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科技文翻译

(2010-10-19 12:46:14)
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杂谈

2.2词类转换

 

      英汉两种语言属于不同的语系,英语属于印欧语系,汉语属于汉藏语系。不同语系的语言,无论在词汇方面或在语法方面都有很大的差别。就词类来说,同一意思在不同语言中可以用不同的词类来表达。由此,在科技英语翻译实践中,在很多情况下需要进行词类转换。所谓词类转换,是指把原文语言中的某一词类(如名词)转译成汉语的另一词类(比如动词)而言。原文语言中的动词译成汉语后变为副词,原文中的名词译成汉语的动词等等,便是翻译上的词类转换译法。掌握翻译中的词类转换译法,就可使我们敢于脱离原文词类的限制,跳出原文词类的框框,用汉语的适当词类予以表达。

 

2.2.1转换成汉语动词

 

      英语和汉语比较起来,汉语中动词用得比较多,这是一个特点。往往在英语句子中只用一个谓语动词,而在汉语中却可以几个动词或动词性结构连用。因此,英语中不少词类(尤其是名词、形容词、副词)在汉译时往往可以转译成动词。

 

2.2.1.1名词转换成动词

 

      英语中大量具有动作意义的名词和由动词派生出来的名词往往可以译成动词。例如:

 

      (1)Global warming observed over the past century has focused attention on mantled greenhouse gas,presumed to be the likely cause.在过去的一个世纪中发现的全球变暖趋势据推测可能是由人为的温室气体造成的。

 

      (2)law enforcement agencies went on a hunt for hackers in the aftermath of the AT&T system crash of 15 January 1990.执法机构继续通缉导致1990年1月15日美国电话电报公司系统崩溃的黑客。

 

      (3)Attempts to program a computer to integrate gesture with speech began back in the 1970s at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Architecture Machine Lab.  早在70年代,麻省理工学院建筑机械实验室就开始尝试在计算机中将语言和手势集成在一起。

 

      (4)The application of electronic computers makes for a tremendous rise in labor productivity.  使用电子计算机可以大大提高劳动生产率。

 

      (5)Desertification is not a case of irreversible desert advance.  沙漠化并不意味着沙漠前进不可逆转。

 

      (6)With the click of a mouse,information from the other end of the dobe will be transported to your computer screen at the dizzying speed of seven-and-a-half times around the earth per second.  只要一点鼠标,来自世界另一端的信息便会以每秒绕地球七周半的惊人速度传输到你的电脑屏幕上。

 

      (7)As we cross the threshold into the next century,human society is beginning its move from the industrial economy into the knowledge.based economy.  当我们步入下一世纪时,人类社会也正由工业经济向知识经济转变。

 

      (8)Can artificial fibers be used as substitutes for natural fibers? 人造纤维能代替天然纤维吗?

 

      (9)Computers can provide analyses of every operation in a factory.电子计算机能对工厂的每道工序进行分析。

 

      (10)We must place stress on the prevention of diseases.我们应以预防疾病为主。

 

2.2.1.2形容词转换成动词 

 

      英语中某些表示情态、感受、感觉、信念等意义,在句中作表语的形容词以及同介词搭配构成句子表语或定语的形容词,通常可译成汉语中的动词。例如:

 

      (1)Our fiver was dirty,our seas were polluted and our natural environment was destroyed.  我们的河水被污染了,我们的海洋被污染了,我们的自然环境被破坏了。

 

      (2)The amount of work is dependent on the applied force and the distance the body is moved.  功的大小取决于所施加的力与物体所移动的距离。

 

      (3)Kerosene is not so volatile as gasoline.  煤油不像汽油那样容易挥发。

 

      (4)When is the next earthquake due?  下次地震将在什么时候发生?

 

      (5)They are sure that they'll be able to build the factory in a short period of time.  他们肯定能在短期内建成那座工厂。

 

      (6)The amount of work is equal to the product of the force by the distance.  功的大小等于力和距离的乘积。

 

      (7)Copper wire is flexible.铜线容易弯曲。

 

      (8)While the Chinese are eager to import modem medical technology from the West,increasing members of Westerners are equally eager in adopting the traditional medical remedies of China.  现在中国人热衷于从西方国家进口现代化医疗技术,而越来越多的西方人则热衷于接受中医疗法。

 

      (9)The test piece shall be of length suitable for the apparatus being used.试件的长度应与所使用的装置相适应。

 

      (10)Heat is a form of energy into which all other forms are convertible.  热是能的一种形式,其他一切能的形式都能转化为热能。

 

      除上述形容词外,其他一些和介词构成词组在句中用作表语或定语而且常可译成动词的形容词还有:

 

      destructive of…有害于,有损于

 

      devoid of…缺乏,缺少

 

      different from…不同于,有别于

 

      empty of…缺少,没有

 

      equivalent to…等于,胜任

 

      exclusive of (from)…不算,免除

 

      famous at…善于

 

      free from (of)…免于,免除,不

 

      full of…充满

 

      harmful to...有害于,有损于

 

      inferior to…不及,次于

 

      next to…次于

 

      normal to…垂直于

 

      parallel to(with)平行于

 

      peculiar to…限于

 

      perpendicular to…垂直于

 

      poor in…缺乏

 

      pregnant with…包含,充满

 

      preferable with…优于,胜过

 

      responsible for…担负,负责

 

      scarce of…缺乏,不足

 

      similar to…类似于

 

      short of…缺乏,缺少

 

      subject to…易受,受……支配

 

      suitable for(to)…适于,与…相适应

 

      worthy of…值得

 

      relative to…和……有关

 

2.2.1.3副词转换成动词

 

      英语中有些作表语的副词或复合宾语中的副词,往往可译成汉语中的动词。例如:

 

    (1)The test was not over yet.试验还没结束。

 

    (2)Open the valve to let air in.  打开阀门,让空气进入。

 

    (3)An exhibition of new products is on there.那儿正在举办新产品展览会。

 

    (4)Motor vehicles,already the main source of city air pollution in rich countries,will increasingly pollute poor cities,too.在发达国家,机动车辆是空气污染的主要来源,在落后的城市,这种污染也将增加。

 

    (5)The experiment in chemistry Was ten minutes behind.这个化学试验延误了10钟。

 

    (6)The radio is on.收音机在广播。

 

    (7)The electric current flows through the circuit with the switch on.如果开关接通,电流就流过线路。

 

    (8)The two bodies are so far apart that the attractive force between them is negligible.  这两个物体相距很远,它们之间的吸引力可以忽略不计。

 

    (9)He took the machine apart yesterday.  他昨天把机器拆开了。

 

    (10)The force due to the motion of molecules tends to keep them apart.  由于分子运动而引起的力能使分子分离。

 

2.2.1.4介词转换成动词

 

      英语中的介词或介词短语在许多情况下可以译成汉语的动词,尤其当它们用作表语或状语时。例如:

 

    (1)The volume of a gas becomes smaller when the pressure upon it is increased.  当作用在气体上的压力增大时,气体的体积就缩小。

 

    (2)The letter E is commonly used for electromotive force.通常用字母E表示电动势。

 

    (3)No body at rest can be set in motion without a force being acted upon it.  没有力的作用,静止的物体不可能开始运动。

 

    (4)It is clear that numerical control is the operation of machine tools by numbers.  很显然,数控是指机床采用数字来操纵。

 

    (5)Many laboratories are developing medicines against AIDS.许多实验室正在研制治疗艾滋病的药物。

 

    (6)Atomic power for ocean-going vessels is already a reality.原子能动力用于远洋船只已经成为现实。

 

    (7)This is a kind of alloy with high strength.  这是一种具有高强度的合金。

 

    (8)The shaft turns about its axis.轴围绕轴线转动。

 

    (9)So long as we have means of producing heat we can keep the steam engine at work.  只要能产生热,就能使蒸汽机做功。

 

    (10)Usuauy the working pans of the machines are made from carbon steels.通常,机器的工作部件是用碳素钢制造的。

 

2.2.2转换成汉语名词

 

2.2.2.1动词转换成名词

 

      英语中有些动词在翻译成汉语时很难找到相应的动词,这时可将其转译成汉语名词。例如:

 

      (1)Neutrons act differently from protons.  中子的作用不同于质子。

 

      (2)Gases differ from solids in that the former have greater compressibility than the latter.  气体和固体的区别在于前者比后者有更大的可压缩性。

 

      (3)The electronic computer is chiefly characterized by its accurate and rapid computations.  电子计算机的主要特点是计算准确而快速。

 

      (4)Mercury weighs about thirteen times as much as water.  水银的重量约为水的13倍。

 

      (5)The Center is running a series of talks on the relationship between science and literature,in which poets and scientists discuss how scientific ideas over the past two centuries have influenced literature and social change.  这个中心正在举办关于科学与文学关系的系列讨论会。与会的诗人和科学家们的讨论议题是:在过去两个多世纪里科学思想对文学和社会变革的影响。

 

      (6)The net and electronic commerce will foster a large number of free-fancers.and this will affect social structure in a big way.  网络和电子商业将会造就一大批自由职业者,从而将对社会结构产生深远的影响。

 

      (7)PCs gave the world a whole new way to work,play and communicate.  个人计算机使整个世界更新了工作、娱乐和通讯方式。

 

      (8)Smith aims to become a computer export.  史密斯的目标是想当一名计算机专家。

 

      (9)In the life process,the animal works in the opposite way to the plant.  在生命过程中,动物的活动方式与植物相反。

 

      (10)An electric current varies directly as the electromotive force and inversely as the resistance.  电流的变化与电动势成正比,与电阻成反比。

 

