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综合英语教程第四册 Unit14 课文分析1

(2011-03-20 10:23:44)
标签:

教育

分类: 综合英语

Haunted by the past, Iris Chang was determined to expose the truth about Nanking Massacre.

往事萦绕心头,张纯如决心揭露南京大屠杀的真相。

 

haunt: to visit repeatedly 常去,常出没于; to return to the mind repeatedly 萦绕心头
The old castle is said to be haunted.
A wrongdoer is constantly haunted by fear of discovery.

be determined to do: to decide firmly, resolve 下决心
He is determined to prove his friend's innocence.
[synonym] make up one's mind
Sam made up his mind to learn Greek.

expose: to disclose, to make known 揭发,揭穿;to display 展览,陈列
The old man exposed the crime of his own son.
All the goods are exposed in a shop window.

 

She was just a little girl in the Midwest university town of Urbana, Illinois, when she first heard the frightening stories from her Chinese parents. They seemed unbelievable, conjuring visions of terror, death and a river turned red. Sometimes she imagined herself in a place and time far away, running and hiding, trying to escape a horror that remained formless except for one image a man with a sword hacking, hacking away.

当她第一次从美籍华裔的父母口中听说到那骇人听闻的事件时,她还只是伊利诺州俄伯亥中西大学城的一个小女生。每次如做梦般地回想起那恐怖的一幕幕:遍地横尸,血流成河。这一切几乎是另人难以置信的。有时,她想象自己置身于一个遥不可及的时空里,四处逃窜着,躲藏着,试图想摆脱出这种恐怖。然而,阵阵莫名的恐惧感却又随之袭来,像有人举着一把利剑始终尾追其后向她砍去。

 

1. when she first heard the frightening stories from her Chinese parents.

frightening: adj. causing fright or terror 可怕的;令人恐怖的
That is really a frightening experience.
cf.
scary: causing or marked by fear 可怕的,吓人的
fearful: very frightening 骇人的,恐怖的
terrifying: very frightening; causing terror 令人恐怖的,吓人的
She walked along a dark scary street.
The book was full of pictures of fearful monsters.
It was a terrifying thing to happen.

2. They seemed unbelievable, conjuring visions of terror, death and a river turned red.

unbelievable: not believable 难以相信的
That he is a murderer is unbelievable.
[word formation] un + adj. = adj. (opposite)
unanswerable: 无法回答的;无可辩驳的
unaware: 不知道的,未觉察的
uncharitable: 严厉的,苛刻的
His case is unanswerable.
He was unaware of my presence.
They put an uncharitable interpretation on the Smith's actions.

conjure: to cause to appear as a picture in the mind 使在脑海中显现如画,想象;to do clever tricks which appear magical 玩魔术
The little girl conjured the visions of her grandmother.
The magician conjured a rabbit out of a hat.

vision: 视力,想象力,远见;幻象,幻影
He is a man of vision.
Have you ever had visions of great wealth and success?
[derivation] visionary: adj. 不切实际的,空幻的
What he thought are just visionary schemes.

3. Sometimes she imagined herself in a place and time far away, running and hiding, trying to escape a horror that remained formless except for one image a man with a sword hacking, hacking away.

imagineto form a picture in the mind 想象
Can you imagine him becoming famous as an actor?
[derivation] imagination: n. 想象力
     imaginative: adj. 由想象力的
     imaginable: adj. 可想象的
Children are encouraged to use their imaginations.
Jack London is a imaginative writer.
We had the greatest difficulty imaginable getting here in time.
escape: to get free, to get away 逃走;to avoid 避免;to be forgotten or unnoticed by 被忘记,未被注意
The canary has escaped from its cage.
You were lucky to escape punishment.
His name escapes me for the moment.

horror: feeling of extreme fear or dislike 恐怖,极端厌恶
She recoiled in horror from the snake.
[idiom] have a horror of: to hate and fear 害怕,厌恶
She has a horror of snakes.
[synonym] shock: the state or strong feeling caused by something unexpected and usually very unpleasant 震惊,惊愕
The opposition expressed anger and shock at the government's decision.

hack: to cut, especially roughly or clumsily; chop 砍,(尤指)乱砍,乱劈
He hacked at the branch until it fell to the ground.
cf.
hew: to cut by striking blows with an axe or weapon 砍,劈
They hewed at the door.
slice: to cut into thin wide flat pieces 把……切成薄片
She sliced up the meat.
chop: to cut especially into pieces by striking again and again with a knife, axe 剁,剁碎
She chopped up the vegetables to make soup.

