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所有关于诗歌三-美国诗歌

(2009-03-26 16:53:00)
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所有关于诗歌三-美国诗歌

Sunday, June 29th, 2008 星期日, 2008年6月29日

Americanpoetry naturally arose first during its beginnings as theConstitutionally-unified thirteen colonies (although prior to this, astrong oral tradition often likened to poetry existed among NativeAmerican societies).美国诗歌自然产生第一次在其开始的宪法,统一13殖民地(虽然在此之前,一个强有力的口头传统往往比喻为诗歌之间存在着美洲土著人的社会) 。 Unsurprisingly, most of the early colonists’ work relied on contemporary British models of poetic form, diction, and theme.毫不奇怪,最早期的殖民者的工作依赖于当代英国模式的诗的形式,词,和主题。 However, in the 19th century, a distinctive American idiom began to emerge.然而,在19世纪,一个独特的美国习语开始出现。 Bythe later part of that century, when Walt Whitman was winning anenthusiastic audience abroad, poets from the United States had begun totake their place at the forefront of the English-language avant-garde.到后来的一部分,世纪,当沃尔特惠特曼赢得海内外观众的热情,诗人从美国已开始采取自己的位置,走在英文前卫。

Thisposition was sustained into the 20th century to the extent that EzraPound and TS Eliot were perhaps the most influential English-languagepoets in the period during World War I. By the 1960s, the young poetsof the British Poetry Revival looked to their American contemporariesand predecessors as models for the kind of poetry they wanted to write.这一立场得到持续到20世纪的范围庞德和艾略特也许是最有影响力的英语诗人期间一战后到60年代,年轻的英国诗人诗歌复兴期待着他们在美国同时代和前任模式种诗歌他们想给我们写信。 Towardthe end of the millennium, consideration of American poetry haddiversified, as scholars placed an increased emphasis on poetry bywomen, African Americans, Hispanics, Chicanos and other subculturalgroupings.快要结束的千年,审议美国诗歌已经多元化,作为学者置于更加重视诗歌的妇女,非裔美国人,西班牙裔, Chicanos和其他亚文化群。 Poetry,and creative writing in general, also tended to become moreprofessionalized with the growth of creative writing programs in theEnglish studies departments of campuses across the country.诗歌和文学创作的一般,也往往更加专业化的增长创作节目的英文研究部门在全国各地的校园。

Oneof the first recorded poets of the British colonies was Anne Bradstreet(1612–1672), who remains one of the earliest known women poets whowrote in English.第一个记录诗人的英国殖民地是安妮邓白氏( 1612年至1672年) ,谁仍然是已知最早的妇女诗人谁写的英文。 The poems she published during her lifetime address religious and political themes.她的诗发表在一生处理宗教和政治的主题。 Shealso wrote tender evocations of home and family life, and of her lovefor her husband, many of which remained unpublished until the 20thcentury.她还写道:投标evocations的家庭和家庭生活,和她爱她的丈夫,其中许多仍然未公布,直到20世纪。 EdwardTaylor (1645–1729) wrote poems expounding Puritan virtues in a highlywrought metaphysical style that can be seen as typical of the earlycolonial period.爱德华泰勒( 1645年至1729年)写的诗阐述清教美德在一个高度造成形而上风格,可以被看作是典型的早期殖民时期。

Thisnarrow focus on the Puritan ethic was, understandably, the dominantnote of most of the poetry written in the colonies during the 17th andearly 18th centuries.这种狭隘的侧重于清教伦理是,这是可以理解的主导注意到大多数诗歌的殖民地,并在17月初18世纪。 Theearliest “secular” poetry published in New England was by SamuelDanforth in his “almanacks” for 1647-1649, published at Cambridge;these included “puzzle poems” as well as poems on caterpillars,pigeons, earthquakes, and hurricanes.最早的“世俗”的诗发表在新英格兰地区是由塞缪尔丹福思在他的“ almanacks ”为1647年至1649年,发表在剑桥;其中包括“之谜诗” ,以及诗歌的毛毛虫,鸽子,地震和飓风。 Of course, being a Puritan minister as well as a poet, Danforth never ventured far from a spiritual message.当然,作为一个清教徒部长以及诗人,丹福思从未远离冒险精神的信息。

