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学习英语的终极法门——可用于所有事情

(2009-01-23 16:41:36)
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英英

牛津

(本博客蓝色字为转引文章)
game of time 一种时间的游戏 (2008-09-28 17:56:14)

A procedure to "own" the English Language

The definition of an English Expert

The definition of an English Expert is someone who can use English freely to the same degree as native speakers. He/she must be able to generate grammatically correct  academic English naturally and not through the process of manual application of grammatical rules and not through the process of mechanical memorisation.

能够称得上英语专家的人应该有能力,像以英语为母语人士一样,自由程度运用英语.他必须能自然地形成语法正确的学术英语,而不需要通过应用语法规则和使用机械记忆的方法.

The ability to translate

The ability to translate is the ability to use both lanugages. The most efficient way to improve your ability of using a particular language is to improve your language sense by continuously exposing yourself to the very original version of it for quite a while. This kind of feel can not be learned through schooling.

翻译能力实质是运用两种语言的能力。最有效的改善你使用某种语言能力的方法是通过长期不间断的接触地道的语言的方法来提高你的语感.这种语感不能通过学校学会.

My way to become an English Expert

The following is my way to become an English Expert. It is for your reference:

The presumed beginning point is zero foundation. Of course, this is not true in my case as I have already had some schooling before starting this process.

以下是我成为一个英语专家的方法.尤其为那些英语基础为零的读者提供参考,当然,对于我来讲,这是不正确的因为我在开始着手这个过程之前已经在学校里学到了一些英语基础。

The whole process could be divided into 3 stages:

整个过程可以分成三个阶段:

Stage I: Foundation;

第一阶段:初级

Period: 2 years.

时间:两年

Text Book: Xu Guozhang English .

教材:许国璋英语

Try to spend 2 hours per day for a week. Try to find a tutor for the purpose of oral practice, if you could not find a tutor, try to use the mirror.

试着在一周内每天花两个小时。口语方面可以找个家教,如果没有,也可以用镜子代替。

For the purpose of pronunciation rectification,especially if you do not have a tutor, try to use a TAPE to record your pronunciation and play it by comparing with the tape.

在矫正发音方面,如果你没有家教的话,试着用磁带录下你的发音并播放出来与原声作比较。

The key issue here is to listen the TAPE/CD carefully and try your best to imitate the pronunciation.

这里关键是要仔细听磁带或碟片并尽你所能模仿发音。

Do exercise as much as possible!! Generally speaking,listen, write and speak and read as much as you can.

尽量多练习!!一般来讲,要竭尽所能多听、多写、多说、多读。

 

Stage II: Intermediate:

第二阶段:中级

Period: 2 years.

时间:两年

Get a good English-English Dictionary such as Webster or Oxford;

找一部好的英英字典,比如韦伯斯特或牛津字典;

Reading Materials:'Times', 'Newsweek','Economist',(I personally prefer the last one.)

阅读材料:美国《时代周刊》,美国《新闻周刊》,《经济学家》(我个人偏好最后一个)

Radio Station: BBC.

广播电台 :英国广播电台

One hour a day listening to BBC. Copy down all the words you knew. Ignore all the words you do not know.

每天花一小时听BBC,把你知道的单词都写下来。忽略掉那些你不认识的单词。

Two hours a day reading those above mentioned magazines using the English-English Dictionary. Do not try to memorise those words as it is not necessary because you will have the opportunity to experience in the future. You will naturally 'own them' through repeated encountering.

每天两小时用英英字典辅助阅读以上所提到的杂志。切忌背诵那些生词,当然也不必要,因为在以后的学习过程中你还有机会再次遇到那些生词。这些词一经重复出现,你会自然地掌握。

Two hours a week writing: You are supposed to write anything regarding your understanding of those kinds of materials you have read.

每周两小时写作:对你所阅读的材料有任何的理解,你都可以写。

Two hours a week discussion: You will try your best to find a well-educated native speaker for this particular purpose.

