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建造休闲或商业游艇需要遵守的规范

(2011-01-10 19:36:51)
标签:

游艇

造船

规范

帆船

设计

财经

分类: 帆船航海

游艇为乐在法律上从事商业贸易,并审议了游艇,她必须接受检验和认证,许多国际和国家法规。 这些规则涵盖了安全,环保和安全议题谱。 适用性是基于一个游艇的长度,吨位,船上的人数组合。

一般来说,大多数的国际法规,建立由国际海事组织(IMO)的。 国际海事组织是联合国的专门机构。 它的169个会员国和三个准成员的背后几乎所有的技术标准和安全的法律法规和海上对船舶污染防治的力量。 游艇的影响主要规则如下:

海上人命安全公约 - 为生命安全国际公约在海上

海上人命安全公约,在其连续的形式,被普遍认为是最有关商船安全的所有国际条约的重要。 在其目前的结构,这12章涵盖了从建筑和防火运到核推进,危险货物,安全管理和海事安全的各个方面。 对影响国际海上人命安全公约大宗交易总额为500吨和更大的船只。

为了管理目的,游艇被认为是商业货船。 如果她是经证明可运载超过12位客人,无论大小,游艇不再是货船,但客船,即使一个人叫她的一艘游艇。 之间存在着这两种类型的船只明显差异。 

ICLL - 国际船舶载重线公约

国际载重线公约,因为它是适用于所有商业,国际上对长度24米或更大的买卖游艇的今天,建立在干舷勘定详细规定,其对稳定性的影响,最重要的是,宾客和船员的安全运输。 该公约采取了不同的区域和(相对于冬季北大西洋热带)不同的季节考虑到目前的潜在危险。

技术附件包含了几个额外的安全措施有关门,释放端口,舱口和其他物品。 这些措施的主要目的是确保干舷甲板以下的船体水密完整性。

防污 - 国际公约防止船舶造成污染

海洋污染是为保护海洋环境的全球条约规定的所有最重要的。 该公约包括防止和减少污染的同时意外和业务集中严格的规定。

目前的要求是六个技术附件中列出,其中每个旨在打击某一类的污染物:石油,有毒液体,危险货物包装,污水,垃圾和空气污染。

国际公约 - 对训练,发证和值班标准国际公约海员

国际公约规定的远洋商船的船长,高级船员和观看人员的认证标准。 商业游艇受到遵守守则,以及任何人持有一定级别的能力证书。 该公约规定了有关培训,发证和值班海员,哪些国家必须达到或超过最低标准。
 
虽然国际海事组织是这些法规的来源,它是会员国,是负责执行。 通常被称为旗政府或船旗国,这是政府,注册的游艇。 通过一系列的检查,计划审查,调查和审计系列,旗确保游艇符合适用的规例的规定。
例如,对于英国国旗下注册的游艇,海事和海岸警备局(MCA)的是英国和它的依赖(百慕大,英属维尔京群岛,开曼群岛,直布罗陀,马恩岛,和其他海外领土旗政府)。 在某些情况下,代表其执行机关检举,或一部份,向认可组织(RO)的。 反渗透是一种最常见的一种分类的社会。 在游艇主要船级社是美国船级社(ABS)的,法国船级社(BV),挪威船级社(DNV)的,德国劳氏船级社(冰川),劳埃德船级社(LR),船厂和Registro意大利语(意大利船级社)。 也有专门致力于游艇认证组织,如国际游艇局(IYB)。

分类,包括发行,为船舶的安全规则,并进行视察,以确保这些规则被应用作为这些社团进行了完全的私人服务。 其主要目的是为了保护作为财产一样的船只。 该规则适用于主要是对船体结构强度和它的基本机械和设备的可靠性。 业主使用,作为一个健全的技术保证船级社,并作为在一个合理的成本获得保险工具颁发的证书。

