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智慧和愚蠢(摘抄)

(2009-04-14 15:39:21)
标签:

天才

聪明

愚蠢

生活态度

intelligence

unintelligence

curious

grow

文化

    When we talk about intelligence,we do not mean the ability to get a good score on a certain kind of test,or even the ability to do well in school.By intelligence we mean a style of life,a life,a way of behaving in various situations.The true of intelligence is not how much we know how to do,but how we behave when we dont't know what to do.

当我们谈及智慧,我们指的不是在某种考试中取得高分的能力,也不是学习好的能力。我们所谈的智慧指的是一种生活风格,一种生活,一种在各种情况下的行为方式。真正的智力测验不是测试我们知道多少应对方案,而是测试当我们遇到问题时会怎么做。

    The intelligence person,young or old,meeting situation or problem,opens himself up to it.He tries to take in with mind and senses everything he can about it.He thinks about it,instead of about himself or what it might cause to happen to him.He grapples with it boldly,imaginatively,resourcefully,and if not confidently,at least hopfully;if he fails to master it,he looks without fear or shame at his mistakes and learns what he can from them.This is intelligence.Clearly its roots lie in a certain feeling about life,and one's self with respect to life.Just as clearly,unintelligence is not what most psychologists seem to suppose,the same thing as intelligence,only less of it.It is an entirly diffferent style of bahavior,arising out of rntirely different ste of attitudes.

不论年老年少,有才智的人遇到新的情况或问题时,都会豁达地面对。他努力用心和感觉去盡可能多地学习掌握所有细节。他考虑问题,而不是考虑他自己或是这將给他带来什么后果。他大胆地,富有想象力的,机智的,而且,就算不是信心十足,至少也是满怀希望地去解决问题;假如他无法圆满解决,对自己的错误他也并不害怕或是感到羞愧,而是尽量从中吸取教训,这就是智慧。很明显,它源于一种对生活的感情和自身对生活的尊重。同样,愚蠢并不是大多数心理学家认为的只是缺乏智慧。它是一种完全不同的行为风格,源于截然不同的一类态度。

    Years of watching and comparing bright children with the not-bright,or less bright,have shown that they are very different kinds of people.The bright child is curious about life and reality,earger to get in touch with it,embrace it,unite himself with it.There is no wall,no barrier,between himself and life.On the other hand,the dull child is far less curious,far less interested in what goes on and what is real,more inclind to live in a world of fantasy.The bright child likes to experiment,to try things out.He lives by the maxim that there is more than one way to skin a cat.If he can't do something one way,he will try another;if taht try fails,he is through.

对聪明的孩子和不聪明,或是不够聪明的孩子,多年来的比较和观察显示,他们是截然不同类型的人。聪明的孩子对生活和现实充满好奇,渴望与之接触、拥抱、合而为一。他和生活之间没有任何障碍。另一方面,迟钝的孩子对周围发生的事情和现实状况不怎么好奇和感兴趣。他们更愿意生活在幻想的世界里。聪明的孩子喜欢做实验,对事物进行验证。他的生活格言就是“给猫剥皮的方法不止有一种”。如果他不能用一种方法做某件事,他会尝试另一种。迟钝的孩子通常害怕尝试。甚至让他試一次都需要不停地敦促;如果这次尝试失败了,他就不干了。

    Nobody starts off stupid.Hardly an adult in a thousand,or ten thousand could in any three years of his life as much,grow as much in his understanding of the world around him,as every infant learns and grows in his first three years.But what happens,as we grow older,to this extraordinary capacity for learning and intellectual growth? But what happens is that it is destryed,and more than by any other one thing,it is destryed by the process that we misname education——a process that goes on in most homes and schools.

没有人一开始就是愚蠢的。一千人或一万人中,难友一个人在他生命中的任意三年里,能够在对周围世界的领悟过程中和每个婴儿最初三年学到的东西和成长的速度一样多,一样快。随着我们长大,这种非凡的学习能力和智慧增长到底发生了什么改变呢?那就是它遭到了破坏,它是被我们誤稱爲教育的過程——一个在大多数家庭和学校进行的过程破坏的,这要比任何其他的破坏严重得多。

   

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