每周两小时讨论:尽量找一个受过良好教育的以英语为母语的人和你交流讨论。

For the purpose of practicing Enlish, try to talk about the above contents as much as you can so that your vocabulary or structure can be maximumly improved.

在练习英语时,尽可能地谈论以上所提到的内容,这样你的词汇和句型就可以得到最大限度的提高。

 

Stage III: Advanced:

第三阶段:高级

Period: 2 years.

时间:两年

Get a good English-English Dictionary such as Webster or Oxford;

找一部好的英英字典,比如韦伯斯特或牛津字典;

Reading Materials:Penguin published Classical English Novels excluding those books as a result of translations.

阅读材料:企鹅出版社出版的经典英语小说,翻译版除外。

Radio Station: BBC.

广播电台 :英国广播电台

One hour a day listening to BBC. Copy down all the words you knew. Ignore all the words you do not know.

每天花一小时听BBC,把你知道的单词都写下来。忽略掉那些你不认识的单词。

Two hours a day reading those above mentioned books using the English-English Dictionary. Do not try to memorise those words as it is not necessary because you will have the opportunity to experience in the future. You will naturally 'own them' through repeated encountering.

每天两小时用英英字典辅助阅读以上所提到的杂志。切忌背诵那些生词,当然也不必要,因为在以后的学习过程中你还有机会再次遇到那些生词。这些词一经重复出现,你会自然地掌握。

Two hours a week writing: You are supposed to write anything regarding your understanding of those kinds materials you have read.

每周两小时写作:对你所阅读的材料有任何的理解,你都可以写。

Two hours a week discussion: You will try your best to find a well-educated native speaker for this particular purpose.

每周两小时讨论:尽量找一个受过良好教育的以英语为母语的人和你交流讨论。

For the purpose of practicing Enlish, try to talk about the above contents as much as you can so that your vocabulary or structure can be maximumly improved.

在练习英语时,尽可能地谈论以上所提到的内容,这样你的词汇和句型就可以得到最大限度的提高。

On average, you have to spend 25 hours per week. For the purpose of mastering the language, it is not necessary to focus on the precise application of grammar. Grammar is there as a beginning tool only. Your focus should be on the 'owning' of the English which is the automatic generation of grammatically correct English rather than taking the approach of precise application of grammar and mechanical memorisation, every time you use English, for the purpose of generating such kind of English.

每周平均花25小时。掌握一门语言,在语法方面斤斤计较是不必要的。语法仅仅是你学习这门语言起步的工具。你关注的应该是“拥有”英语,即自然形成语法正确的英语;而不是通过准确应用语法规则和机械记忆的方法。

 

 

Finally, some notes:   

最后,一些注意项目:

1.Natural assimiliation/affiliation.

    1、自然的同化

2.Grammar is important as the tools for you to start your assimiliation process, but any kind of excessive focus, for the sake of precise application of grammar, on them is harmful and counterproductive. Learning a language is not the same as learning mathematics in the sense that you have to develop the language sense and you should not always rely on the application of grammatical rules, otherwise your usage of the langauge will not be natural and smooth and fast. Your long term development will be hindered by the mere fact that you are using grammatical rules all the time. Because Chinese system of teaching English heavily focus on the testing of grammar, this has sent an implicit message to the students that learning English is the same as learning mathematics which is not true. This also applies to mechanical memorisation without the emotional involvement for the purpose of generating automatic feeling with the language.