在地方一级,主权和其他自治国家有权控制其边界内的任何活动,包括参观游艇的。 权威和在核查海事公约的适用的规定采用一个国家的港口,外国国旗的游艇控制,被称为港口国监督(PSC)。 力晶可以执行其自己独特的,有时单方面规定。 这方面的一个例子可以看出,在美国和其到达事先通知的要求。 这不是一个特定的国际管理和只船只进入/离开美国水域。

如前所述,在海上人命安全公约所列的规则大多是专为500总吨以上的游艇。 游艇,这些规则可以作为难以满足SOLAS公约的规定主要是对国际贸易的商船书面得到全面遵守。 主要的游艇旗已经认识到,在运动或休闲商业用途游艇不属于一个类自然,某些指定商船的安全标准已被发现与使用目的,经营范围不符,或安全需要特别这些游艇。 正因为如此,主要集中在标志,游艇上创建和维护国家法规的主要规则相等(游艇代码)自己套。 使用中的主要代码:

伯利兹:游艇的标准代号商业或私人用途
马耳他:商业游艇码
马绍尔群岛:商业游艇码(公益少年团)
圣文森特和格林纳丁斯:实务守则安全游艇从事商业贸易
阿联酋:阿联酋游艇条例
英国:大型商业游艇代码(LY2)

最值得注意的是从这个名单上没有,是美国。 有了这样一个大型的游艇船队,人们可能会认为它有一个游艇代码。 其实不然。 美国没有一个大型游艇代码或类似的标准。 美国旗的游艇规例交织在一起,在联邦法规法典(CFRs)的商船。

争论的另一个领域是对私人游艇包租津贴。 这是波动的意见,在许多情况下,与实际的冲突规则。 它是一个动态的话题,肯定会在以后的专栏扩大。

许多人可以证明,实现了游艇商业认证是一个艰难的过程。 有些人认为,保持认证是一个更高的任务。 商业上证明游艇历来所有一个禁忌的话题,但寻求最大的游艇规范。 打破这种不正确的束缚,通过了,就为“不可能的”口头历史是提升我们的行业内的质量标准的一个新的水平势在必行。

For a pleasure yacht to be legally engaged in trade and considered a commercial yacht, she must be surveyed and certified to numerous international and national regulations. These rules cover a spectrum of topics for safety, environmental protection and security. Applicability is based upon a combination of the yacht’s length, tonnage and the number of people on board.

In general, the majority of international regulations are established by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The IMO is a specialized agency of the United Nations. Its 169 Member States and three Associate Members are the force behind nearly all technical standards and legal rules for safety at sea and prevention of pollution by ships. The key rules that affect yachts are the following:

SOLAS – International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea

The SOLAS Convention, in its successive forms, is generally regarded as the most important of all international treaties concerning the safety of merchant ships. In its current structure, the 12 chapters cover all aspects of shipping from construction and fire protection to nuclear propulsion, dangerous cargo, safety management and maritime security. The bulk of SOLAS affects internationally trading vessels of 500 gross tons and greater.

For regulatory purposes, a commercial yacht is considered a cargo ship. If she is certified to carry more than 12 guests, regardless of size, the yacht is no longer a cargo ship, but a passenger ship, even if one calls her a yacht. There is a distinct difference between these two vessel types. 

ICLL – International Convention on Load Lines

The International Load Line Convention, as it is used today on all commercial, internationally trading yachts of 24m in length or greater, establishes detailed regulations on the assignment of freeboard, its affects on stability, and most importantly, the safe transportation of guests and crew. The Convention takes into account the potential hazards present in different zones and different seasons (Winter North Atlantic versus the Tropics).

The technical annex contains several additional safety measures concerning doors, freeing ports, hatchways and other items. The main purpose of these measures is to ensure the watertight integrity of ships' hulls below the freeboard deck.

MARPOL – International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships

MARPOL is the most important of all global treaties established for protecting the marine environment. The Convention includes strict regulations focused at preventing and minimizing both accidental and operational pollution.

The current requirements are outlined in six technical Annexes, each of which is designed to combat a particular class of pollutants: oil, noxious liquid, packaged dangerous goods, sewage, garbage, and air pollution.