2.2.2.2形容词转换成名词

 

      英语中有些形容词加上定冠词the表示某一类人或物,汉译时常译成名词。另外,英语中有些表示事物特征的形容词作表语时,往往也可在其后加上“性”、“度”、“体”等词,译成名词。例如:

 

      (1)Both the compounds are acids,the former is strong and the latter weak.  这两种化合物都是酸,前者是强酸,后者是弱酸。

 

      (2)The atmosphere is only about eleven kilometers thick.  大气的厚度约为11 000米。

 

      (3)People are so much more flexible and inventive than robots.人类比机器人更灵活而且更富有创造性。

 

      (4)In fission processes the fission fragments are very radioactive.在裂变过程中,裂变碎片的放射性很强。

 

      (5)The more carbon the steel contains,the harder and stronger it is.  钢含碳量越高,强度和硬度就越大。

 

      (6)The electrolytic process for producing hydrogen is not so efficient as the thermo chemical process.  用电解法生产的效率不像热化学法那样高。

 

      (7) Ice is not as dense as water and it therefore floats.冰的密度比水小,因而能浮在水面上。

 

      (8)The different production cost is closely associated with the sources 0f power.  生产成本的差异与能源密切相关。

 

      (9)Glass is more soluble than quartz.  玻璃的可溶性比石英大。

 

      (10)At constant temperature,the pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume.  温度不变,则气体压力和体积成反比。

 

2.2.2.3代词转换成名词

 

      英语中的代词译成汉语,有时为了使译文规范,须转换为名词。例如:

 

      (1)Radio waves are similar to light waves except that their wave.1ength is much greater.  无线电波与光波相似,只不过无线电波的波长要长一些。

 

      (2)We need frequencies even higher than those we call very high frequency.  我们所需要的频率,甚至比我们称作高频率的频率还要高。

 

      (3)Air density decreases as the temperature goes up and it increases when it gets colder.  气温升高时,空气密度就减小;气温变冷时,空气密度就增大。

 

      (4)According to a growing body of evidence.the chemicals that make up many plastics may migrate out of the material and into foods and fluids,ending up in your body.  越来越多的证据表明,许多塑料制品的化学成分会移动到食物或流体上去,最终进入人体内。

 

      (5)Though we cannot see it,there is air all around us.  虽然我们看不见空气,可我们周围到处都有空气。

 

      (6)One would fall all the way down to the center of the earth without gravity.  如果没有引力,人们就会一直掉到地球的中心。

 

      (7)For nearly two thousand years it was mistakenly believed that all heavy objects fell faster than light ones.  在长达两千年的时间里,人们都认为一切重物都比轻物落得快。这种观念是错误的。

 

      (8)The volume of the sun is much larger than that of the earth.太阳的体积比地球的体积大得多。

 

      (9)The most common acceleration is that of free falling bodies.最普通的加速度是自由落体加速度。

 

      (10)Energy can neither be created,nor destroyed,although its form can be changed.  尽管能量的形式可以转换,但能量既不能被创造,又不能被消灭。

 

2.2.2.4副词转换成名词

 

      英语中有些副词,在句子中用作状语,译成汉语时可根据具体情况转换成汉语的名词。例如:

 

      (1)Such magnetism,because it is electrically produced,is called electromagnetism.  由于这种磁性产生于电,所以称为电磁。

 

      (2)Oxygen is one of the important elements in the physical world,it is very actively chemically.  氧是物质世界的重要元素之一,其化学性能很活泼。

 

      (3)The quality of the operating system determines how useful the computer is.  操作系统的质量决定着计算机的应用效能。

 

      (4)The equations below are derived from those above.  下面的这些方程式是由上面的那些方程式推导出来的。

 

      (5)India has the software skills and thousands of software developers who are English-speaking and technically proficient.  印度拥有软件设计方面的技术,而且拥有成千上万能说英语、精通技术的软件工程师。

 

      (6)A look ahead gives petroleum an exciting role in the world of tomorrow.  展望未来可以看到石油将在世界上起到令人鼓舞的作用。

 

      (7)The computer is shown schematically on this page.这一页是计算机的简图。

 

      (8)The image must be dimensionally correct.  图形的尺寸必须正确。

 

      (9)The only naturally occurring substance used aS fuel for nuclear power is U-235.在自然界所存在的物质中,只有铀一245可以用作获得核能的材料。

 

      (10)It was not until early 40’s that chemists began to use the technique analytically.  直到40年代初,化学家们才开始将这种技术用于分析工作。

 

2.2.3转换成汉语形容词

 

2.2.3.1副词转换成形容词

 

    (1)Nitric acid is an extremely reactive agent.  硝酸是一种强烈的反应剂。

 

    (2)The wide application of electronic computers affects tremendously the development of science and technology.  广泛应用电子计算机,对科学技术的发展有极大的影响。

 

    (3)Amphibians and birds do differ significantly.两栖类和鸟类之间有显著的差别。

 