Para 1 The stories Iris Chang heard were from one of history's worst acts of systematic bestiality--the Japanese rape and slaughter of the captive population of Nanking, China, in December 1937 and the early months of 1938.
When Chang's parents first told her about Nanking Datusha, the Nanking Massacre, their voices had "quivered with outrage". But her childhood library visits searching encyclopedias and history books turned up little on the carnage.
After Chang graduated from university and earned her master's, Nanking remained only on the periphery of her thoughts.

张纯如女士所听所闻的故事发生在1937年12月至1938年初,日军在(当时)中国首府(南京)残暴屠戮奸杀南京人民的卑劣行径。这也是人类历史上有组织的最为恶劣的兽行之一。
当她的父母第一次给她讲述南京大屠杀的经过时,他们的声音因这种惨无人道的暴行而颤抖!她小时侯曾去图书馆翻翻百科全书,查查历史书,可对于这段大屠杀仍知之甚少。
直到张纯如女士大学毕业并获得硕士学位,南京大屠杀却还只能算是她心灵角落的一隅。

 

[summary] When Chang as a child listening to stories of Nanking, she could only be influenced at that moment.

1.The stories Iris Chang heard were from one of history's worst acts of systematic bestiality--the Japanese rape and slaughter of the captive population of Nanking, China, in December 1937 and the early months of 1938.

systematic: adj. methodical, based on a system 由方法的,有系统的
What they had done are systematic attempt.
[derivation] systematize: vt. arrange according to a system 系统化,体系化
The manager systematized the workers' duty so as to improve efficiency.
bestiality: n. brutal act 残忍,兽行
The bandits' bestiality was finally discovered by the policemen.
[derivation] bestial: adj. brutish or like a beast残忍的,兽行的
How dared you do such a bestial matter?

slaughter: n. killing of many people at once 屠杀,杀戮;      vt. kill in a large numbers 屠杀,杀戮
This is the slaughter on the roads.
The Japanese slaughtered so many Chinese and deserved to be punished.

captive: adj. taken prisoner, kept as a prisoner 俘虏,被俘虏的
The captive criminals on the trucks are showing along the streets.
[derivation] captivity: n. state of being held captive 囚禁      capture: vt. 俘虏,捕获
Some birds will not sing in captivity.
Our army captured 500 of the enemy.

2.When Chang's parents first told her about Nanking Datusha, the Nanking Massacre, their voices had "quivered with outrage".

massacre: cruel killing of large numbers of (esp defenseless) people 大屠杀
During the Sino-Japanese war, the Japanese made many massacres in China.

quiver: to tremble slightly or vibrate 微振,振颤
The moth quivered its wings.
cf
shake: to move quickly up and down and to and fro 抖动,颤动
tremble: to shake uncontrollably as from fear, cold, excitement 颤抖,战栗
shiver: to shake, especially (of people) from cold or fear发抖,打哆嗦
The house shook when the bomb exploded.
The children trembled with fear when they saw the policeman.
I stood shivering in the wind.

with: because of, owing to 因为,由于
She is silent with shame.

3.But her childhood library visits searching encyclopedias and history books turned up little on the carnage.

encyclopedia: 百科全书
There are many different versions of British Encyclopedia in this library.
[derivation] encyclopedic: adj. 有关各种学科的,学识渊博的
John Smith is an encyclopedic researcher in this field.

turn up: to happen, to present itself 发生,出现
He is still waiting for something to turn up.

carnage: n. killing of many people 屠杀
It's so terrible that this movie shows so many visions of carnage.

4.After Chang graduated from university and earned her master's, Nanking remained only on the periphery of her thoughts.

graduate: v. to take an academic degree毕业,获学位; to give a degree or diploma to 授以学位,准予毕业
He graduated from Oxford.
The university graduated 350 students last year.

earn: 赚,挣的;博得
The money earns 7% interest.
His achievements earned him respect and admiration.
[derivation] earnings: n. pl. 赚得的钱
He has spent all his earnings.

master's : the second degree given in most universities in Arts, Sciences, Education, etc.(文、理、教育等)硕士学位
[addition] bachelor's : the first degree in most universities in Arts, Sciences, Education, etc(文、理、教育等)学士学位
doctor's: the highest degree given in universities in any subject(大学任何学科的)博士

periphery:external boundary of surface 外围,表面
The factory was built on the periphery of the town.
[derivation] peripheral 外围的,表面的
All these are matters of peripheral interest.

