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语言本地化

(2009-03-30 14:21:00)
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语言本地化

Sunday, October 19th, 2008 星期天, 08年10月19号

Languagelocalisation is the process of translating a product into differentlanguages (see language translation) or adapting a language for aspecific country or region.语言本地化是翻译过程中的产品为不同的语言(见语言翻译)或适应的语言为特定的国家或地区。 This article focuses on the latter.本文侧重于后者。 Manylanguages, especially world languages with a large number of nativespeakers, have spread geographically and are nowadays used in manycountries and regions.许多语言,特别是世界语言,大量的母语,有地理上和传播中使用的是当今许多国家和地区。 Thus, different national varieties of these languages have evolved.因此,不同国家的品种这些语言演变。 Linguistic differences include pronunciation, spelling conventions and grammatical patterns.语言上的差异包括读音,拼写和语法公约模式。 Itis important for companies to take such differences into account, forexample, when creating websites for specific regional markets.重要的是,公司采取这种差异考虑,例如,在创建网站的特定区域市场。
English language localisation英语本地化
The two largest countries (in population) where English is spoken natively are the United States and the United Kingdom.两个最大的国家(人口)凡英语口语本身是美国和英国。 Thereare numerous differences between American English and BritishEnglish—spelling conventions (color, center, program, localization vscolour, centre, programme, localisation), pronunciation, words withdifferent meanings, vocabulary and slightly different grammar patternsparticularly in the use of tenses.有许多差异美国英语和英国英语拼写公约(颜色,中心,计划,定位与肤色,中心,方案,本地化) ,发音,字与不同的含义,词汇和语法略有不同模式特别是在使用的时态。 Localisation in this context usually refers to creating country-specific websites or publishing different editions of a book.本地化在这方面通常是指建立针对特定国家的网站或出版不同版本的书籍。 For example, it is very common for books by British authors to be edited for the US market.举例来说,这是非常常见的书籍由英国作家编辑为美国市场。 US editions are often co-published in Canada, while UK editions are often co-published in Australia.美国版往往共同发表在加拿大,而英国版往往是联合出版的澳大利亚。 English language localisation has become very common for open source software, where users can choose between different locales.英语本地化已成为非常普遍的开放源码软件,用户可以在不同地点之间进行选择。

Spanish language localisation西班牙语本地化
There are significant differences between the varieties of Spanish spoken in Spain and Latin America.有显着差异的品种西班牙语口语在西班牙和拉丁美洲。 In general, different varieties are mutually intelligible, and the spelling has been standardised by the Real Academia Española.一般来说,不同品种是相互理解,并已标准化拼写的西班牙皇家学院。 However, there are variations in pronunciation and word usage.然而,也有不同的语音和文字的使用。 ArgentinianSpanish (es-AR) and Mexican Spanish (es-MX) are typical representativesof Latin American varieties of Spanish among neighbor countries.阿根廷西班牙语( es - AR )的和墨西哥西班牙语( es -的MX )是典型的代表品种的拉丁美洲西班牙语国家之间的邻居。

Portuguese language localisation葡萄牙语本地化
Thedifferences between Portuguese from Portugal (called EuropeanPortuguese) and Brazilian Portuguese include pronunciation, spellingconventions, grammar and usage.葡萄牙之间的分歧由葡萄牙(称为欧洲葡萄牙语)和巴西葡萄牙语包括读音,拼写公约,语法和用法。 Compared with Spanish and English varieties, the differences are much larger.与西班牙语和英语品种,差异较大。 Books from Brazilian authors like Paulo Coelho are heavily edited for the Portuguese market.图书巴西作家保罗科埃略的重编辑葡萄牙市场。

Chinese language localisation中文本地化
Chinese encompasses a large number of dialects.中包含了大量的方言。 Thestandard dialect (Mandarin), which is promoted by the Chinesegovernment and the government of Taiwan, is now universally used inpublications and on websites.标准方言(普通话) ,这是促进我国政府和该国政府在台湾,现在普遍使用的出版物和网站上。 However, there are two different character systems: simplified and traditional Chinese.然而,有两种不同性质的系统:简体中文,繁体中文。 Simplified characters are primarily used in Mainland China, traditional characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau.简体字主要用于在内地,繁体字用于台湾,香港和澳门。

Language tags and codes语言标签和守则
Language tags can be used to indicate different national varieties of a language.语言标签可以用来说明不同国家不同的语言。 Thereis one primary subtag that identifies the language (eg “en”) and anoptional subtag in capital letters that specifies the national variety(eg “GB”).有一所小学的副标识语言(例如, “恩” )和一个可选的子用大写字母,指定国家品种(如“绿化地带” ) 。 The subtags are linked with a hyphen (although in some contexts it’s necessary to substitute this with an underscore ).的子标记都与一个连字符(尽管在某些情况下有必要取代本以下划线) 。

Language Tag and Code Examples语言标记和代码示例

* English: en-GB (British English), en-US (American English), en-CA (Canadian English) *英文:恩国标(英国英语) ,李恩美(美国英语) ,恩CA公司(加拿大英语)
*Spanish: es-ES (Castilian Spanish, Spanish as written and spoken inSpain), es-MX (Mexican Spanish), es-AR (Argentine Spanish), es-CO(Colombian Spanish) *西班牙文:第ES -胚胎(卡斯蒂利亚西班牙语,西班牙语作为书面和口语在西班牙) ,第ES -的MX (墨西哥西班牙语) ,第ES -受体(阿根廷西班牙) ,第ES -钴(哥伦比亚西班牙文)
* Portuguese: pt-PT (European Portuguese, Portuguese as written and spoken in Portugal), pt-BR (Brazilian Portuguese) *葡萄牙文:铂铂(欧洲葡萄牙语,葡萄牙语作为书面和口语在葡萄牙) ,角橡胶(巴西,葡萄牙)
*Chinese: zh-CN (Mainland China, simplified characters), zh-TW (Taiwan,traditional characters), zh-HK (Hong Kong, traditional characters) *中国:简体中文(内地简体字) ,简体荃湾(台湾,繁体字) , zh - hk (中文香港,繁体字)

Languagecodes specified in ISO 639-2 use a three-letter nomenclature toidentify each language, such as eng for English, or tvl for Tuvalu.语言代码中指定的ISO 639-2使用三个字母命名,以确定每种语言,如英文的英文,或tvl图瓦卢。 However, these are not valid as language tags if the language also has two-letter code in ISO 639-1.然而,这些都不能作为有效的语言标记,如果语言也有两个字母的代码在ISO 639-1 。

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