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环保季(第二幕)——孟加拉国水患

(2011-02-09 10:52:19)
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杂谈

Bangladesh was once a country blessed with 250 beautiful rivers dotting its landscape. Now, it is one of the world’s most water-scarce countries. Many of its rivers have dried up, the rest are heavily polluted. The country suffers the highest rates of waterborne diseases in the world.  To make the matters worse, its underground water was found to have naturally occurring arsenic 5 times the maximum recommended by the United Nations.

自古天赐于孟加拉国250条美丽的河流散布在它的山水之间。可现今的孟加拉国却是世界上最缺水的国家之一。许多的河流干枯了,没干枯的也被污染了。孟加拉国成为世界上水染疾病最多的国家。更严重的是,其地下水含有剧毒元素砷,其含量是联合国容许量的5倍,切断了当地的重要水源之一。

 

Once the lifeline of a city, the Buriganga flows through the Capital of Dhaka, providing drinking, fishing and transportation for 12 million people is now filled with industrial and human waste. It has turned into a “Septic Tank” and the river surface has become a black gel. Its odor is so offensive that water recreation becomes impossible.  Many of the rivers in Bangladesh suffer similar fate. Most are polluted from dumping and many have dried up due to encroachment. 

其首都达卡命脉之河的Buriganga河流过达卡,自古以来给当地的居民提供饮用水,鱼类和运输措施。今天,它流着1200万居民的粪便和垃圾。成为了当地的化粪池,水面可以看到一层厚厚的凝胶。其气味冲天,连休闲娱乐的巡航客船都受到了影响。孟加拉国许多的河流也命运相当。由于污染和水源割划造成水流停止所带来干枯和凝固现象极为普遍。

 

The Buriganga has become a dumping ground of all kinds of solid, liquid and chemical wastes from the local tanneries, farmers and chemical companies. It is estimated that up to 18,500 cubic meters of liquid wastes, 19,000 kilograms of solid wastes and 17,600 kilograms of biological wastes go into the Buriganga each day. The Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Authority confirmed that large quantities of discarded polythene deposits are found near Sadarghat. Chemicals such as cadmium and chromium, and mercury carried by the industrial waste are creeping into the ground water near the river.

Buriganga成为了当地皮革业,化工厂和农民丢弃固体、液体和化学废墟的垃圾箱。据统计每天有18500立方米的液体垃圾,19000公斤的固体垃圾,和17600公斤的生化垃圾被丢进Buriganga河里。在Sadarghat附近,当地水源管理局在清理河底时发现了大量的聚乙烯沉淀物被抛进水里,地下水也受到了污染,工业所用的镉、铬和汞也从河里渐渐地渗入到地下水里。

 

During the months (November to April) of the dry season, the level of pollution is so high that no aquatic species can survive in it and the situation is getting worse. Tests found the level of dissolved oxygen within 0.6 to 1.8 mg/l and zero at other points. For aquatic lives to survived, the level of oxygen has to be more than 5 mg/l.

达卡的干季(每年11月到下一年4月),河水的污染度最高,水生物无法生存,情况也日益加重。这个季节的水含氧率只有0.6 到 1.8 mg/l,有的地方为零。生物生存必备5 mg/l以上的含氧度。

 

The authorities are fully aware of the dumping and encroachment activities carried out on the Buriganga River. Bangladesh government enacted a law in 1995 making it compulsory for all industries to use effluent treatment plants to save river waters from pollution, but industry owners often flout the rule or bribe local politicians to avoid using the plant.

令人失望的是达卡政府不是不知道Buriganga河流的污染是由于周边工业非法排放大量工业垃圾的缘故,早在1995年就规定所有工厂必须通过废物处理基地来处理工业垃圾。但工业资本家们根本不按章程办事,还贿赂当地的官员以避免执行规定。

 

Because of the surface water pollution, Bangladesh government began to propose using underground water sources for its population. They dug wells in the villages and established ground water access for the villagers. However, after began using ground water, villagers in Jampukkur, first in the 1970s noticed dark spots spread across their bodies. Not until 1993, they learned that they were drinking arsenic contaminated water. Official tests showed 95% of the village wells were contaminated.

由于河流污染严重,孟加拉国政府提出使用地下水的建议。也在当地的村庄里打井和建立取水处。人们就开始使用地下水,可是在1970年左右,Jampukkur的村民们身体上开始出现黑色的斑点。到了1993年,人们才发现其地下水含砷量过高,95%的地下水源都受到影响。

 

Arsenic is a natural substance in the pyrite bedrock underlying most of the ground area in West Bengal. It accumulates in the body resulting in nails rotting, dark spots, bleeding sores, swelling, large warts and a form of gangrene. It increases the risk of skin cancer and tumors of the bladder, kidney, liver and lungs. It is a slow killer.

砷是西部孟加拉国的黄铁矿石层具有的天然元素之一。进入人体后,会造成指甲腐烂,身体上出现黑斑,皮肤溃疡,水肿,疣,坏疽等现象。它是致癌元素,也会造成膀胱,肾,肝和肺部肿瘤。是慢性杀手。

 

Various studies have been conducted to find a solution and several mitigation projects have been conducted with various results. In many cases the mitigation options provided have failed in terms of sustainability, there is an impatient drive to find the solution that can solve the problem permanently. The illness can take years to diagnose, doctors warn that in 10 years it could reach epidemic proportions, perhaps even more urgent and dire even than the AIDS crisis in Africa.

科学家们也在极力寻找答案和解决方法,也曾经做过一些居民迁移项目,但收获不一。大多数都由于无法持续而告终。现在人们迫不及待的寻找一个永久的解决方法。砷引发的疾病很难诊断。医疗界警告政府,10年以后可能会达到瘟疫程度,其破坏度可能比非洲的艾滋病还严重。

 

The British Geological Survey, which conducted research on behalf of the Bangladesh government in 1992, is accused of not testing for arsenic and giving the ground water a clean bill of health, even in places where arsenic was present at as much as 50 times the United Nations maximum. In its own defense, the BGS argues that, at the time of its report, little was known about the geological origins of arsenic poisoning.

英国地质探查局,在1992年受孟加拉国政府委任曾经对孟加拉国地下水做过测验。但却没有提出地下水含砷的问题,甚至有些地方的砷含量达到联合国规定数据的50倍,该局也给予合格证。他们辩称当时很少人了解砷的毒性和其来源,所以无法提出任何建议。

 

As a result of widespread water contamination domestic abuse has become just one of the social costs. There are now many reports of broken marriages, as husbands send disfigured wives back to their parents. In Jampukkur, many young men and women don’t get married at all. Some people think the poison can be passed on from parent to child so many arsenic poisoned women have problems finding husbands.

由于大量的水源污染,家庭纠纷和妇女虐待问题也开始出现,成为其社会代价之一。许多年轻美丽的妻子因砷中毒身上长起黑斑,溃疡后,丈夫便将妻子退给娘家。也有人认为砷中毒会影响生理基因,或遗传给下一代,所以中毒的许多女孩子或是找不到丈夫,或是尽量避免生育。

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