    2、语法作为你开始同化过程的工具来说是重要的,但是过度的关注和讲求准确应用语法是有害的而且会产生负面影响。从意义上说,学习一门语言不同于学习数学。你应该培养语感,并且不能一直依赖于语法规则的运用。否则,你对语言的使用不会那么自然、流畅和迅速,你长期的发展会由于你一直都在使用语法规则来学习语言而受到阻碍。因为中国的英语教育系统过分地关注语法考试,这就隐含地给同学传递了一个认为学习英语就和学习数学一样的错误信息。同样,为了形成自然语感,没有感情投入的机械的背诵也是不可取的。

3.Do not study for exams. You should study hard to get yourself assimiliated with the English environment and use exams as a kind of yardsticks only rather than final target.  There is little correlation between your high English ability and the fact that you have passed some sorts of exams with a very high score because any kinds of exams are designed by humans and they are guaranteed to have some constraints or defects. Therefore, it is not appropriate to use exam as a kind of objective test for your English capability. I believe the best test should be the fact that your brain could generate grammatically correct English without relying on the application of grammatical rules in the first place and think in English everytime you use the English language.

    3、不要为了考试而学习。你应该努力学习,使自己和英语环境相融合;应该仅把考试当成一个检验自己成绩的标准而不是最终目标。你在某些考试中取得了高分与你的英语水平高是没有必然联系的,因为所有的考试题都是由考官设计而且总归会有一些局限或缺陷的。因而,用考试的方式来客观衡量你的英语能力是不恰当的。我认为最好的测试是首先你的头脑可以不依赖于语法规则的使用而能形成语法正确的英语,其次每逢你使用英语时,你的头脑可以直接用英语进行思考。

4.By the same token, you should not memorise dictionary simply because of the lack of contexts.

    4、同样,不应该背诵字典,因为字典缺乏语境。

5.Ignore those publications/radio programs/any other media programs which are generated by orgnisations from non-native speaking countries.This of course includes the publication by Chinese publication organisations.

    5、忽略那些来自母语非英语国家的组织制作的出版刊物、电台节目或媒体节目。这当然也包括中国出版机构发行的刊物。

6.During the process of learning the English language, the utilisation of English-Chinese Dictionary should be banned as this will not be conducive for your purpose of cultivating the feel for English.

This is surely different from using the English-Chinese dictionary for translation purposes.

6.在学习英语期间,应严禁使用英汉字典,因为如果不这样做不利于培养英语语感.

这当然应和在翻译时使用英汉字典区别对待.

7.In addition to regular assimilation with the English environment, you are also supposed to spend at least 5 or 6 hours per week trying to improve your Chinese capability for the purpose of translation. The text to be read should include those pre 1949 authors simply because their supremacy in the field of Chinese writings are not subject to debate and they have some sort of foundation in Classical Chinese. I have chosen the following authors and books in the order of priority:

    7、在你与英语语言环境相融合的同时,你还应该为了翻译而每周花5-6小时提高你的汉语能力。你提高汉语水平应读的书籍应包括那些出生于1949年以前作家的作品,因为他们在汉语写作方面的登峰造极的水平和能力是毋庸置疑的,而且他们在古汉语方面有一定的基础。我选择了以下作家作为首选:

A.Laoshe, Maodun, Bajing, Yu Dafu, Luxun, Lingyutang,hushi

    A:老舍,茅盾,巴金,郁达夫,鲁迅,林语堂,胡适

B.'A Dream of Red Mansions'.

B:《红楼梦》

8.Let the two systems (Chinese and English) develop separately and use English-English Dictionary not only help you to understand the definition but also naturally acquire the ability of thinking in English. Let the brain itself do the coordination work for the sake of translation. Do not worry! You will do it very well if you have cultivated very good assmiliation with English and Chinese.

 8.让你的汉语和英语两个系统分开发展。用英英字典帮你理解释义并且自然地掌握直接用英语思考的能力。为了翻译,要让大脑自身来完成协调的工作。别担心,如果你已经形成了良好的内化汉语和英语的本领,你会做得很好。

I think the common mistakes of Chinese Students are the excessive focus on grammar and exams.

我想中国学生最普遍的误区就是过分关注语法和考试。

I think the above procedure can be re-applied to learn any other languages.