Para 2 Why had such a terrible event passed out of the public consciousness? In the West the headlines from Nanking were supplanted by ominous events in Europe. Soon the horrors of a world at war became everyday fare in the media. Then the postwar West was engulfed in a new struggle with the Soviet Union and eager to turn Japan into a friendly economic bulwark. A war-crimes tribunal, which briefly focused attention on Nanking, was largely forgotten when the Korean War began. By 1994 Chang had got married, moved to California and was happily pursuing a writing career that had already resulted in one published biography.

为什么这骇人听闻的事件会被公众所忽视呢?在西欧,出现"南京"的新闻标题被认为是不祥之兆。很快,二战中发生的恐怖事件成了新闻媒体的每日炒作的热点。不久,战后的西方国家又陷入与苏联抗争的泥潭之中,而急需寻求新的经济合作伙伴--日本来共同防御苏联。紧接着朝鲜战争又爆发了,以惩办南京大屠杀的战犯为主的法庭审讯几乎没人记起了。张纯如女士于1994年结婚,并移居加利福尼亚,在那也找到了比较称心的写作工作。这使得她走上了纂写传记文学的道路。

 

1.Why had such a terrible event passed out of the public consciousness?

consciousness: all the ideas, thoughts, etc. of a person 意识; being conscious 知觉,感觉
That's the moral consciousness of the new created Party,
We have no consciousness during sleep.
out of: without, away from
She was out of patience when she saw his presence.
We pulled the cart out of the ditch.
[derivation] conscious: adj. awake, aware 清醒的,明白的; realized by oneself 自觉的
They were conscious of being watched.
He spoke with conscious superiority.

2.In the West the headlines from Nanking were supplanted by ominous events in Europe.

headline: 报纸标题,页头标题,新闻广播提要
Here are the news headlines.
[addition]
feature: a special article in a newspaper 特写
piece: a short written statement in a newspaper, magazine 短讯,一篇短文
sketch: a short informal piece of writing 短篇作品,小品文
column: an article by a particular writer that regularly appears in a newspaper 专栏
He writes features for The Times; he's one of their feature writers.
Did you see the piece in the paper about Mrs Smith's accident?
He wrote some travel sketches for a magazine.
I always read his column in the Guardian.

supplant: vt. to take the place of 代替,取代;to get one out of the office 排挤
Trams in London have been supplanted by buses.
The Prime Minister was supplanted by his rival.
cf.
ominous: adj. of bad omen, threatening 恶兆的,不祥的
First is an ominous silence, then the bombing start.
forbidding: having a fierce, unfriendly, or dangerous look 令人生畏的,险恶的
The travelers' way was blocked by a forbidding range of mountains.
fateful: (of a day, event, or decision) important (esp in a bad way) for the future 命运攸关的
I remember that fateful night when I met her.

3.Then the postwar West was engulfed in a new struggle with the Soviet Union and eager to turn Japan into a friendly economic bulwark.

engulf: swallow 吞没
The small boat was engulfed in the sea.
cf.
struggle: v. to fight, to make great efforts 奋斗,抗争
The boys were struggling with each other for the possession of a jewer box.
combat: to resist by fighting抵抗,反击
We shall combat these assaults with every weapon we have.
battle: to fight hard奋战
He battled to victory against many enemies.
duel: fight, especially between two people according to certain rules 决斗
The famous swordsman enjoyed dueling.

eager: full of, showing strong desire 热切的,渴望的
He listened to the story with eager attention.

cf.
keen: having a strong active interest in something; eager or anxious to do sth. 热心的,渴望的
enthusiastic: full of enthusiasm and eager interest 热心的,积极的
He's a keen student of politics.
She is enthusiastic about going to France.

bulwark: 壁垒,防御工事;(喻)屏藩,保障
Law is the bulwark of society.

4.By 1994 Chang had got married, moved to California and was happily pursuing a writing career that had already resulted in one published biography.

pursue: to go after in order to catch up with, capture or kill 追赶,追捕,追杀     persistently to follow 永远跟随
You should make sure that you are not being pursued.
His record as a criminal pursued him wherever he went.

cf.
career: a job or profession for which one is trained and which one intends to follow
for the whole one's life谋生之道,职业
He made the Church his career.
occupation: n. job, employment 职业,工作
What is your father's occupation?
profession: a form of employment, esp one that is respected in society as honorable and is possible only for an educated person and after training in some special branch of knowledge 专业,职业(尤指从事脑力或受过专门训练的)
In the last century there was a great social difference between business and the professions.

result in: to bring about, to have as a consequence 致使,造成
Their dispute resulted in a war.
[idioms] result from: to come about, to happen as a natural consequence 发生,起因于
Any damage resulting from negligence must be paid for by the borrower.

biography: person's life history written by another 传记
This is Lu Xun‘s biography, not his novel.
[addition]
autobiography: a book written by oneself about one's own life 自传
This book is Shen Congwen's autobiography.
memoirs: a written account of a person's life, especially as he or she remembers it in old age 回忆录
The general retired from the army and wrote his memoirs.

