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美国汽车厂商踌躇满志开拓出口业务

(2008-04-10 02:08:30)
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汽车音响

美国汽车

竞争力增加

出口

车载音响

汽车

分类: 新闻
Detroit Sets Bold Goal: Exporting US Cars

2008年04月09日13:26

去年达成的新劳动合同以及美元贬值等有利因素让美国汽车制造业焕发新鲜活力,眼下底特律的汽车制造商们纷纷摩拳擦掌,欲将大量的“美国造”汽车出口至世界各地。

Last year's landmark labor deals and the weak dollar are breathing new life into U.S. auto plants, leading Detroit's auto makers to plan sizable exports of U.S.-made vehicles to markets around the world.

通用汽车(General Motors Corp.)的高管证实,公司有意向欧洲、中国和包括巴西在内的拉美市场出口美国制造的汽车。克莱斯勒集团(Chrysler LLC)也主要在汇率因素的引诱下开始将生产从欧洲转移到美国,以利用低成本和现成产能的优势。据知情人士称,福特汽车(Ford Motor Co.)也在考虑增加出口,但前提是该公司能降低劳动力成本。

General Motors Corp. is looking to export U.S.-made vehicles to Europe as well as to China and Latin American markets such as Brazil, company executives confirmed. Chrysler LLC, primarily spurred by exchange rates, has already started shifting production from Europe to the U.S. to take advantage of lower costs and available plant capacity. Ford Motor Co. is considering ramping up exports if it can bring labor costs down, people familiar with the matter said.

多年以来,美国一直是全世界汽车制造成本最高昂的地方。但去年秋季制造商们与全美汽车工人联合会(United Auto Workers, UAW)签订的新劳动合同极大地提升了三大汽车制造商的全球竞争力。再加上美元贬值,使得在美国生产的成本不再那么昂贵,也有助于扭转美国汽车制造业的颓势。

For years the U.S. has been one of the most expensive places in the world to make cars. But the new contracts with the United Auto Workers union signed last fall significantly improve the global competitive position of Big Three plants. The weaker dollar, which makes production in the U.S. less expensive, is also helping to turn the economics of domestic production upside down.

UAW派驻通用汽车田纳西州斯普林希尔一家汽车组装厂的官员麦克?赫隆(Mike Herron)称,美元贬值加上新的劳动合同,我们在向其他国家出口产品并实现盈利方面取得了巨大的优势。赫隆曾参与UAW和通用汽车间的劳动合同谈判。

'Combined with the weak dollar, we've got a contract that puts ourselves in a great position to ship products to other countries and do it making a profit,' said Mike Herron, a UAW official at GM's assembly plant in Spring Hill, Tenn., who is involved in negotiations with the company.

美国汽车制造业竞争力回升让外国同行感到不安,因为他们的员工没有加入工会。据知情人士透露,丰田汽车(Toyota Motor)眼下正着手降低在美国的劳动力成本。

Detroit's improved competitive position has sparked concern among foreign manufacturers, which do not use unionized U.S. workers. Toyota Motor Corp. is now pushing to lower labor costs in the U.S., say people familiar with the matter.

通用汽车计划在今年晚些时候开始向中国出口密歇根州兰辛制造的“别克Enclave”7座混合型运动多用途汽车(SUV)。在中国,别克是个热卖品牌。通用汽车发言人迪?艾伦(Dee Allen)表示,公司希望最终每年能向中国出口2.5万辆Enclave。

Later this year, GM will begin shipping the Buick Enclave, a seven-passenger crossover sport-utility vehicle made in Lansing, Mich., to China, where the Buick brand is a big seller. GM hopes eventually to export as many as 25,000 Enclaves a year to China, said Dee Allen, a GM spokesman.

通用汽车管理人员称,公司还打算向巴西和其他拉美国家出口在堪萨斯和密歇根生产的雪佛兰Malibu轿车,可能还有其他美国产汽车。

GM is making plans to sell the Chevrolet Malibu, a sedan made in Kansas and Michigan, and possibly other U.S.-made passenger cars in Brazil and other Latin American markets, GM executives have said.

