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(2009-03-17 15:49:00)



Sunday, December 23rd, 2007 星期日, 2007年12月23号

Coveringmost of the northern part of the North American continent and with anarea larger than that of the United States, Canada has an extremelyvaried topography.覆盖大多数的北部和北美大陆,面积大于美国,加拿大有一个非常不同的地形。 In the east the mountainous maritime provinces have an irregular coastline on the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Atlantic.在东部山区省份海事不规则的海岸线上的圣劳伦斯湾和大西洋。 TheSt. Lawrence plain, covering most of southern Quebec and Ontario, andthe interior continental plain, covering southern Manitoba andSaskatchewan and most of Alberta, are the principal cultivable areas.圣劳伦斯河平原,涵盖最南部的魁北克和安大略,和大陆内部平原,涵盖南部萨斯喀彻温省和马尼托巴省和阿尔伯塔省的大部分,是主要的耕作区。 They are separated by a forested plateau rising from Lakes Superior and Huron.他们隔开,增加森林高原湖泊高级和休伦。

Westwardtoward the Pacific, most of British Columbia, the Yukon, and part ofwestern Alberta are covered by parallel mountain ranges, including theRockies.向西走向太平洋,大多数不列颠哥伦比亚省,育空,部分西方艾伯塔所涵盖的平行山脉,其中包括洛矶山。 The Pacific border of the coast range is ragged with fjords and channels.太平洋海岸边界范围是衣衫褴褛的峡湾和渠道。 The highest point in Canada is Mount Logan (19,850 ft; 6,050 m), which is in the Yukon.最高点是在加拿大山洛根(一点九八五万英尺;六千〇五十米) ,这是在育空地区。 The two principal river systems are the Mackenzie and the St. Lawrence.两个主要的河流系统是麦肯齐和圣劳伦斯。 The St. Lawrence, with its tributaries, is navigable for over 1,900 mi (3,058 km).圣劳伦斯河及其支流,是航行的超过1900名美(三千〇五十八公里) 。

Canadais a federation of ten provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba,New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, PrinceEdward Island, Quebec, and Saskatchewan) and three territories(Northwest Territories, Yukon, and Nunavut).加拿大是一个联邦的10个省(阿尔伯塔省,不列颠哥伦比亚省,马尼托巴省,新不伦瑞克,纽芬兰,新斯科舍,安大略,爱德华王子岛,魁北克省和萨斯喀彻温省)和3个地区(西北地区,育空地区和努纳武特地区) 。 Formally considered a constitutional monarchy, Canada is governed by its own House of Commons.正式审议君主立宪制,加拿大是由它自己的下议院。 Whilethe governor-general is officially the representative of QueenElizabeth II, in reality the governor-general acts only on the adviceof the Canadian prime minister.虽然总督正式代表英国女王伊丽莎白二世,在现实中总督行为只的意见加拿大总理。

The first inhabitants of Canada were native Indian peoples, primarily the Inuit (Eskimo).第一居民加拿大印第安民族,主要是因纽特人(爱斯基摩人) 。 TheNorse explorer Leif Eriksson probably reached the shores of Canada(Labrador or Nova Scotia) in 1000, but the history of the white man inthe country actually began in 1497, when John Cabot, an Italian in theservice of Henry VII of England, reached Newfoundland or Nova Scotia.挪威探险家的雷夫埃里克森可能达到的海岸加拿大(拉布拉多和新斯科舍省)在1000年,但历史上的白人男子在该国的实际始于1497年,当约翰卡博特,意大利在服务亨利七世的英格兰,达成纽芬兰或新斯科舍省。 Canada was taken for France in 1534 by Jacques Cartier.加拿大被认为是法国在1534年的雅克卡尔捷。 Theactual settlement of New France, as it was then called, began in 1604at Port Royal in what is now Nova Scotia; in 1608, Quebec was founded.实际解决新法国,因为它当时要求,在1604年开始在皇家港在现在的新斯科舍省,在1608年,魁北克正式成立。 France’scolonization efforts were not very successful, but French explorers bythe end of the 17th century had penetrated beyond the Great Lakes tothe western prairies and south along the Mississippi to the Gulf ofMexico.法国的殖民化的努力不很成功,但法国探险家的17世纪末已经渗透超出大湖西部草原和南部沿密西西比河向墨西哥湾。 Meanwhile, the English Hudson’s Bay Company had been established in 1670.与此同时,英国哈得孙湾公司成立于1670年。 Becauseof the valuable fisheries and fur trade, a conflict developed betweenthe French and English; in 1713, Newfoundland, Hudson Bay, and NovaScotia (Acadia) were lost to England.由于宝贵的渔业和毛皮贸易,冲突发达国家之间的法语和英语;于1713年,纽芬兰,哈德逊湾和新斯科舍省(阿卡迪亚)失去了英格兰。 Duringthe Seven Years’ War (1756–1763), England extended its conquest, andthe British general James Wolfe won his famous victory over Gen. LouisMontcalm outside Quebec on Sept. 13, 1759.在七年战争( 1756至1763年) ,英国将其征服,和英国一般詹姆斯沃尔夫赢得了他的著名的胜利将军路易蒙卡尔姆魁北克以外的9月13日, 1759年。 The Treaty of Paris in 1763 gave England control.该条约于1763年的巴黎了英格兰控制。