STCW – International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers

STCW sets certification standards for masters, officers and watch personnel on seagoing merchant ships. Commercial yachts are subject to compliance with the Code, as well as any person holding a certificate of competence for a certain rank. The Convention prescribes minimum standards relating to training, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers, which countries are obliged to meet or exceed.
 
While the IMO is the source of these regulations, it is the Member States that are responsible for enforcement. Commonly referred to as the Flag Administration or Flag State, this is the government that registers the yacht. Through a series of inspections, plan reviews, surveys and audits, the Flag ensures that a yacht meets the requirements of the applicable regulation.
For example, for yachts registered under the British flag, the Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) is the Flag Administration for the United Kingdom and its dependencies (Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Gibraltar, Isle of Man, and other overseas territories). In some cases, the Flag delegates its enforcement authority, or a portion thereof, to a Recognized Organization (RO). An RO is most commonly a classification society. The major classification societies in yachting are the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Bureau Veritas (BV), Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Germanischer Lloyd (GL), Lloyds Register (LR), and Registro Italiano Navale (RINA). There are also organizations dedicated solely to yacht certifications, such as the International Yacht Bureau (IYB).

Classification, as a completely private service performed by these societies, consists of the issuing of rules for the safety of vessels, and performing inspections to ensure that these rules are being applied. The main purpose is to protect the vessels as a piece of property. The rules apply principally to the structural strength of the hull and the reliability of its essential machinery and equipment. The owner uses the certificate issued by the classification society as an assurance of technical soundness and as a tool for obtaining insurance at a reasonable cost.

On the local level, sovereign and other self-governing nations have the right to control any activities within their borders, including those of visiting yachts. Authority and control over foreign-flagged yachts in a country’s ports, used for verifying compliance with the requirements of the applicable maritime conventions, is called Port State Control (PSC). PSC may enforce its own unique, and sometimes unilateral, regulations. An example of this can be seen in the United States and its requirement for an Advanced Notice of Arrival. This is not an international regulation and is specific only to vessels entering/departing U.S. waters.

As previously mentioned, the majority of rules outlined in SOLAS are designed for yachts of 500 gross tons or greater. For yachts, these rules can be difficult to meet full compliance as the regulations in SOLAS are predominantly written for internationally trading merchant ships. The major yachting Flags have recognized that yachts in commercial use for sport or pleasure do not fall naturally into a single class, and certain prescribed merchant ship safety standards have been found to be incompatible with the intended use, scope of operations, or safety needs particular to such yachts. Because of this, the Flags that focus predominantly on yachts created and maintain their own sets of national regulations (Yacht Codes) for equivalencies to the major rules. The major codes in use:

Belize: The Codes of Standards for Yachts in Commercial or Private Use
Malta: Commercial Yacht Code
Marshall Islands: Commercial Yacht Code (CYC)
St. Vincent & the Grenadines: Safety Code of Practice for Pleasure Yachts Engaged in Commercial Trade
United Arab Emirates: UAE Yacht Regulations
United Kingdom and Red Ensign Group: The Large Commercial Yacht Code (LY2)

Most notably absent from this list is the United States. With such a large fleet of yachts, one would think that it has a yacht code. This is not case. The U.S. does not have a Large Yacht Code or similar standard. Regulations for U.S.-flagged yachts are intertwined with those for merchant ships in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs).

Another area of contention is the allowance for private yachts to charter. This is where opinions fluctuate and, in many cases, conflict with the actual rules. It is a dynamic topic and will certainly be expanded in a future column.

Many people can attest that achieving commercial certification for a yacht is a difficult process.  Some have the opinion that maintaining the certification is an even higher task. Commercially certifying a yacht has traditionally been a taboo subject for all but the largest of yachts seeking to charter. Breaking this chain of incorrect, pass down, verbal history for “impossibility” is imperative for elevating the quality standard within our industry to the next level.

 

杰克DesVergers

专栏作家

2010112

 

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