer system’s components produce large amounts of heat duringoperation, including integrated circuits such as CPUs, chipset andgraphics cards, along with hard drives.计算机系统的组成部分产生大量的热量在操作过程中,包括集成电路如CPU ,芯片组和显卡,以及硬盘驱动器。 Thisheat must be dissipated in order to keep these components within theirsafe operating temperatures, and both manufacturing methods andadditional parts are used to keep the heat at a safe level.这必须是热散失,以便使这些元件在其安全运行温度,而且生产方法和额外的部分是用来保持热量在安全水平。 Thisis done mainly using heat sinks to increase the surface area whichdissipates heat, fans to speed up the exchange of air heated by thecomputer parts for cooler ambient air, and in some cases softcooling,the throttling of computer parts in order to decrease heat generation.这样做主要是使用散热片,以增加表面积的散热,风扇,加快空气的交换加热的电脑零件冷却空气,在某些情况下softcooling ,在节流的电脑零件,以减少热代。

Overheatedparts generally exhibit a shorter maximum life-span and may givesporadic problems resulting in system freezes or crashes.过热的部分展品一般较短最高寿命和零星的问题可能会导致系统死机或崩溃。
Causes of heat build up热成因建立
Theamount of heat generated by an integrated circuit (eg, a CPU or GPU),the prime cause of heat build up in modern computers, is a function ofthe efficiency of its design, the technology used in its constructionand the frequency and voltage at which it operates.金额所产生的热量积体电路(如CPU或GPU ) ,即热的主要原因建立在现代计算机,是一个功能的效率,其设计,所使用的技术在其建设和频率和电压在其运作。
The dust on the laptop CPU heat sink after three years of use has made the laptop unusable due to frequent thermal shutdowns.上有灰尘的笔记本电脑CPU的散热器经过三年的使用,使笔记本电脑由于经常使用的热停机。

Inoperation, the temperature levels of a computer’s components will riseuntil the temperature gradient between the computer parts and theirsurroundings is such that the rate at which heat is lost to thesurroundings is equal to the rate at which heat is being produced bythe electronic component, and thus the temperature of the componentreaches equilibrium.在运作中,温度水平的计算机的组件将上升,直至温度梯度之间的电脑零件及其周围地区是这样的速度热量丢失的环境等于速率热正在生产的电子元件,因此,温度达到平衡的组成部分。

Forreliable operation, the equilibrium temperature must be sufficientlylow for the structure of the computer’s circuits to survive.可靠的操作,平衡温度必须足够低的结构计算机的电路才能生存。

Additionally, the normal operation of cooling methods can be hindered by other causes, such as:此外,正常运行的冷却方法可阻碍其他原因,如:

* Dust acting as a thermal insulator and impeding airflow, thereby reducing heat sink and fan performance. *除尘作为热绝缘层,阻碍气流,从而减少了散热片和风扇的性能。
*Poor airflow including turbulence due to friction against impedingcomponents, or improper orientation of fans, can reduce the amount ofair flowing through a case and even create localised whirlpools of hotair in the case. *可怜的气流湍流包括因摩擦对阻碍组成部分,或不当的方向球迷,可以减少空气流动的情况下,甚至造成局部地区的热空气漩涡的情况。
* Poor heat transfer due to a lack or poor application of thermal compounds. *可怜的传热由于缺乏或穷人热化合物。

Damage prevention损失预防
Itis common practice to include thermal sensors in the design of certaincomputer parts, eg CPUs and GPUs, along with internal logic that shutsdown the computer if reasonable bounds are exceeded.这是常见的做法,包括温度传感器的设计中某些计算机部件,如CPU和图形芯片,以及内部的逻辑电路,在电脑关机的,如果超过合理限度。 Itis, however, unwise to rely on such preventative measures, as it is notuniversally implemented, and may not prevent repeated incidents frompermanently damaging the integrated circuit.然而,不明智的,依赖于这种预防性措施,因为这是没有得到普遍实施,并不得防止重复事件的永久损坏集成电路。

Thedesign of an integrated circuit may also incorporate features to shutdown parts of the circuit when it is idling, or to scale back the clockspeed under low workloads or high temperatures, with the goal ofreducing both power use and heat generation.设计一个综合的电路也可纳入功能关闭部分电路时,空转,或缩减的时钟速度在低负载或高温下,其目标是减少电力的使用和产生的热量。
System cooling冷却系统
Fan from Papst for racks.范从Papst的机架。