Atthat time the population of Canada was almost entirely French, but inthe next few decades, thousands of British colonists emigrated toCanada from the British Isles and from the American colonies.当时,加拿大的人口几乎完全法语,但在今后几十年中,成千上万的英国殖民者移民加拿大的不列颠群岛和美国的殖民地。 In 1849, the right of Canada to self-government was recognized.于1849年,加拿大的权利自治得到了承认。 Bythe British North America Act of 1867, the dominion of Canada wascreated through the confederation of Upper and Lower Canada, NovaScotia, and New Brunswick.由英国北美法案的1867年,加拿大的自治领通过建立邦联的上,下加拿大,新斯科舍省和新不伦瑞克省。 In1869, Canada purchased from the Hudson’s Bay Company the vast middlewest (Rupert’s Land) from which the provinces of Manitoba (1870),Alberta (1905), and Saskatchewan (1905) were later formed. 1869年,加拿大购买哈德逊湾公司的广大中西部(鲁珀特土地)由该省份马尼托巴( 1870年) ,阿尔伯塔省( 1905年) ,和萨斯喀彻温( 1905年) ,后来形成。 In 1871, British Columbia joined the dominion, and in 1873, Prince Edward Island followed.于1871年,不列颠哥伦比亚加入自治领,并于1873年,爱德华王子岛之后。 The country was linked from coast to coast in 1885 by the Canadian Pacific Railway.该国联系在一起沿海岸线于1885年由加拿大太平洋铁路。

Duringthe formative years between 1866 and 1896, the Conservative Party, ledby Sir John A. Macdonald, governed the country, except during the years1873–1878.在1866年形成年和1896年之间,保守党,由约翰A麦克唐纳爵士,治理国家,但1873年至1878年期间年。 In 1896 the Liberal Party took over and, under Sir Wilfrid Laurier, an eminent French Canadian, ruled until 1911.在1896年自由党接管,并根据主席先生韦尔福瑞德劳瑞大学,加拿大的一位著名的法国,统治,直到1911年。 Bythe Statute of Westminster in 1931 the British dominions, includingCanada, were formally declared to be partner nations with Britain,“equal in status, in no way subordinate to each other,” and boundtogether only by allegiance to a common Crown.规约所于1931年威斯敏斯特的英国自治领,包括加拿大,被正式宣布为联合国与英国的合作伙伴, “平等的地位,绝不从属于对方” ,并在一起只有效忠于一个共同的皇冠。

Newfoundland became Canada’s tenth province on March 31, 1949, following a plebiscite.纽芬兰省成为加拿大的第十届省1949年3月31日,经过公民投票。 Canada also includes three territories—the Yukon Territory, the Northwest Territories, and the newest territory, Nunavut.加拿大还包括三个地区,育空地区,西北地区,以及最新的领土,努纳武特地区。 Thisnew territory includes all of the Arctic north of the mainland, Norwayhaving recognized Canadian sovereignty over the Sverdrup Islands in theArctic in 1931.这种新的领土包括所有北极以北的大陆,挪威已经认识到加拿大的主权,斯维德鲁普群岛北极于1931年。

TheLiberal Party, led by William Lyon Mackenzie King, dominated Canadianpolitics from 1921 until 1957, when it was succeeded by the ProgressiveConservatives.自由党领导的威廉里昂麦肯齐金,加拿大的政治统治,直到1957年从1921年,当时它成功地通过逐步保守党。 The Liberals, under the leadership of Lester B. Pearson, returned to power in 1963.自由党的领导下,莱斯特皮尔逊,重新执政, 1963年。 Pearson remained prime minister until 1968, when he retired and was replaced by a former law professor, Pierre Elliott Trudeau.皮尔逊仍总理,直到1968年,在他退役后,并取代了前法律教授,皮埃尔埃利奥特特鲁多。 Trudeaumaintained Canada’s defensive alliance with the United States but beganmoving toward a more independent policy in world affairs.特鲁多保持加拿大的防守与美国的同盟关系,但开始走向一个更加独立的政策,在世界事务。