Anotherdistinctly American lyric voice of the colonial period was PhillisWheatley, a slave whose book “Poems on Various Subjects, Religious andMoral,” was published in 1773.另一个明显的美国抒情的声音是殖民时期菲利士惠特利的奴隶,其著作“诗就各种问题,宗教和道德” ,发表于1773年。 Shewas one of the best-known poets of her day, at least in the colonies,and her poems were typical of New England culture at the time,meditating on religious and classical ideas.她是一个最有名的诗人,她一天,至少在殖民地,和她的诗是典型的新英格兰文化的时候,沉思的宗教和传统观念。

The 18th century saw an increasing emphasis on America itself as fit subject matter for its poets. 18世纪出现了更多侧重于美国本身适合题材的诗人。 Thistrend is most evident in the works of Philip Freneau (1752–1832), whois also notable for the unusually sympathetic attitude to NativeAmericans shown in his writings, sometimes reflective of a skepticismtoward Anglo-American culture and civilization.这种趋势最明显地体现在作品的菲利普Freneau ( 1752年至1832年) ,谁也显着不寻常的同情的态度,土著美国人在他的著作,有时反映了怀疑对英美文化和文明。 However,as might be expected from what was essentially provincial writing, thislate colonial poetry is generally somewhat old-fashioned in form andsyntax, deploying the means and methods of Pope and Gray in the era ofBlake and Burns.然而,这种情况是可以预想的是什么本质省写作,这么晚殖民诗一般有些老式的形式和语法,部署的方式和方法教皇和灰色时代的布雷克和烧伤。

On the whole, the development of poetry in the American colonies mirrors the development of the colonies themselves.从总体上看,发展的诗歌在美国的殖民地反映了发展自己的殖民地。 Theearly poetry is dominated by the need to preserve the integrity of thePuritan ideals that created the settlement in the first place.早期的诗歌占主导地位的是必须维护的完整性清教徒理想,创造了解决摆在首位。 As the colonists grew in confidence, the poetry they wrote increasingly reflected their drive towards independence.作为殖民者增长的信心,他们写的诗反映了它们的驱动器越来越走向独立。 This shift in subject matter was not reflected in the mode of writing which tended to be conservative, to say the least.这一转变在题材没有反映在书面的方式往往是保守的,至少可以说。 Thiscan be seen as a product of the physical remove at which American poetsoperated from the center of English-language poetic developments inLondon.这可以被看作是产品的物理删除诗人在美国经营的中心英语诗歌的发展在伦敦举行。

Thefirst significant poet of the independent United States was WilliamCullen Bryant (1794–1878), whose great contribution was to writerhapsodic poems on the grandeur of prairies and forests.第一个重要诗人独立美国威廉库伦科比( 1794年至1878年) ,其巨大的贡献是写rhapsodic诗宏伟的草原和森林。 Othernotable poets to emerge in the early and middle 19th century includeRalph Waldo Emerson , (1803–1882), Henry Wadsworth Longfellow(1807–1882), John Greenleaf Whittier (1807–1892), Edgar Allan Poe(1809–1849), Oliver Wendell Holmes (1809–1894), Henry David Thoreau(1817–1862), James Russell Lowell (1819–1891), and Sidney Lanier(1842–1881).其他显着的诗人出现在早,中期19世纪包括爱默生, ( 1803年至1882年) ,亨利沃兹沃斯朗(1807年至1882年) ,约翰格林利夫惠( 1807年至1892年) ,埃德加爱伦坡( 1809年至一八四九年)奥利弗温德尔霍尔姆斯(1809至1894年) ,亨利大卫梭罗( 1817年至1862年) ,詹姆斯罗素洛威尔( 1819年至1891年) ,和悉尼拉尼尔(1842年至1881年) 。 Asmight be expected, the works of these writers are united by a commonsearch for a distinctive American voice to distinguish them from theirBritish counterparts.这种情况是可以预想,这些作品的作者是团结一致,共同寻找一个独特的美国声音辨别他们的英国同行。 To this end, they explored the landscape and traditions of their native country as materials for their poetry.为此,他们探讨了景观和传统的祖国为原料的诗歌。