    (4)This new electronic computer is chiefly characterized by its simplicity of structure.  这种新型的电子计算机的主要特点是结构简单。

 

    (5)While tallness is evidently a hereditary characteristic,any individual’s actual height depends on the interaction between their genes and the environment.  虽然身高是一种明显的遗传特征,但是个体的实际身高则取决于基因和环境的相互作用。

 

    (6)Robotics is so closely associated with cybernetics that it is sometimes mistakenly considered to be synonymous.  机器人技术与控制论的联系如此密切,以致两者有时被错误地认为是同一回事。

 

    (7)The engineer had prepared meticulously for his design.  工程师为这次设计作了十分周密的准备。

 

    (8)Gases conduct best at low pressures.气体在低压下导电性最佳。

 

    (9)The computer exhibition impressed us deeply.计算机展览会给我们留下了深刻的印象。

 

    (10)The universal lathe is most widely used and plays an important part in industry.  万能车床得到了最广泛的使用,所以在工业上起着重要的作用。

 

2.2.3.2名词转换成形容词

 

    (1)Electronic computers and microprocessors ale of great importance to us.  电子计算机和微处理器对我们来说都十分重要。

 

    (2)The nuclear power system designed in China is of great precision.  中国设计的核动力系统十分精确。

 

    (3)The experiment was quite a success.试验很成功。

 

    (4)Most teenagers feel no difficulty in learning and operating computers.  绝大多数青少年在学习和操作电脑方面并不觉得困难。

 

    (5)In certain cases friction is an absolute necessity.  在一定场合下摩擦是绝对必要的。

 

    (6)Patients may have to take them for the rest of their lives,and the expense and complexity of the regimen keep them out of reach for the 9 out of 10 patients who live in developing nations.  服用新药的病人也许终生都要服药。但由于价格昂贵、疗程复杂,对于那些发展中国家的病人来说,十有八九都不能享用这些药物。

 

 

    (7)The doctors were operating on the patient,but the patient’s nerve Was continually on the stretch.  医生们正在给医生做手术,可病人的神经一直十分紧张。

 

    (8)It is no use employing radar to detect objects in water.  使用雷达探测水下目标是没有用的。

 

2.2.4转换成汉语副词

 

2.2.4.1形容词转换成副词

 

      (1)Some employers are keen to encourage employees to go green,and switch to smaller cars.  一些老板们非常热情地鼓励雇员们增强环保意识,将汽车换成小一点的。

 

      (2)With slight repairs the old type of engine can be used.  只要稍微修理一下,这台老式发动机就可使用。

 

      (3)The wide application of electronic machines in scientific work,in designing and in economic calculations will free man from the labor of complicated computations.在科学研究、设计和经济计算方面广泛地应用电子计算机可以使人们从繁重的计算劳动中解放出来。

 

      (4)The engine has given a constantly good performance.  这台发动机一直运转良好。

 

      (5)Very significant advances in lasers have been made in the past several years that open the door to more rapid progress in optical communications systems.  在过去的几年中,激光器件发展迅速,从而为通讯系统的快速进步打开了通路。

 

      (6)Continual smoking is harmful to health.  频繁抽烟有害于健康。

 

    (7)With slight modifications each type can be used for all three systems.  每种型号只要稍加改动就能用于这三种系统。

 

      (8)When precise timing is necessary,care must be taken not to interrupt the timing wave.如果需要精确定时,必须注意不要中断定时波。

 

     (9)We have made a careful study of the properties of these chemical elements.  我们仔细地研究了这些化学元素的特性。

 

      (10)Below 4.C water is continuous expansion instead of continuous contraction.  水在4~C以下不断膨胀而不是不断收缩。

 

2.2.4.2其他词类转换成副词

 

    (1)In human society activity in production develops step by step from a lower to a higher level.  人类社会的生产活动,由低级向高级逐步发展。

 

    (2)The added device will ensure accessibility for part loading and unloading.  增添这种装置将保证工件装卸方便。

 

    (3)They reported they had succeeded in turning normal human cells into cancerous one.  他们报告说已成功地把正常人类细胞转化为癌细胞。

 

    (4)Rapid evaporation at the heating surface tends to make the steam wet.  加热面上的迅速蒸发,往往使蒸汽的湿度加大。

 

    (5)We shall develop the aircraft industry in a big way.我们将大规模地发展航空工业

 

 

 

2.4增词

 

      英汉两种语言,由于表达方式不尽相同,翻译时要在词量上加以增减。所谓增词译法,就是在原文的基础上添加必要的单词、词组、分句或完整句,这当然不是无中生有地随意增词,而是增加原文中虽无其词但有其意的一些词,从而使得译文在语法、语言形式上符合译文习惯并在文化背景、词语联想方面与原文一致起来,使得译文与原文在内容和形式等方面对等起来。

 