Air cooling空气冷却
Whileany method used to move air around or to computer enclosures wouldcount as air cooling, fans are by far the most commonly used implementfor accomplishing that task.虽然以任何手段将周围空气或电脑机箱将算作空气冷却,球迷是目前最常用的执行为实现这一任务。 Theterm computer fan usually refers to fans attached to computerenclosures, but may also be intended to signify any other computer fan,such as a CPU fan, GPU fan, a chipset fan, PSU fan, HDD fan, or PCIslot fans.电脑风扇的任期通常是指附加到计算机球迷外壳,但也可能是为了表明任何其他电脑风扇,如CPU风扇, GPU的风扇,芯片组风扇,电源风扇,硬盘风扇,或PCI插槽的球迷。 Common fan sizes include 40, 60, 80, 90, 120, and 140 mm.常见的风扇尺寸包括40 , 60 , 80 , 90 , 120 ,和140毫米。
In desktops在台式机
Airflow through a desktop ATX case.气流通过桌面的ATX案件。
Desktop computers typically use one or more fans for heat management.台式电脑通常使用一个或更多的球迷热管理。 Almost all desktop power supplies have at least one fan to exhaust air from the case.几乎所有台式机的电源至少有一个风扇排风的案例。 Mostmanufacturers recommend bringing cool, fresh air in at the bottom frontof the case, and exhausting warm air from the top rear.大多数制造商建议带来凉爽,空气清新的底部前面的情况下,暖空气和排气从顶部后方。

Ifthere is more air being forced into the system than being pumped out(due to an imbalance in the number of fans), this is referred to as a“positive” airflow, as the pressure inside the unit would be higherthan outside.如果有更多的空气被强迫进入系统不是被抽出(因人数不足的问题的球迷) ,这是被称为“积极”的气流,因为在单位内的压力将高于外面。 Abalanced or neutral airflow is the most efficien], although a slightlypositive airflow results in less dust build up if dust filters are used.一种平衡的或中性的气流是最效率] ,虽然略有积极气流减少了灰尘建立灰尘过滤器,如果使用。

With recent researches and studies, some companies are making noiseless computers.最近的研究和研究报告,一些公司正在无声电脑。

In high density computing在高密度的计算
Data centers typically contain many racks of flat 1U servers.数据中心通常包含许多架平板1U服务器。 Air is drawn in at the front of the rack and exhausted at the rear.空气中吸取的前端机架和用尽在后方。 Becausedata centers typically contain such large numbers of computers andother power-consuming devices, they risk overheating of the variouscomponents if no additional measures are taken.因为数据中心通常都载有如此众多的电脑和其他用电设备,他们可能过热的各个组成部分,如果没有其他措施。 Thus, extensive HVAC systems are used.因此,广泛用于暖通空调系统。 Often a raised floor is used so the area under the floor may be used as a large plenum for cooled air and power cabling.往往是一个活动地板是用来做下的面积地板可作为一个大型的冷却空气中全会和电力电缆。
In laptop computing在笔记型电脑
Laptops are typically made to rest on a solid surface.笔记本电脑通常是休息了一个坚实的表面。 Unfortunately,a flat surface is the least desirable angle to dissipate heat, andlower temperatures are achieved by a chimney effect when a laptop isset at an angle from horizontal.不幸的是,一个平面上是最不理想的角度散热,降低温度,实现了烟囱效应的笔记本电脑时设定的角度从横向。 Itis important to note that laptops are neither designed for nor shouldthey be used on surfaces or in spaces which impede the free flow of air(such as carpet or bed linens), as heat damage and/or thermalshutdown/slow-down may occur.重要的是要注意,既不是笔记本电脑设计的也不应使用表面或空格阻碍自由流动的空气(如地毯或床上用品) ,热损失和/或热关断/放缓可能发生。

Laptopstands are accessories which, besides raising the laptops screen toanother height, are also meant to reduce airflow restrictions.笔记本电脑配件的立场是,除了提高笔记本电脑屏幕上的另一个高度,也意味着减少气流限制。

Liquid submersion cooling浸没冷却液
An uncommon practice is to submerse the computer’s components in a thermally conductive liquid.一种少见的做法是淹没计算机的组件的导热液体。 Personalcomputers, such as the Apple PowerMac G5, that are cooled in thismanner do not generally require any fans or pumps, and may be cooledexclusively by passive heat exchange between the computer’s parts, thecooling fluid and the ambient air.个人电脑,如苹果PowerMac G5的,这是冷却以这种方式一般不要求任何风扇或泵,并可以完全由被动冷却热交换电脑的零部件,冷却液和空气。 Extreme density computers such as the Cray-2 may use additional radiators in order to facilitate heat exchange.极端密度计算机等的Cray - 2可以使用额外的散热器,以促进热交换。

Theliquid used must have sufficiently low electrical conductivity in orderfor it not to interfere with the normal operation of the computer’scomponents.所采用的液体必须具有足够低的导电性,以便它不干扰正常运行的计算机的组成部分。 Ifthe liquid is somewhat electrically conductive, it may be necessary toinsulate certain parts of components susceptible to electromagneticinterference, such as the CPU.[1] For these reasons, it is preferredthat the liquid be dielectric.如果液体有点导电,它可能需要隔离的某些部分部件容易受到电磁干扰,如CPU的。 [ 1 ]由于这些原因,是希望得到的液体介质。

Liquidscommonly used in this manner include various liquids invented andmanufactured for this purpose by 3M, such as Fluorinert.

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