Para 3 While attending a conference in Cupertino, California, on the history of World War II, she encountered some poster-size photos from Nanking on display. Nothing she'd heard about the massacre had prepared her "for the helpless, terrorized looks of those about to die with no hope of rescue, the piles of bodies or the grins on the soldiers' faces as they participated or looked on".
She stood, almost paralyzed by the wave of anger and revulsion that swept over her. One photo showed a Japanese officer, his samurai sword raised high, about to decapitate a bound and kneeling Chinese prisoner. Here, indeed, was the nightmarish "man with a sword" of her childhood memory.
Chang did not cry... then. But in an instant she determined, "I will tell these people's story."

张纯如女士在加利福尼亚的卡布提拿参加关于二战历史的会议时,她看到了陈列着的一张张有关南京大屠杀的海报模样的照片。不论是那被逼的走投无路的绝望,恐惧的表情,那堆积如山的尸体还是那些正在残杀或者冷眼旁观的士兵们狰狞的笑脸,都是她以前听说这件事时所难以想象的。
她就那样伫立着,阵阵愤慨与反感侵袭着她的全身,她几乎要垮下了。其中一张照片拍的是一个日本军官高高地举着他那把武士军刀,正准备向一个跪在地上,浑身遭捆绑的中国囚犯砍去。这,确确实实可以说,就是她童年记忆中那可怕的"手持尖刀者"画面的缩影。
张纯如女士并没有流泪,然而就在那一瞬间她决定:"我要把这些受难者的故事诏告于天下!"

 

[summary] While attending a conference, Chang saw the evidence of Nanking. She was struck by the dreadful reality and decided to tell the Nanking stories.

1.While attending a conference in Cupertino, California, on the history of World War II, she encountered some poster-size photos from Nanking on display.

attend: to be present at 到场,出席; to serve, to look after 侍候,照料
The lectures were all attended.
She has many servants attending upon her.
[derivation] attendance: 出席的人数;看护,照料
There was a large attendance at church this morning.
Major X was in attendance upon the Queen.

cf.
encounter: to meet, to meet unexpectedly 遭逢,邂逅
He encountered his country fellow on the ‘English Corner'.
rendezvous: (esp of military movements) to meet by arrangement (尤指军事行动)会合
The two groups of men rendezvoused successfully.
interview: to meet and ask questions 面试,访问
He went to London to be interviewed.

display: n. show or exhibition 展示,陈列
    v. to show 展示,陈列
He tried to make a display of his knowledge.
Department stores display their goods in the windows.

2.She stood, almost paralyzed by the wave of anger and revulsion that swept over her.

paralyze: vt. 使麻痹,使瘫痪
She was paralyzed when she heard her husband's accident.
[derivation] paralysis: n. 麻痹,瘫痪 (喻)毫无力量,无能力
      paralytic: adj. 麻痹的,瘫痪的
Mary's paralysis made her teacher very sad.
He got a paralytic stroke and cannot work now.

revulsion: n. sudden and complete change of feeling 心情的突然改变; feeling of reaction 厌恶,嫌弃
There was a revulsion of public feeling in favor of the accused women.
His revulsion against the Japanese results from Naking Massacre.

3. ...about to decapitate a bound and kneeling Chinese prisoner. Here, indeed, was the nightmarish "man with a sword" of her childhood memory.

[grammatical point] be about to: on the point of, just going to (表示最近的将来)即将,正要
As I was about to say, when you interrupted me.
be to do: (to express the future tense) (表示将来时)
He and I are to meet at the Beijing Railway Station.
be going to: (to express a planned future) (表时将来计划做的事) 打算要
I was going to do it, but he did it first.
be + predicative + adverbial of future-time: (to express the future tense) (表示将来时)
He is in London next week.

cf.
decapitate: vt. to behead 斩首,杀头
The prisoners were all decapitated.
hang: to execute by hanging 绞死,吊死
In those days the man could be hanged by the neck until dead.
guillotine: to cut off one's head or to kill by guillotine 用断头台斩首
The men were guillotined.

nightmarish: dreadful 可怕的,恐惧的
He has a nightmarish experience that they traveled on those bad mountain roads.

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