2.4.1增加表示名词复数概念的词语

 

      翻译时,有时为了明确原文的含义,需要通过增译“们”、“一些”、“许多”等词语把英语中表示名词复数的概念译出。例如:

 

      (1)Carbon combines with oxygen to form carbon oxides.  碳同氧化合形成多种氧化碳。

 

      (2)Of visible lights,red light has the longest and violet the shortest wavelength.  在各种可见光中,红光的波长最长,紫光的波长最短。

 

      (3)When the plants died and decayed,they formed layers of organic materials.植物腐烂后,形成了一层层有机物。

 

      (4)In the 1980s,departments bought their own minicomputers and managers bought their PCs.  20世纪80年代,许多部门都购买了自己的微机,经理们也购买个人电脑。

 

      (5)There is enough coal to meet the world’s needs for centuries to come.  有足够的煤来满足全世界未来几个世纪的需要。

 

      (6)Amphibians and birds do differ significantly.  两栖类和鸟类之间有显著的差别。

 

      (7)Signals from the senses-eyes,ears,nostrils or skin.as the case may be—send messages t0 the spinal cord.which moves the limbs appropriately.  眼、耳、鼻或皮肤等各种感官所接受的信号会被送到脊髓,使肢体活动。

 

      (8)Things in the universe ale changing an the time.  宇宙中万物总是在不断变化的。

 

      (9)The substances get into the soil,  into plants and into human bodies.  这些物质进入土壤、植物和人体。

 

      (10)Air is a mixture of gases.  空气是多种气体的混合物。

 

2.4.2增加表示时态的词语

 

      汉语的动词没有表示时态的词形变化和相应的助动词,因此翻译时应增译相应的时间副词或助词,用来表示不同的时态。例如:

 

     (1)Contemporary natural science are now working for new important breakthroughs.  当代自然科学正在酝酿着新的重大突破。

 

    (2)Humans have been dreaming of copies of themselves for thousands of years.  千百年来,人类一直梦想制造出自己的复制品。

 

    (3)This natural approach to remediating hazardous wastes in the soil,water,and air is capturing the attention of government regulators.industries,landowners,and researchers.  这种清除土壤、水以及空气中有害废品的自然方法正日益受到各政府首脑、企业、土地所有者、研究人员们的关注。

 

    (4)The high-altitude plane was and still is a remarkable bird.高空飞机过去是而且现在仍然还是一种了不起的飞行器。

 

    (5)Bv the turn of the 19th century geologist  had found that rock layers occurred in a definite order.  到19世纪初,地质学家已发现岩层有一定的次序。

 

    (6)Some day man will be able to utilize the solar energy.总有一天,人类将能利用太阳能。

 

    (7)It’s time to ring farewell to the century of physics and ring in the century of biotechnology.  现在是告别物理学世纪、迎接生物技术世纪的时候了。

 

   (8)This company has been manufacturing computers for five years 。这家公司五年来一直在生产计算机。

 

    (9)The earth’population is doubling,the environment is being damaged.  地球的人口正在加倍增长,环境也在不断受到破坏。

 

    (10)Scientists are working to develop new ways to make the semiconducting material used in computers and other modern electronic devices.  科学家们正在研究用新的方法制造用于计算机和其他现代电子仪器中的半导体材料。

 

2.4.3增加表示句子主语的词语

 

      当被动句中的谓语是表示“知道”、“了解”、“看见”、“认为”、“发现”、“考虑”等意思的动词时,通常可在其前增加“人们”、“我们”、“有人”等词语,译成汉语的主动句。例如:

 

      (1)Weak magnetic fields are known to come from the human body。我们知道,人体能产生微弱的磁场。

 

      (2)It is estimated that the new synergy between computers and Net technology will have significant influence on the industry of the future.有人预测,新的电脑和网络技术的结合将会对未来工业产生巨大的影响。

 

      (3)It’s believed that we shall make full use of the sun’s energy some day.  我们相信,总有一天我们将能够充分利用太阳能。

 

      (4)With the development of modern electrical engineering,power can be transmitted to wherever it is needed.  随着现代化电气工程的发展,人们可以把电力输送到任何所需要的地方。

 

      (5)It is said that numerical control is the operation 0f machine tools by numbers.  人们说,数控就是机床用数字加以操纵。

 

      (6)It’s pointed out that societies have long operated under the assumption that the oceans and rivers would wash away pollution,the winds would cleanse the air,and the soil could bury the rest.  有人指出,我们的社会长期以来在处理垃圾时都认为海洋和河流会把污染冲走,风会把空气吹净,而土壤则会把其他污染埋藏。

 

      (7)Potassium and sodium are seldom met in their natural state.我们很少见到自然状态的钾和钠。

 

      (8)The design is considered practical.  大家认为这一设计切实可行。

 

      (9)A few years ago it was thought unusual that programs could ever be called up by viewers to be displayed on their TV  screens at home.几年前人们还认为观众在家里打电话收看电视节目是件稀罕事。