The most significant example of this tendency may be The Song of Hiawatha by Longfellow.最显着的例子,这种趋势可能是由海华沙之歌朗。 Thispoem uses Native American tales collected by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft,who was superintendent of Indian affairs for Michigan from 1836 to 1841.这首诗使用的美洲原住民的故事所收集亨利罗克拉夫特,谁是印第安人事务总监为密歇根州1836年至1841年。 Longfellow also imitated the meter of the Finnish epic poem Kalevala, possibly to avoid British models.朗费罗还模仿米芬兰史诗卡勒瓦拉,可能避免英国模式。 The resulting poem, while a popular success, did not provide a model for future US poets.由此产生的诗,而受欢迎的成功,并没有提供一个模式未来美国诗人。

Anotherfactor that distinguished these poets from their British contemporarieswas the influence of the transcendentalism of the poet/philosophersEmerson and Thoreau.另一个因素是这些杰出的诗人从英国同时代人的影响,超验的诗人/哲学家爱默生和梭罗。 Transcendentalismwas the distinctly American strain of English Romanticism that beganwith William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.超验主义是美国的压力明显的英语浪漫主义开始,威廉华兹华斯和塞缪尔泰勒治。 Emerson,arguably one of the founders of transcendentalism, had visited Englandas a young man to meet these two English poets, as well as ThomasCarlyle.艾默生,说的创始人之一先验论,访问了英国作为一个年轻的男子,以满足这两个英语诗人,以及托马斯卡莱尔。 WhileRomanticism transitioned into Victorianism in post-reform England, itgrew more energetic in America from the 1830s through to the Civil War.虽然浪漫主义过渡到Victorianism在改革后的英国,现在增加了更多的活力在美国从19世纪30年代通过的内战。

Edgar Allan Poe was probably the most recognized American poet outside of America during this period.爱伦坡可能是最被认可的美国诗人以外的美国,在此期间。 Diverseauthors in France, Sweden and Russia were heavily influenced by hisworks, and his poem “The Raven” swept across Europe, translated intomany languages.不同的作者在法国,瑞典和俄罗斯受到严重影响,他的作品,他的诗“乌鸦”横扫欧洲,翻译成许多语言。 Inthe twentieth century the American poet William Carlos Williams said ofPoe that he is the only solid ground on which American poetry isanchored.在二十世纪的美国诗人威廉卡洛斯威廉斯说,爱伦坡,他是唯一的坚实基础,美国诗歌立足。

Thefinal emergence of a truly indigenous English-language poetry in theUnited States was the work of two poets, Walt Whitman (1819–1892) andEmily Dickinson (1830–1886).最后出现了一个真正的土著的英语诗歌在美国的工作,两个诗人沃尔特惠特曼( 1819年至1892年)和艾米莉狄金森( 1830年至1886年) 。 On the surface, these two poets could not have been less alike.从表面上看,这两个诗人不能少了一样。 Whitman’slong lines, derived from the metric of the King James Version of theBible, and his democratic inclusiveness stand in stark contrast withDickinson’s concentrated phrases and short lines and stanzas, derivedfrom Protestant hymnals.惠特曼的大排长龙,来自公吨国王詹姆斯版本的圣经,他的民主包容的立场形成了鲜明的对比与狄金森集中词组和短期线和stanzas ,来自新教hymnals 。

Whatlinks them is their common connection to Emerson (a passage from whomWhitman printed on the second edition of Leaves of Grass), and thedaring originality of their visions.他们有什么联系,是他们共同的方面,艾默生(逝世,其中惠特曼上印第二版的草叶集) ,以及大胆的独创性的见解。 Thesetwo poets can be said to represent the birth of two major Americanpoetic idioms—the free metric and direct emotional expression ofWhitman, and the gnomic obscurity and irony of Dickinson—both of whichwould profoundly stamp the American poetry of the 20th century.这两个诗人,可以说代表了出生的两个主要的美国诗歌成语,自由度量和直接的情感表达惠特曼和gnomic默默无闻和讽刺狄金森,这两项工作都将深刻邮票的美国诗歌在20世纪。

