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日记 [2007年08月03日]

(2007-08-03 23:33:17)
标签:

知识/探索

分类: linguistics
 

Chapter 2 Speech Sounds

2.1 Speech production and perception

Speech vs. Writing

(which one is more important in language study?)

Ø         Speech sounds had existed long before writing was invented.

Ø         There are still languages even today that have no writing systems.

Language is first and foremost a “system of vocal symbols” and the study of speech sounds is a major part of linguistics.

the study of speech sounds is called Phonetics.

The process of speech production and perception

 

Speech

Production

(Speaker A)

 

Speech

Perception

(Speaker B)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Finding: the speech sound is articulated by Speaker A. It is then transmitted to and received by Speaker B. This is three-step process.

articulated the study of the production of speech sounds.

Articulatory phonetics

transmitted the study of the physical properties of the sounds produced in speech.  Acoustic phonetics

received concerned with the perception of speech sounds. Ausitory phonetics

we will concentrate only on Articulatory phonetics, which deals with how sounds are produced.

2.2 Speech organs

The Organs of Speech

1-nasal cavity
2-lips
3-teeth
4-aveolar ridge
5-hard palate
6-velum (soft palate)
7-uvula
8-apex (tip) of tongue
9-blade (front) of tongue
10-dorsum (back) of tongue
11-oral cavity
12-pharynx
13-epiglottis
14-larynx
15-vocal cords
16-trachea
17-esophagus

 

 airstream comes from the lungs

trachea/windpipe

throat(pharynx-laryns-vocal cords)-

nose(nasal cavity)

mouth(oral cavity)

All the organs above are involved in the production of the speech.

2.3 Segments, divergences, and phonetic transcription

2.3.1 Segments and divergences

The spelling of the word above suggests 5 sounds, but there are 4 (segments) in fact for e is silent.  This is the divergence between sound and symbol. As we know, Chinese is more divergenced between sound and symbol, which causes a great dificulty for foreigners to learn Chinese. German is not divergenced. For example, deutsch/nation/Jesus/ ausbildung

2.3.2 Phonetic transcription

Ø         The divergence becomes greater because of the accents of English.

Ø         Languages without writing system need a set of symbols to record the sounds.

International Phonetic Alphabet is used to transcribe the sounds of human in the world.

Ø         In 1886, the Phonetic Teachers’ Association was inaugurated by a small group of language teachers in France who wished to popularize their methods.

Ø         In 1897, the Phonetic Teachers’ Association was changed into the International Phonetics Association.

Ø         The first version of the IPA was published in August 1888.

Ø         The present system of the IPA derives mainly from one developed in the 1920s by the British phonetician, Daniel Jones and his colleagues at University of London.

Ø         The latest version of the IPA was revised in 1993 and corrected in 1996.

So the word above can be transcribed into / Y'b寁 / with IPA.

2.4 Consonants

2.4.1 Consonants and vowels

The sound segments are grouped into consonats and vowels. Consonants are produced by constricting or obstructing the vocal tract at some place to divert, impede, or completely shut off the flow of air in the oral cavity. By contrast, a vowel is produced without such obstruction so no turbulence or a total stopping of the air can be perceived.

Semi-vowel/consonant

Yet wet

2.4.2 Consonants

Two factors to produce a consonants

Ø         The actual relationship between the articulators and thus the way in which the air passes through certain parts of the vacal tract. Manners of articulation

Ø         Where in the vocal tract there is approximation(/th/ is the approximation of teeth), narrowing(/sh/ is the narrowing between hard palate and tongue), or the obstruction(/b/ is the obstruction of lips) of air. Places of articulation

2.4.3 Manners of articulation

Ø         Stop

The closing phase/the hold or compression phase/the release phase

/p,b,t,d,k,g/ (Oral) stop

/m,n, K / Nasal stop

Ø         Fricative

Close approximation of two articulators so tht the airstream is partially obstructed and turbulent airflow is produced.

/f,v,s,z,θ, ? ?? h/

Ø         (Midian) Approximant

An articulation in which one articulator is close to another, but without the vocal tract being narrowed to such an extent that a turbulent airstream is produced. /w, r, j/

Ø         Lateral (Approximant)

Obstruction of the airstream at a point along the center of the oral tract, with incomplete mouth.

/l/

Ø         Other consonantal articulations: trill颤音, tap or flap触音, and affricate闪音/塞擦音.

2.4.4 Places of articulation

Ø         Bilabial 双唇音

Ø         Labiodental唇齿

Ø         Dental齿

Ø         Alveolar齿龈

Ø         Postalveolar后齿龈

Ø         Retroflex卷舌

Ø         Palatal

Ø         Velar软腭

Ø         Uvular小舌

Ø         Pharyngeal

Ø         Glottal声门

2.4.5 The consonants of English

Ø         RP. It refers to received pronunciation. Many people also call it BBC English or Oxford English. RP originated historically in the southeast of England and is spoken by the upper-middle and upper classes throughout England. It is widely used in the private sector of the education systme and spoken by most newreaders of the BBC network.

 

 

The following is the chart for English consonants:

 

bilabial

labiodental

dental

alveolar

postalveolar

retroflex

palatal

velar

glottal

plosive

p

b

 

 

t

d

 

 

 

k

ɡ

 

nasal

 

m

 

 

 

n

 

 

 

 

K

 

fricative

 

f

v

θ

?/P>

s

z

?/P>

?/P>

 

 

 

h

 

approximant

 

(w)

 

 

 

 

 

y

 

j

 

(w)

 

lateral approximant

 

 

 

 

l

 

 

 

 

 

affricate

 

 

 

 

t?/P>

d?/P>

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.5 Vowels

2.5.1 The (4)criteria of vowel description

Ø         The part of the tongue that is raised—front, center, or back.

Ø         The extent to which the tongue rises in the direction of the palate. High-mid-low

Ø         The kind of opening made at the lips—various degrees of lip rounding or spreading.

Ø         The position of the soft palate—raised for oral vowels, and lowered for vowels which have been nasalized.

 

Chart of English Vowels

(sample words are given beside the symbol with the relevant sound in red)

?/P> 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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