 

      (10)It may be supposed that originally the earth’s land surface was composed of rock only.  我们可以设想地球陆地表面原先完全是由岩石构成的。

 

2.4.4增加原文中省略的词语

 

      英语句子的某些成分如果已在前面出现,有时则往往省略,但汉译时,一般需要将其补出。例如:

 

      (1)You have seen how water expands when it is heated and contracts when it is cooled.你已经看到水受热时怎样膨胀,冷却时又怎样收缩。

 

      (2)The changes in matter around us ale of two types,physical and chemical.  我们周围的物质变化有两种,物理变化与化学变化。

 

      (3)High voltage is necessary for long transmission line while low voltage for safe use.  远距离输电需要高压,安全用电需要低压。

 

      (4)The sun is regarded as the chief source of heat and light.  太阳被认为是主要的热源和光源。

 

      (5)Hi出temperatures and pressures changed the organic materials into coal.petroleum and natural gas.  高温和高压把这些有机物变成了煤、石油和天然气。

 

      (6)Plastic bowls marked microwavable are probably safer than those that aren’t.使用贴有“可用于微波炉烹调”标志的塑料碗也许比使用没有贴这种标志的塑料碗更安全。

 

      (7)Under no circumstances Van more work be got out of a machine than is put into it.  机器输出功决不能大于输入功。

 

      (8)Matter can be changed into energy and energy into matter.  物质可以转化为能,能也可以转化为物质。

 

      (9)This experimental result is in inverse ratio to that.  这项实验结果和那项实验结果成反比。

 

      (10)Carbon steels are classified as low,medium,and hi出carbon steels.  碳钢可分为低碳钢、中碳钢和高碳钢。

 

2.4.5增加具体化、明确化的词语

 

      有些英语句子如果直译成汉语,意思表达不够具体和明确,由此汉译时须增译相关词语。例如:

 

      (1)The statistics brought out a gender division between hard and soft science:girls tending toward biology,boys tending maths and physical.  统计表明,从事硬科学和软科学研究的科学家在性别上存在着差别:女性倾向于生物学的研究,而男性则倾向于数学和物理学的研究。

 

      (2)Were there no electric pressure in a conductor,the electron flow  would not take place in it.  导体内如果没有电压,便不会产生电子流动现象。

 

      (3)These apes are confined to fast-vanishing tropical rain.forest or woodland habitats.  这些类人猿的生活局限于正在迅速消失的热带雨林或森林栖息地中。

 

       (4)In the US,there is evidence that schoolchildren with access to the Interact are starting to watch less TV and spend more time surfing the Net·  在美国,有证据表明接触因特网的在校学生看电视看得少了,在网上冲浪的时间增加了。

 

      (5)Net is best suited for small and medium enterprises to band togerber and break the monopolies of the“giants'’.  网络是中小型企业共同合作打破“霸主”垄断的最好工具。

 

      (6)During an El Nino the pressures over Australia.Indonesia and the Philippines are higher than normal,which results in dry conditions or even droughts·  当出现“厄尔尼诺”现象时,澳大利亚、印度尼西亚和菲律宾上空的大气压会比平常高,会出现干旱,甚至还会发生旱灾。

 

      (7)At the moment,developed areas in Europe.the United States and Asia have already started studying the possibility of an electronic currency·  目前,欧洲、美国以及亚洲一些发达地区已经开始研究推行电子货币的可能性。

 

      (8)This is the first step toward the solution of air pollution.这是解决空气污染问题的第一步。   

 

      (9)Floppy disks have always been cheap to make and relatively easy to copy.  软盘制作成本比较低,而且也比较容易拷贝。

 

      (10)The world now buys almost as many PCs as color TVs.  现在全球的个人计算机购买量与彩电的购买量不相上下。

 

2.4.6增加起语气连贯作用的词语

 

    为了使译文表达通顺,使词与词、句与句之间前后连贯,有时时增加一些起连贯作用的词,主要是连词、介词和副词。例如:

 

      (1) Were there no gravity,there would be no air around the earth.假如没有重力,地球周围就没有空气。

 

 

 

2.5省略

 

      为了更好地表达原意,翻译时往往可以省略原文中某些词语,以便使译文更加严谨、精练、明确。所省略的词语,在英语中是必不可少的,但译成汉语则显多余。

 

2.5.1冠词的省略

 

      一般说来,英语定冠词the和不定冠词a及an在句中用作泛指,常应省略不译。另外,定冠词the用作特指,根据汉语表达习惯有时也可省略不译。例如:

 

      (1)Because the body’s defense system is damaged,the patient has little ability to fight off many other diseases.  由于人体的免疫系统遭到破坏,病人几乎没有什么能力来抵抗许许多多其他疾病的侵袭。

 

      (2)Any substance is made up of atoms whether it is a solid,a liquid,or a gas.任何物质,无论它是固体、液体或气体,都是由原子构成的。