知情人士称,通用还向UAW官员表示,正在慎重考虑在俄亥俄州的洛兹敦生产一款新的小型汽车,出口北美之外的市场。据悉,这款车是2010年之前将在此地生产的5款新车之一。由于高昂的UAW劳动力成本,有42年历史的洛兹敦装配厂曾一度被纳入有可能关闭的行列。

The company also has told UAW officials it is seriously considering building a future small car in Lordstown, Ohio, that would be exported to markets outside North America, people familiar with the matter said. It would be one of five new vehicles being produced there near the turn of the decade, one of these people said. The 42-year-old Lordstown assembly plant had been considered a candidate for closure due to high UAW labor costs.

通用总裁兼首席运营长弗雷德里克?亨德森(Frederick Henderson)在一封电邮中说,通用最近重新设计的几款车在美国广受欢迎,我们认为它在全球其他许多市场也会有极大的潜力,并着眼于这样的机会。

GM's president and chief operating officer, Frederick Henderson, said in an email that several of GM's recently redesigned models have 'gotten great acceptance in the U.S. and we believe it has significant potential in many other markets globally, and we are looking at such opportunities.'

他还说,美元走软增强了出口竞争力和潜在的盈利能力。

The 'more competitive U.S. dollar improves export competitiveness and potential profitability,' he added.

克莱斯勒的发言人说,公司一直利用合同制造商装配在欧洲销售的小型货车,但这桩交易在2007年之后就终止了,今年克莱斯勒开始向欧洲出口圣路易斯附近的一间工厂生产的道奇Caravan小型货车,这款车在欧洲冠以克莱斯勒Voyager的品牌。

Chrysler had been using a contract manufacturer to assemble minivans for sale in Europe, but it chose not to extend the deal beyond 2007 and this year started exporting the Dodge Caravan minivan -- branded Chrysler Voyager in Europe -- made in a plant near St. Louis to Europe, a company spokeswoman said.

克莱斯勒还向几个欧洲国家出口伊利诺伊州贝尔维德生产的小型道奇车和吉普车。今年迄今为止,出口汽车已逾1.5万辆,比上年同期增长约40%。

It is also exporting increasing numbers of compact Dodge and Jeep models made in Belvidere, Ill., to several European countries. So far this year, more than 15,000 have been exported, up about 40% from the year-earlier period.

知情人士称,克莱斯勒较大的吉普车依然在欧洲生产,但其与欧洲制造商Magna Steyr AG的吉普车生产合同将于2009年到期,克莱斯勒在考虑届时将生产转到美国。

Chrysler still has larger Jeeps made in Europe but is looking at moving that production to its U.S. plants when the Jeep contract with its European manufacturer, Magna Steyr AG, expires in 2009, a person familiar with the matter said.

知情人士称,去年秋季,福特的管理层给工会谈判代表画了张大饼,说如果生产成本能更具竞争力,UAW生产的汽车将有更多出口机会。另外的知情人士说,现在,福特正在考虑,如果经济帐算得过来的话,就向巴西和墨西哥等地出口Ranger小型皮卡和福克斯(Focus)小型汽车。

Ford executives last fall dangled a carrot to union negotiators, saying exporting opportunities for UAW-built vehicles could increase with more competitive manufacturing costs, a person familiar with the matter said. Now Ford is mulling exporting the Ranger small pickup truck and Focus small car to places such as Brazil and Mexico when the economics make sense, another person familiar with the matter said.

位于密歇根州诺斯威尔的咨询公司CSM Worldwide的分析师麦克尔?罗宾纳特(Michael Robinet)说,去年秋季签定的UAW协议更加确保了从美国工厂出口汽车有利可图。他说,美元走软和新的UAW劳动合同的组合效应令美国成了跟中国和巴西一样的低成本国家。

The UAW contract signed last fall added assurance that exporting from U.S. plants could be viable, said Michael Robinet, an analyst at Northville, Mich., consulting firm CSM Worldwide. The combined effects from a falling dollar and the new UAW labor contract 'make the U.S. a low-cost country' like China and Brazil, he said.

