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真正启动故事二十-营商环境

(2009-03-27 14:31:00)
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杂谈

真正启动故事二十-营商环境

Tuesday, August 5th, 2008 星期二, 2008年8月5日

Why Alibaba.com chose Hangzhou as its headquarter and sticks with it?为什么Alibaba.com选择杭州作为其总部和棍子吗? Whatabout Baidu.com chose Shanghai instead of Beijing as its headquarter,or Shanda Entertainment (Shanda.com) chose Beijing instead of Shanghaias its headquarter?怎样Baidu.com选择上海而不是北京为总部,或盛大娱乐( Shanda.com )选择北京而不是上海为总部? Things might be radically different, different companies need different business environment, especially for those startups.事情可能是完全不同的,不同的公司需要不同的商业环境,特别是对那些初创公司。 We are lucky so far we have not made any mistakes in choosing where we conduct our business.我们很幸运,我们迄今还没有做出任何错误的选择,我们开展业务。 Be wise and have a test drive first as always.是明智和有试驾第一一如既往。

An environment can be defined as anything, which surrounds a system.环境可以被定义为任何东西,这周围的制度。 Therefore, the business environment is anything, which surrounds the business organization.因此,商业环境是什么,这周围的商业组织。 It affects the decisions, strategies, processes and performance of the business.它影响到决策,战略,流程和执行情况的业务。 Themicroenvironment consists of different types of stakeholders -customers, employees, suppliers, board of directors and creditors.微包括不同类型的利益相关者-客户,员工,供应商,董事会和债权人。 Themacro environment consists of factors, which are beyond the control ofthe business (STEP) - Social, Technological, Economical and Political.宏观环境的组成因素,这是无法控制的企业(步骤) -社会,技术,经济和政治。

Changes in the microenvironment will directly affect and impinge on the firm’s activities.微变化将直接影响和损害该公司的活动。 Changes in the macro environment will indirectly affect the business but will nonetheless affect it.变化的宏观环境将间接影响业务,但它仍将影响。 For example, a change in legislation such as the smoking ban indirectly affects pubs and restaurants.例如,在立法中的变化,如禁烟间接影响酒吧和餐馆。

Social environment社会环境
Such as labor market, its cost and performance.如劳动力市场,其成本和性能。

Cultural Environment文化环境
Thecultural environment, or even cross-cultural environment, may place newor certain demands on a multinational enterprise in countries withseveral cultures.文化环境,甚至跨文化环境中,可能会发生新的或一定的要求,多国企业在与一些国家的文化。

Technological environment技术环境
Technologicalenvironment hold new technological innovation, new products, the stateof technology, the utilization of technology for maximum inputs andoutputs, the obsolescence of technology and the dynamic changes thatfrequently occur in technologies which enable firms to get acompetitive advantage.技术环境下举行新的技术创新,新产品,国家的技术,利用技术的投入和产出最高,已经过时的技术和动态变化,经常出现在技术,使企业获得竞争优势。

Availabilityof electric power, natural gas, drinking water, sewage collection,telecommunications, roads and highways, postal service, garbagecollection, and public transport.提供电力,天然气,饮用水,污水收集,电信,公路,邮政服务,垃圾收集和公共交通。

Economic environment经济环境
Theeconomic environment consists of the demand dynamics, supply situation,pricing factors, degree of competitiveness, and impact of profitability.经济环境包括动态的需求,供应情况,价格因素,一定程度的竞争力,并影响盈利能力。 Itincludes the fiscal policy, monetary policy and the taxation policy,the FDI norms, the investment criterion and financing decisions.它包括财政政策,货币政策和税收政策,外国直接投资的规范,标准的投资和融资的决定。

* Global economy (Macroeconomics) *全球经济(宏观经济)
* Local economy (Microeconomics) *本地经济(微观)
* Monetary policy *货币政策

Political environment政治环境
Thepolitical environment includes regulatory burden and red tape, taxes,levels of political corruption, public works services, labor marketregulation, policy predictability, property rights, contractenforcement, regulations controlling startup and bankruptcy,competition law, and entry to finance and infrastructure markets.政治环境包括监管负担和繁琐的手续,税收,各级政治腐败,公共工程服务,劳动力市场的调控,政策的可预见性,产权,执行合同,规定控制的启动和破产,竞争法,并进入金融和基础设施市场。

The legal environment plays a very important role.法律环境起着非常重要的作用。 The laws of the country, the judicial system, and the laws, which affect business, are important.该国的法律,司法系统,以及法律,这会影响业务,是很重要的。 For example, there might be a sudden prohibition of tobacco.例如,有可能是突然禁止烟草。

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