 

      (3)The atom is the smallest particle of an element.  原子是元素的最小粒子。

 

      (4)Human beings and the great apes had a common ancestor about  5 million years ago.  大约500万年以前,人类和类人猿拥有共同的祖先。

 

      (5)Other scientists,however,ale afraid that the world may become too hot for human life.  而有些科学家则担心地球会升温,使人类无法生存。

 

      (6)With the development of electrical engineering,power can be transmitted over long distance.  随着电气工程学的发展,电力能被输送到非常遥远的地方去。

 

      (7)The PC has given the average American—the kind of computing power that 10 years ago Was found only in large corporations.个人计算机使普通美国人具有的计算能力要是在10年前只有一些大公司才能具有。

 

      (8)While the Chinese are eager to import modem medical technology from the West,increasing members of Westerners are equally interested in adopting the traditional medical remedies of China.  现在中国人热衷于从西方国家进口现代化医疗技术,而越来越多的西方人则热衷于接受中医疗法。

 

      (9)Although the world is large,man is able to live in only a small part of it.  尽管地球很大,可人类只能在其中很小的一部分地方生活,

 

      (10)The total land area that contributes surface runoff to a river or lake is called a watershed,fiver basin,or catchment area.  为某一江河或湖泊提供地表径流的整个陆地面积称作流域、河流盆地或汇水面积。

 

2.5.2代词的省略

 

      英语中的表示泛指的人称代词、用作定语的物主代词、反身代词以及用于比较句中的指示代词汉译时,根据汉语的表达习惯常可省略。另外,有些代词可承前省略。例如:

 

      (1)If you know the frequency,you can find the wave length.如果知道频率,就能求出波长。

 

      (2)Different metals differ in their conductivity.  不同的金属具有不同的导电性能。

 

      (3)A gas distributed itself uniformly through a container.气体均匀地分布在整个容器中。

 

      (4)The desert animals can hide themselves from the heat during the daytime.  沙漠中的兽类能躲避白天的炎热天气。

 

      (5)The volume of the sun is about 1 300 000 times that of the earth.太阳的体积约为地球的130万倍。

 

      (6)Liquids are like solids in that they have definite volume.  液体像固体一样,都有一定的体积。

 

      (7)When the signal we pick up has increased by 10 times as the gain may have been reduced by 8 times.  信号增大到10倍,增益降低到1/8。

 

      (8)If we use electronic computers in hospitals,diagnosis will become quicker and more accurate.  医院如果里使用计算机,就会使诊断更加快速,更加准确。

 

      (9)Newton wasted much time on the theological studies toward the end of his life.  牛顿晚年在神学研究上浪费了很多时间。

 

      (10)His left arm is paralyzed.He has no sensation in it.  他的左臂瘫痪了,没有知觉。

 

2.5.3连词的省略

 

      英语中连词使用频率较高,而汉语则不然。因此,翻译时常可省略不译。例如:

 

      (1)This system is totally enclosed and prevents air pollution from dust particles or gases.  此系统为全封闭式,能防止尘粒或烟气污染大气。

 

      (2)When the temperature is maintained constant,the volume of a given sample of gas varies inversely with the pressure.  在温度保持不变的情况下,一定气体的体积与压力成反比。

 

      (3)Like charges repel each other while opposite charges attract.同性电荷相斥,异性电荷相吸。

 

      (4)If water is cold enough,it changes to ice.  水冷却到一定程度便成冰。

 

      (5)There are some metals which are lighter than water.  有些金属比水轻。

 

      (6)Acupuncture and Chinese herbal remedies date back at least 2 200 years,although the earliest known written record of Chinese medicine is the Huangdi nei jing from the 3rd century BC.That opus provided the theoretical concepts f10r the traditional Chinese medicine that remain the basis of its practice today.  针灸和中草药的历史至少可追溯到2 200年以前。《黄帝内经》写于公元前3世纪,是目前已知的最早中医书面记录,这部著作中所记载的一些中医理论概念至今仍是中医医疗的基础。.

 

      (7)Men have known that smallpox is caused by a virus.  人们知道天花是由病毒引起的。

 

      (8)As has been found there are more than a hundred elements.已经发现,元素有一百多种。

 

      (9)The patient has a supracondylar fracture,so he was admitted to the hospital this rooming.病人患髁上骨折,今天上午获准人院。

 

      (10)The salts of carbonic acid,or the carbonates,Can be prepared by adding alkali to such aqueous solutions.  碳酸盐能通过往这种水溶液(碳酸溶液)中添加强碱而制得。

 

2.5.4动词的省略

 

      英语谓语必须用动词,汉语不仅可以用动词作谓语,还可以直接用名词、形容词、偏正词组、主谓词组等作谓语。因此,汉译时往往可以省略原文的谓语动词,使译文通顺、简练。例如:

 

      (1)Friction always oppose the motion whatever its direction may be.  不管运动方向怎样,摩擦总是同运动方向相反。

 

      (2)The wire gets hot,for the current becomes too great.  电线发热,因为电流太大。

 

      (3)A square has four equal sides.正方形四边相等。

 

      (4)Steels possess good hardness and high strength.  钢的硬度大,强度高。

 

      (5)The nuclear reactions give the sun its constant supply.  太阳中核反应不断向太阳提供能量。

 

      (6)Aluminum alloy has low specific electrical resistance and high thermal conductivity  铝合金的电阻很低,而导热性很强。

 

     (7)Then came the development of the microcomputer.后来,微型计算机发展起来了。

 

      (8)In the case of a possible accident,the machine comes to a halt immediately upon the operator’s direction.一旦发生事故,只要操作人员一发指令,机器就立刻停下来。

 

      (9)The Pacific alone covers an area larger than that of all the continents put together.  仅仅太平洋的面积就比所有的大陆面积的总和还要大。

 

     (10)Evidently semiconductors have a lesser conducting capacity than metals.  显然,半导体的导电能力比金属差。

 

2.5.5介词的省略

 

      英语中介词使用频率较高,句中词与词之间的关系多用介词来表示,而汉语则不然,主要是通过语序与逻辑关系来表示。因此,翻译时常可省略不译。例如:

 

      (1)In the transmission of electric power a high voltage is necessary.远距离输电必须用高压。

 

      (2)Most substance expand on heating and contract on cooling.  大多数物体热胀冷缩。

 

      (3)We consider isotopes of great use for our research work.我们认为同位素对研究工作很有用。

 

      (4)A body in motion remains in motion unless acted on by an extemal force.  如果没有外力的作用,运动的物体仍然保持运动状态。

 

      (5)It is necessary to develop our computer science at high speed. 必须高速发展我国的计算机科学。

 

      (6)There is no easy answer with meningitis.  脑膜炎不易治疗。

 

      (7)Acupuncture appears most promising for treating chronic musculoskeletal pain.  针灸最适合用于治疗慢性肌与骨骼疼痛。

 

      (8)The instrument has worked well for six hours.  这台仪器已经正常工作了6小时。

 

      (9)The density of air varies directly as pressure,with temperature being constant.  温度不变,空气的密度和压力成正比。

 

      (10)The temperature of the liquid is raised  by the application of heat.  加热可以提高液体温度。

 

2.5.6引导词的省略

 

      英语中的两个引导词“it”和“there”,翻译时一般省略不译。例如:   

 

     (1)It takes a year for the earth to go around the sun.  地球绕太阳一周需用一年的时问。

 

     (2)It is the gravitation which makes the satellites move round the earth.  地球引力使卫星绕地球运行。

 

     (3)It is demonstrated that it takes a year for the earth to go around the sun.  已经证实,地球绕太阳转一周需要一年的时间。

 

     (4)Perhaps it Was the isolation of the remote field of animal husbandry that fostered his originality.  也许是因为他远离尘嚣从事饲养业使他具有独创能力。

 

    (5)Heat from the sun makes it possible for plants to grow.来自太阳的热使植物生长成为可能。

 

    (6)There are many kinds of atoms,differing in both mass and properties.  原子种类很多,质量与性质都不相同。

 

    (7)There is a rapidly increasing range of uses for electronic computers.  电子计算机的应用范围正在迅速扩大。

 

    (8)There are serious philosophical problems created by the BigBallg,which Can not be explained.  “创世大爆炸”引起一些严重的哲学问题。我们对这些问题很难做出解释。

 

    (9)There are some chemical fuels that are clean and smokeless.有些化学燃料洁净无烟。

 

    (10)There are many methods by which gastric resection may be accomplished.  胃切除可以用许多方法。

 

2.5.7同义词或近义词的省略

 

      英语中有些同义词或近义词往往可以连用,或者表示强调,使意思更加明确;或者表示一个名称的不同说法。在英译汉时,往往省略其中一个词语。例如:

 

      (1)The mechanical energy can be changed back into electrical energy by means of a generator or dynamo.  利用发电机可以把机械能转变成电能。

 

      (2)hlsulators in reality conduct electricity but,nevertheless,their resistance is very h油.绝缘体实际上也导电,但其电阻很高。

 

     (3)Explosive technological development after 1940 gave the medical profession enormous power to fight disease and sickness.  1940年以来,随着技术的迅速发展,医学界大大提高了战胜疾病的能力。

 

      (4)Most electricity still comes from fossil fuels,and so generates the greenhouse gas,carbon dioxide.  大部分电力仍来自于化石燃料,从而产生了温室气体二氧化碳。

 

      (5)Technology is the application of scientific method and knowledge to industry to satisfy our material needs and wants.  技术就是在工业上应用科学方法和科学知识以满足我们物质上的需求。

 

 

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