新的UAW合同产生了新一代美国汽车工人,他们的薪资福利更接近于丰田给美国工人的报酬,新员工的薪水为每小时14美元,而非以前的26美元。同时,金额达数十亿美元的退休人员医疗费此前给三大厂商造成沉重负担,现在也转给了外部的信托基金。

The new UAW contracts create a new generation of U.S. auto workers with wages and benefits more in line with what Toyota pays its U.S. workers, with wages for new hires at $14 an hour instead of the previous $26. It also offloads billions of dollars in retiree health-care liabilities hobbling the Big Three to outside trust funds.

丰田管理人员说,为了保持竞争力,丰田建新厂时已不再按UAW的标准支付薪资。他们说,公司不会降低现有工人的薪水,但新员工的薪水超出工厂所在地制造业普遍薪水的幅度不高于50%。

To stay competitive, Toyota has stopped pegging its wages to UAW rates when it builds new plants, company executives said. It won't cut wages of current workers, but new hires will be paid no more than 50% above the prevailing manufacturing wage in the area where a plant is located, they said.

出口大量美国产汽车在帮助三大厂商扭转无利可图的北美运营状况方面大有可为,或许还能帮助这些厂商开发迅速发展的海外市场,尤其是在美国的销量受到经济危机的沉重打击之际。出口有助于降低每辆车的成本,并能利用过剩的产能。

Exporting a large number of U.S.-made cars could go a long way in helping the Big Three turn around their unprofitable North American operations. It could also help them tap faster-growing overseas markets, especially at a time when U.S. sales have been hit by economic worries. Exports could help lower costs per vehicle and use up excess manufacturing capacity.

不过挑战依然存在。这些公司必须想出办法,在不超出有限预算的情况下满足多个国家的需求。如果不能吸引足够多的工人接受一次性补偿自愿离职或是提前退休,以便为薪资福利较低的新雇员腾出工作机会,这个方案仍可能失败。在克莱斯勒和福特,接受一次性补偿自愿离职的工人数量比公司希望的要少。

Challenges remain. The companies must figure out how to meet demand in an array of countries without busting their limited budgets. The concept could still fizzle if they can't entice enough current workers to accept buyouts or early retirement deals to open jobs for new hires who would get reduced wages and benefits. Both Chrysler and Ford have gotten fewer takers than they had hoped for their buyout packages.

增加出口也要求在海外市场有更好的渠道,尤其是在亚洲,那里的一些国家让美国汽车无机可乘,相反还向美国出口数百万辆车。俄罗斯是大切诺基(Jeep Grand Cherokee)等车型的重大潜在市场,但对进口商品课以重税。通用管理层最近有所调整,其总裁兼首席执行长瓦格纳(Rick Wagoner)将在监管方面的问题上投入更多时间,同时各大汽车制造商也向总统候选人提出了这个问题。

Increasing exports also requires better access to overseas markets, especially in Asia where some countries lock out Detroit's vehicles while sending millions of cars to the U.S. Russia, a big potential market for vehicles like the Jeep Grand Cherokee, imposes heavy tariffs on imports. GM Chairman and Chief Executive Rick Wagoner will devote more time to regulatory issues under a recent management shift there, and the auto makers have pressed the issue with the presidential candidates.

据美国商务部的数据,去年美国出口的小汽车和轻型卡车总值506.6亿美元,为其进口额的三分之一。其出口量约有半数流入邻近的墨西哥和加拿大。其余大多为别的地方无法供应的高档汽车。

The U.S. last year exported $50.66 billion worth of cars and light trucks, according to the Commerce Department, or about a third of what it imported. Roughly half of its exports are to neighboring Mexico and Canada. Much of the rest consists of higher-end vehicles unavailable elsewhere.

底特律的汽车厂商认为,它们现在可以出口更多面向大众市场的汽车。在新的合同签定之前,美国的汽车行业劳动力成本比法国和日本高50%。只有德国的劳动力成本高于美国。

Detroit's auto makers believe they can now export more mass-market vehicles. Until the new contract was signed, auto labor in the U.S. was 50% more expensive than in France and Japan. Only Germany had higher labor costs than the U.S.