Facedwith an increasingly violent separatist movement in the predominantlyFrench province of Quebec, Trudeau introduced the Official LanguagesBill, which encouraged bilingualism in the federal government; he alsogave an economic portfolio to a French-speaking minister, Jean Chrétien.面对日益激烈的分离主义运动主要在法国魁北克省,特鲁多介绍了法定语文条例草案,鼓励双语联邦政府;他还介绍了一个经济组合到讲法语的部长,让克雷蒂安。 Both measures increased the power of French-speaking politicians in the federal government.这两项措施的权力增加了讲法语的政治家联邦政府。

In 1976, the Parti Québécois (PQ) won the provincial Quebec elections, and René Lévesque became premier. 1976年,魁人党(百草枯)赢得魁北克省选举,勒内莱韦斯克成为总理。 TheQuebec government passed Bill 101 in 1977, which established numerousrules promoting the French-speaking culture; for example, only Frenchwas to be used for commercial signs and for most public schoolinstruction.魁北克政府通过法案101于1977年,建立了许多规则,促进讲法语的文化,例如,只有法国是用于商业标志和大多数公立学校的教学。 Manyof Bill 101’s provisions have since been amended, striking more of acompromise; commercial signs, for example, may now be in French andEnglish, provided that the French lettering is twice the size of theEnglish.许多法案101条款已被修改,突出更多的妥协;商业的迹象,例如,现在可以在法语和英语,但法国的刻字的两倍大小的英语。 Quebec held a referendum in May 1980 on whether it should seek independence from Canada; it was defeated by 60% of the voters.魁北克省举行了全民公决, 1980年5月就是否应寻求独立于加拿大,它被击败了60 %的选民。

Resolvinga dispute that had occupied Trudeau since the beginning of his tenure,Queen Elizabeth II signed the Constitution Act (also called the CanadaAct) in Ottawa on April 17, 1982, thereby cutting the last legal tiebetween Canada and Britain.解决纠纷,已被占领的特鲁多开始以来,他的任期内,英国女王伊丽莎白二世签署的宪法法案(也称为加拿大法)在渥太华4月17日, 1982年,从而切断了最后的法律之间的联系加拿大和英国。 The constitution retains Queen Elizabeth as queen of Canada and keeps Canada’s membership in the Commonwealth.宪法保留英国女王伊丽莎白女王作为加拿大和保持加拿大的英联邦成员资格。 This constitution was accepted by every province except Quebec.这是宪法所接受的每一个省除魁北克。

Inthe national election on Sept. 4, 1984, the Progressive ConservativeParty scored an overwhelming victory, fundamentally changing thecountry’s political landscape.在全国选举将于9月4日, 1984年,进步保守党得到了压倒性的胜利,从根本上改变该国的政治景观。 The Conservatives, led by Brian Mulroney, won the highest political majority in Canadian history.保守党为首的布赖恩马尔罗尼,赢得了最高政治多数在加拿大的历史。 Thedominant foreign issue was a free-trade pact with the US, a treatybitterly opposed by the Liberal and New Democratic parties.占主导地位的外国问题是自由贸易协定,与美方条约强烈反对自由党和新民主党。 The conflict led to elections in Nov. 1988 that solidly reelected Mulroney and gave him a mandate to proceed with the agreement.冲突导致1988年11月选举中再次当选该扎实穆罗尼,给他的任务是着手协议。

The issue of separatist sentiments in French-speaking Quebec flared up again in 1990 with the failure of the Meech Lake Accord.分离主义问题的感情在讲法语的魁北克省再次爆发在1990年失败的米奇湖协议。 Theaccord was designed to bring Quebec into the constitution while easingits residents’ fear of losing their identity within theEnglish-speaking majority by giving it status as a “distinct society.”该协议的目的是使加拿大的宪法,同时减轻了居民的担心失去自己的身份在英语为母语的多数地位,从而它是一个“独特的社会。 ”

The economy continued to be mired in a long recession that many blamed on the free-trade agreement.经济依然是陷入长期衰退,许多归咎于自由贸易协定。 Brian Mulroney’s popularity continued to decline, causing him to resign before the next election.布赖恩马尔罗尼的声望持续下降,导致他辞职前,下一次选举。 InJune 1993 the governing Progressive Conservative Party chose DefenseMinister Kim Campbell as its leader, making her the first female primeminister in Canadian history. 1993年6月执政的进步保守党选择国防部长金坎贝尔作为领导者,使她的第一位女总理在加拿大的历史。 Thenational election in Oct. 1993 resulted in the reemergence of theLiberal Party and the installation of Jean Chrétien as prime minister.全国选举产生1993年10月在复出的自由党和安装让克雷蒂安担任总理。

The Quebec referendum on secession in Oct. 1995 yielded a narrow rejection of the proposal, and separatists vowed to try again.魁北克公民投票分裂国家, 1995年10月取得了一个狭窄的拒绝这一提议,和分裂分子誓言,然后再试一次。 Since then, however, the Quebec Liberal Party has replaced the Bloc Québecois as the ruling party.自那时起,然而,魁北克省的自由党已取代魁北克集团作为执政党。