我认为以上所提到的步骤可以迁移到其他任何一门语言。

 From 1992 to 1999 immediately prior to going to New Zealand, I think I have spent around 7 years on English based on the above procedure. As a result, I can say that I have successfully 'owned' the English language meaning I do not have to rely on grammar to generate grammatically correct English to a very advanced degree. My brain is capable of doing so without thinking about the grammar in the first place. In addition, due to the fact that I have used English-English dictionary for a long time, I am able to think in English and my brain is capable of free switching in between this two languages very easily. My current problem with the English language is the ability to understand the complete connotative meanings of words.

 自从1992年到1999年我到了新西兰以前,我想我已经基于以上所提到的步骤在英语方面花了7年左右时间。结果是,我可以说我已经成功地拥有了英语,也就是说,我不需要依赖语法就能形成高层次的语法正确的英语。我的大脑可以做到这一点,而不需要首先想着使用语法。而且,由于我已经使用英英字典很长一段时间了,我的大脑不仅能够用英语进行思考还能实现这两种语言之间的自由转换。我英语目前欠缺的是完整理解单词的隐含意义的能力。

My experience tells you that it is possible to 'own' English in a non-native environment without going through the formal 4 years academic training. If I could do it, you should be better and much better. As a matter of fact, you will have much more time exposing yourself to the pure native English according to my procedure than going through formal 4 years training. Because during those years according to my procedure,

我的经验告诉你,在一个非英语的环境下,不经过正式的大学四年训练你也可以拥有英语。如果我能用这个方法做到,你亦可以做到,而且能够做得更好。事实上,用我介绍的步骤而不经过四年的正规训练会使你有更多的时间去接触地道的英语。因为在这些年中,根据我的步骤,

1.you have no vacation.

1、你没有像大学一样的假期;

2.you do not have to study anything else.

2、你不必学习其他的东西;

3.And you do not have the temptation that normal schooling entails such as the temptation of opposite sex.

3、而且你不会有正规的学校学习生活中必然的的诱惑,如异性的诱惑;

4.You also do not have to waste time on exams.

4、你不必浪费时间忙于考试;

5.I have not misplaced my focus on grammar and exams.

5.我没有把我关注的焦点错误地放在语法和考试上。

6.I have eliminated the method of mechanical memorisation.

6.我已排除了机械记忆法.

In addition to the above, I think my procedure has the following advantages:

此外,我认为我的程序有下列优点:

7.The reading materials I have chosen are considered to be classic in both languages. Therefore, you should not worry about quality. More importantly,this procedure has minimised the influence of human factors which means you will not be disadvantaged due to poor or irresponsible teachers.

7.由于我选的阅读资料是英语和汉语中,被认为是最优秀的,所以,不要担心学习质量问题.更重要的是,这个步骤已把人为因素降到最低, 这也就是说,你不会因差或不负责任的老师而吃亏.

8.Due to the nature of reading materials Ihave chosen, it is guaranteed that you would not learn Chinglish.

8.由于我选择的阅读材料的特性,我可以保证你不会学到中式英文.

9.Due to the fact that I have focused on the idea of generating feelings rather than passing some sorts of exams to get high marks, religiously applying grammatical rules and using Chinese as a kind of medium for your English learning process and mechnical memorisation, the effect on your brain should be much deeper and natural. You should be able to "owm" it meaning your brain should be able to freely switching in between this two at the end of the procedure.

因为我追求产生语感而不是在考试中追求高分和死板地应用语法规则并用汉语作为学习英文的媒介和机械记忆,其学习效果应该更深和更自然.你应该可以拥有英文,也就是说你的大脑应有在两者之间自由转换的能力.

Please do not think this is too long so that this is too difficult for you. As a matter of fact, it is very easy for you because you are the one who is in charge during the whole process whereas there are a lot of things in life which you have no control whatsoever.

不要认为这个过程太长,所以对你太难.

其实,从我们可以控制的角度来讲,学英语是最容易的因为一切都在你的掌控之中.在我们的一生当中,有很多的事,我们是毫无控制权的.

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