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网络1.0取自二- web浏览器

(2009-03-27 15:48:00)
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杂谈

网络1.0取自二- Web浏览器

Thursday, September 4th, 2008 星期四, 2008年9月4日

Aweb browser is a software application which enables a user to displayand interact with text, images, videos, music and other informationtypically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or alocal area network.网页浏览器是一个应用软件,使用户以显示和互动文本,图像,视频,音乐和其他信息通常位于Web页上的一个网站在万维网上或局域网。 Text and images on a Web page can contain hyperlinks to other Web pages at the same or different website.文本和图像网页上可以包含超连结至其他网页上相同或不同的网站。 Webbrowsers allow a user to quickly and easily access information providedon many Web pages at many websites by traversing these links. Web浏览器允许用户快速,方便地获取信息提供了许多网页上的许多网站穿越这些链接。 Web browsers format HTML information for display, so the appearance of a Web page may differ between browsers. Web浏览器的HTML格式的信息显示,因此出现了一个网页浏览器之间可能有所不同。

Some of the Web browsers currently available for personal computers include Mozilla Firefox, Avant Browser, Safari, Google Chrome , Konqueror, Opera, Flock, Internet Explorer, Epiphany, K-Meleon and AOL Explorer.有些Web浏览器目前可用于个人电脑包括Mozilla Firefox中,前卫浏览器Safari , 谷歌铬 , Konqueror ,歌剧院,羊群, Internet Explorer中,主,的K - Meleon和AOL的浏览器。 Web browsers are the most commonly used type of HTTP user agent. Web浏览器是最常用类型的HTTP用户代理。 Althoughbrowsers are typically used to access the World Wide Web, they can alsobe used to access information provided by Web servers in privatenetworks or content in file systems.虽然浏览器通常用于访问万维网,他们也可以被用来获取信息的Web服务器所提供的私人网络或内容的文件系统。

Thehistory of the web browser dates back to late 1980s when a varietytechnologies laid the foundation for the first web browser, theWorldWideWeb, by Tim Berners-Lee in 1991, which brought together avariety of existing and new software and hardware technologies.历史上的网页浏览器,可以追溯到20世纪80年代末时,各种技术奠定了基础第一浏览器, WorldWideWeb ,由Tim Berners - Lee的于1991年,它汇集了各种现有的和新的软件和硬件技术。

Web browsers communicate with Web servers primarily using HTTP (hypertext transfer protocol) to fetch webpages. Web浏览器与Web服务器主要是使用HTTP (超文本传输协议)撷取网页。 HTTP allows Web browsers to submit information to Web servers as well as fetch Web pages from them.允许Web浏览器的HTTP提交的信息的Web服务器以及撷取网页他们。 The most commonly used HTTP is HTTP/1.1, which is fully defined in RFC 2616.最常用的HTTP是HTTP/1.1 ,这是完全限定在2616 。 HTTP/1.1has its own required standards that Internet Explorer does not fullysupport, but most other current-generation Web browsers do. HTTP/1.1有自己的要求标准, Internet Explorer不能完全支持,但其他大多数目前这一代的网络浏览器。

Pagesare located by means of a URL (uniform resource locator, RFC 1738 ),which is treated as an address, beginning with http: for HTTP access.网页位于通过网址(统一资源定位,符合RFC 1738 ) ,这被视为一个地址,从http:for HTTP访问。 Manybrowsers also support a variety of other URL types and theircorresponding protocols, such as gopher: for Gopher (a hierarchicalhyperlinking protocol), ftp: for FTP (file transfer protocol), rtsp:for RTSP (real-time streaming protocol), and https: for HTTPS (an SSLencrypted version of HTTP).许多浏览器还支持各种其它的URL类型及其相应的协议,如Gopher网络:为的Gopher (层次连结议定书) , ftp:for FTP (文件传输协议) , RTSP协议:为的RTSP (实时流协议) ,和https:用于HTTPS ( SSL加密的版本的HTTP ) 。

Thefile format for a Web page is usually HTML (hyper-text markup language)and is identified in the HTTP protocol using a MIME content type.该文件格式的网页通常的HTML (超文本标记语言)和中所指明的HTTP协议使用的MIME内容类型。 Mostbrowsers natively support a variety of formats in addition to HTML,such as the JPEG, PNG and GIF image formats, and can be extended tosupport more through the use of plugins.大多数浏览器本身支持多种格式,除了为HTML ,如使用jpeg , png和GIF图像格式,可扩展,以支持更多的通过使用插件。 Thecombination of HTTP content type and URL protocol specification allowsWeb page designers to embed images, animations, video, sound, andstreaming media into a Web page, or to make them accessible through theWeb page.相结合的HTTP内容类型和URL协议规范允许网页设计中嵌入图像,动画,视频,声音和流媒体到一个网页,或者使它们可以通过网页。

Early Web browsers supported only a very simple version of HTML.早期的Web浏览器只支持一个非常简单的版本的HTML 。 Therapid development of proprietary Web browsers led to the development ofnon-standard dialects of HTML, leading to problems with Webinteroperability.快速发展的专有的Web浏览器,进而开发出非标准方言的HTML ,导致问题的网络互操作性。 ModernWeb browsers support a combination of standards- and defacto-based HTMLand XHTML, which should display in the same way across all browsers.现代的Web浏览器的支持相结合的标准和事实为基础的HTML和XHTML ,应该显示相同的方式在所有的浏览器。 No browser fully supports HTML 4.01, XHTML 1.x or CSS 2.1 yet.没有浏览器完全支持HTML 4.01 ,符合XHTML 1.x的或CSS 2.1尚未。 Currently many sites are designed using WYSIWYG HTML generation programs such as Adobe Dreamweaver or Microsoft FrontPage.目前许多网站的设计采用了所见即所得的HTML生成程序,如Adobe的Dreamweaver或Microsoft FrontPage 。 MicrosoftFrontPage often generates non-standard HTML by default, hindering thework of the W3C in developing standards, specifically with XHTML andCSS (cascading style sheets, used for page layout). Microsoft FrontPage中往往产生非标准HTML默认情况下,阻碍了工作的W3C在制定标准,特别是与XHTML和CSS (层叠样式表,用于页面布局) 。 Dreamweaverand other more modern Microsoft HTML development tools such asMicrosoft Expression Web and Microsoft Visual Studio conform to the W3Cstandards. Dreamweaver和其他更多的现代微软的HTML开发工具,如Microsoft Expression Web设计和Microsoft Visual Studio符合W3C标准。

Some of the more popular browsers include additional components to support Usenet news, IRC (Internet relay chat), and e-mail.一些比较流行的浏览器包括额外的组件,以支持的Usenet新闻, IRC (互联网中继聊天) ,和电子邮件。 Protocolssupported may include NNTP (network news transfer protocol), SMTP(simple mail transfer protocol), IMAP (Internet message accessprotocol), and POP (post office protocol).支持协议可能包括的NNTP (网络新闻传输协议)的SMTP (简单邮件传输协议)的IMAP ( Internet邮件访问协议)和POP (邮局协议) 。 These browsers are often referred to as Internet suites or application suites rather than merely Web browsers.这些浏览器通常被称为互联网套房或适用套房,而不仅仅是网络浏览器。

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