OnApril 1, 1999, the Northwest Territories were officially divided tocreate a new territory in the east that would be governed by Canada’sInuits, who make up 85% of the area’s population.在1999年4月1日,西北地区已正式被分为创建一个新的领土东将由加拿大的因纽特人,谁弥补85 %的地区的人口。

InJuly 2000, Stockwell Day of the new right-wing Canadian Alliance Partyunexpectedly emerged as the leader of Canada’s opposition. 2000年7月,戴国新右翼加拿大联盟党出人意料地成为加拿大的领导人的反对。 InNov. 2000 elections, however, Prime Minister Jean Chrétien of theLiberal Party won a landslide victory for a third five-year term.在2000年11月的选举,但是,克雷蒂安总理的自由党赢得压倒性胜利的第三个五年任期。 After the election, the conservatives rapidly lost steam.选举结束后,保守党迅速失去了动力。

In recent years, Canada has introduced some of the world’s most liberal social policies.近年来,加拿大引进了一些世界上最自由的社会政策。 Medicalmarijuana for the terminally or chronically ill was legalized in 2001;the country began legally dispensing marijuana by prescription in July2003.医用大麻的末期或长期病患者的合法化, 2001年该国开始合法处方配药大麻于2003年7月。 In 2003, Ontario and British Columbia legalized same-sex marriage; and more provinces and territories followed in 2004. 2003年,安大略省和不列颠哥伦比亚省同性婚姻合法化;和更多省份和地区在2004年之后。 InJuly 2005, Canada legalized gay marriage throughout the country,becoming one of four nations (along with Belgium, the Netherlands, andSpain) to do so. 2005年7月,加拿大同性婚姻合法化全国各地,成为四国(连同比利时,荷兰和西班牙)这样做。

Canadasent 2,000 soldiers to help fight the US-led war in Afghanistan, butits relations with the US were strained when it refused to joinWashington’s coalition supporting the war in Iraq.加拿大2000年发出的士兵,以协助打击以美国为首的阿富汗战争,但它与美国的关系紧张时,拒绝加入美国的联合支持在伊拉克的战争。

InDec. 2003, Chrétien stepped down and handed the prime ministership tothe new leader of Canada’s Liberal Party, former finance minister PaulMartin.在2003年12月,克雷蒂安下台,并把首相的新领导人在加拿大的自由党,前财政部长保罗马丁。 Chrétienhad announced in 2002 that he would not seek a fourth term—conflictbetween Chrétien and Martin had divided and weakened the Liberal Partyin recent years.克雷蒂安宣布了在2002年,他不会寻求第四个任期冲突克雷蒂安和马丁之间的意见分歧,削弱了自由党在最近几年。 InJune 2004, Martin was reelected prime minister, but the Liberal Partylost its majority in parliament, which it had dominated for 11 years. 2004年6月,马丁再次当选总理,但自由党失去了在议会的多数,它主宰了11年。 In2005, a scandal involving the misappropriation of government funds bythe Liberal Party threatened the stability of Martin’s government. 2005年,涉嫌挪用资金的政府,自由党威胁稳定的马丁政府。 Martin himself was not implicated in the scandal, but his predecessor came under fire.马”救瞬⒚挥芯砣氤笪牛撬那叭卧獾焦セ鳌 In Jan. 2006 parliamentary elections, Conservatives won 36% of the vote, ending twelve years of Liberal rule.在2006年1月议会选举中,保守党赢得36 %的得票率,从而结束12年的自由党统治。 Conservative leader Stephen Harper became prime minister in February.保守党领袖哈珀成为总理在2月。 InJune 2006, police arrested 17 suspected Islamist terrorists in Torontoand are believed to have foiled a major terrorist attack on the country. 2006年6月,警方逮捕了17名伊斯兰恐怖分子在多伦多,并相信已挫败了一起重大恐怖袭击的国家。 In November, Prime Minister Harper succeeded in passing a motion to recognize Quebec as “a nation within a united Canada.”去年11月,哈珀总理成功地通过了一项动议,承认魁北克为“一个民族在一个统一的加拿大。 ”

InFebruary 2007, Canada’s Supreme Court struck down a law that permittedforeign terrorism suspects to be detained indefinitely without chargeswhile waiting for deportation. 2007年2月,加拿大最高法院否决了一项法律,允许外国恐怖主义嫌疑犯被拘留而未经指控无限期等待驱逐出境。 “Theoverarching principle of fundamental justice that applies here is this:before the state can detain people for significant periods of time, itmust accord them a fair judicial process,” said Chief Justice BeverleyMcLachlin. “总的原则的基本司法适用这里是这样的:在国家可以拘留人的相当长的时间,就必须给予他们一个公平的司法程序,说: ”首席大法官贝弗麦克拉克林。


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