Thedevelopment of these idioms can be traced through the works of poetssuch as Edwin Arlington Robinson (1869–1935), Stephen Crane(1871–1900), Robert Frost (1874–1963) and Carl Sandburg (1878–1967).发展这些成语可以追溯到通过诗人的作品,如埃德温阿灵顿罗宾逊( 1869年至1935年) ,斯蒂芬克莱恩( 1871年至〇 〇年) ,罗伯特弗罗斯特( 1874年至1963年)和卡尔桑德伯格( 1878年至1967年) 。 As a result, by the beginning of the 20th century the outlines of a distinctly new poetic tradition were clear to see.其结果是,由20世纪初的轮廓明显的新的诗歌传统是明确地看到。

Thisnew idiom, combined with a study of 19th-century French poetry, formedthe basis of the United States input into 20th-century English-languagepoetic modernism.这种新的成语,加上研究19世纪法国诗歌,形成了基础美国投入二十世纪英语诗歌的现代主义。 EzraPound (1885–1972) and TS Eliot (1888–1965) were the leading figures atthe time, but numerous other poets made important contributions.庞德( 1885至1972年)和艾略特( 1888年至1965年)是领先的数字的时候,但许多其他诗人作出了重要贡献。 Theseincluded Gertrude Stein (1874–1946), Wallace Stevens (1879–1955),William Carlos Williams (1883–1963), Hilda Doolittle (HD) (1886–1961),Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1914), Marianne Moore (1887–1972), EE Cummings(1894–1962), and Hart Crane (1899–1932).这些措施包括格特鲁德斯泰因(1874年至1946年) ,史蒂文斯( 1879年至1955年) ,威廉卡洛斯威廉斯( 1883年至1963年) ,希尔达杜利特尔(高清) (1886年至1961年) ,阿德莱德Crapsey ( 1878年至1914年) ,玛丽安摩尔( 1887年-1972 ),电子工程专辑卡明斯( 1894年至1962年) ,和哈特起重机( 1899年至1932年) 。 Williamswas to become exemplary for many later poets because he, more than anyof his peers, contrived to marry spoken American English with freeverse rhythms.威廉姆斯是成为模范的许多后来的诗人,因为他比任何同行,人为结婚讲美式英语与自由诗的节奏。

Whilethese poets were unambiguously aligned with High modernism, other poetsactive in the United States in the first third of the 20th century werenot.虽然这些诗人都毫不含糊地配合高级现代主义,其他诗人活跃在美国的第一届20世纪没有。 Among the most important of the latter were those who were associated with what came to be known as the New Criticism.其中最重要的,后者是那些与谁是什么后来被称为新的批评。 These included John Crowe Ransom (1888–1974), Allen Tate (1899–1979), and Robert Penn Warren (1905–1989).其中包括约翰克洛兰塞姆( 1888年至1974年) ,艾伦山( 1899年至1979年) ,和罗伯特西恩潘沃伦( 05年至89年) 。 Otherpoets of the era, such as Archibald MacLeish (1892–1982), experimentedwith modernist techniques but were also drawn towards more traditionalmodes of writing.其他诗人的时代,如阿奇博尔马克雷什( 1892年至1982年) ,尝试用现代技术,而且还吸引更多的传统模式走向的书面答复。 The modernist torch was carried in the 1930s mainly by the group of poets known as the Objectivists.火炬的现代派进行在上世纪30年代,主要由本集团的诗人被称为Objectivists 。 Theseincluded Louis Zukofsky (1904–1978), Charles Reznikoff (1894–1976),George Oppen (1908–1984), Carl Rakosi (1903–2004) and, later, LorineNiedecker (1903–1970).这些措施包括路易斯Zukofsky ( 1904至1978年),查尔斯Reznikoff ( 1894年至1976年) ,乔治Oppen ( 1908至84年) ,卡尔拉科西( 1903年至2004年),以及后来Lorine Niedecker ( 1903至1970年) 。 KennethRexroth, who was published in the Objectivist Anthology, was, alongwith Madeline Gleason (1909–1973), a forerunner of the San FranciscoRenaissance.肯尼思力士乐,谁出版的客观选集,是连同麦德兰格里森( 1909年至73年) ,前身旧金山文艺复兴。

Manyof the Objectivists came from urban communities of new immigrants, andthis new vein of experience and language enriched the growing Americanidiom.

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