受美元走软的影响,外国汽车厂商也更多地把目光投向了美国。宝马汽车公司(BMW AG)在南卡罗来纳州的工厂投入了7.5亿美元,以大幅提高美国的产量,其中大多在欧洲销售。大众汽车(Volkswagen AG)考虑在北美建立一间新工厂,许多观察家都预计地点会在美国。意大利的菲亚特公司(Fiat S.p.A.)上周证实,其已开始讨论,想寻找合作伙伴装配在美国生产的阿尔法?罗米欧(Alfa Romeo)汽车。

Spurred by the dollar, foreign auto makers are also devoting more attention to the U.S. BMW AG is pumping $750 million into its South Carolina plant to significantly expand U.S. output, much of which is earmarked for Europe. Volkswagen AG is looking to build a new plant in North America, and many observers expect it to be in the U.S. Italy's Fiat SpA last week confirmed it is beginning discussions to find a partner that can assemble Alfa Romeo cars built in the U.S.

这股潮流并非仅限于大厂商。北卡罗来纳州初创公司Tesla Motors开发了一款电动汽车,最近该公司决定废止在泰国生产价值两万多美元的电池的计划。相反,由于汇率的原因,该公司将在美国组装元件。Telsa还将在欧洲销售汽车的计划提前一年,寄希望于向以欧元支付的买家销售汽车以实现高额利润。

The trend isn't limited to the big players. Tesla Motors, a Northern California start-up developing an electric car, recently decided to scrap plans to build its $20,000-plus batteries in Thailand. Instead, it will assemble the components in the U.S. because of currency values. Tesla has also pushed ahead its plan to sell cars in Europe by one year in hopes of banking big profits by selling cars to buyers paying in euros.

成本并非美国汽车厂商实现出口的唯一障碍。通用发现其许多美国产汽车在海外缺乏吸引力。通用、克莱斯勒和福特的同一款车在美国和欧洲市场通常有不同车型,这就让它们难以在同一间工厂同时生产两款车。福特福克斯的美国版与欧洲版的基本结构都不一样。结果,就算亚洲、东欧和拉美汽车销量猛增,出口美国汽车也没有太大的经济意义。

Costs weren't the only barrier to exports for Detroit. GM found the appeal for many of its U.S.-made vehicles overseas was lacking. GM, Chrysler and Ford often made different versions of the same vehicles for the U.S. and Europe, which precluded them from producing both in the same plant. The U.S. version of the Ford Focus is made from different underpinnings than the Focus sold in Europe. As a result, it made little economic sense to export U.S.-made vehicles even as auto sales soared in Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America.

随着美元在过去几年中节节走软,汽车厂商也开始反思自己的策略,它们还开始开发全球性的平台,进而拿出一套统一的基本结构,以便实现在全球销售。

The auto makers began rethinking their options as the dollar plunged over the past few years. They also began developing global platforms that will give them a single set of underpinnings for vehicles they can sell around the world.

通用拉美、非洲和中东区总裁莫琳?肯普斯顿-达克斯(Maureen Kempston-Darkes)在一次采访中说,她急于利用美国的一切条件来推动自己所负责的86个国家的突破性增长。

The head of the GM unit covering Latin America, Africa and the Middle East, Maureen Kempston-Darkes, said in an interview she is eager to 'tap what the U.S. has' to fuel the breakneck growth in the 86 countries she oversees.

肯普斯顿-达克斯所负责的地区对通用至关重要,贡献了全球收入的10%。去年,该地区的销售额达183亿美元,较2003年的50亿美元大幅增长。到2010年,通用的目标是在该地区实现250亿美元的收入,目前该地区是利润最丰厚的。

Ms. Kempston-Darkes's region is a critical arm of GM, contributing 10% of global revenue. Last year its sales totaled $18.3 billion, up from $5 billion in 2003. By 2010, GM aims to bank $25 billion in revenue from the region, which currently is by far its most profitable.

John D. Stoll / Norihiko Shirouzu / Neal E. Boudette

http://chinese.wsj.com/gb/20080409/ffe132017.asp 

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