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大脑:解读智能的奇迹

(2008-05-30 14:43:14)
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文化

分类: 空中英语学习

The Brain: Deciphering [译解]

the Miracles[奇迹] of the Mind

大脑:解读智能的奇迹

     More than ever, neuroscientists are discovering the dynamic[动态的] nature of human awareness[意识] as it develops from infancy[婴儿期], how a handful of wet tissue[组织] learns to recognize loved ones, remember telephone numbers and conceive[想象] dreams of paradise[天堂].

    如今,神经学家们比以往更加了解,人类的意识从婴儿时就开始发育了,具有非常活跃的本性;也更加认识到巴掌大的大脑如何学习认识所爱的人,记住电话号码以及勾勒出极乐

世界的梦想。

     In their most crucial[至关紧要的] discoveries, researchers have learned that brain development in the first three years of life is more rapid, more malleable[有延展性的] and far more extensive than anyone suspected[猜想]. The brain remains a work in progress throughout childhood. The developing brain is so robust[精力充沛的] that it sometimes can overcome even severe physical trauma[外伤, 损伤], yet so fragile[易碎的, 脆的] that a mother's prolonged[延长的, 拖延的] depression[沮丧, 消沉] can imprint[留下烙印] her infant's brain for a life-time with the neurochemistry[神经化学] of sadness.

     在他们最重要的发现中,研究人员了解到在生命最初的3年中,大脑的发育比任何人推测的都要快,适应性也更强,拓展的范围也更加广泛。大脑在整个儿童期不断地发育健全。发育中的大脑是非常强健的,有时它甚至能克服严重的外伤;然而它又十分脆弱,以至于一位母亲长期的抑郁会把伤感的神经化学成分铭刻在婴儿的脑海里,留下终生的痕迹。

     Their findings reveal the nature of learning and the importance of critical periods in which the brain develops vision, language, muscle control, emotional response and reasoning ability.

     他们的研究结果揭示了学习的本质和大脑发展视力、语言、肌肉控制、情绪反应和推理能力的关键时期的重要性。

     The brain is so hungry for stimulation[刺激] that, with proper attention early enough in life, scientists can raise a disadvantaged[处于不利地位的] child's IQ 30 points, cut the risk of some forms of mental retardation[智力迟钝] in half and correct common learning disabilities such as dyslexia[诵读困难]. Conversely[相反地], denied proper stimulation, the neural connections wither[枯萎, 衰退] and the brain atrophies[萎缩].

大脑是非常渴望刺激的,因此在生命的最初阶段给予适当的关心,科学家们就可以把一个智力低下的孩子的智商提高30分,把得某种智力迟钝症的危险减少一半,并能矫正像阅读困难症这种常见的学习障碍。相反,缺少适当的刺激,神经连接腺就会衰弱,从而导致太脑萎缩。

     The developing brain is so malleable it can incorporate[合并] behavioral problems into its circuits[电路] as readily[容易地] as it might pick up a love of music,experts say. University of Washington researchers discovered that a mother's prolonged depression can change her infant's brain, significantly reducing activity in the parts regulating[调节] joy, happiness and curiosity. The intimate[亲密的] interaction[相互作用] between mother and child is more than enough to condition the latter's neural[5njuErEl] circuits.And an infant raised in an atmosphere [5AtmEsfiE] of fear or neglect is subjected to biochemical[生物化学的] overdoses[配药量过多] of stress hormones [5hC:mEun] [应激激素] that alter[改变] the young brain circuitry[5sE:kitri] [电路].

     专家们说,发育中的大脑的适应性是非常强的,它能把一些行为的问题归纳进它的脑路系统中,就像选择对音乐的爱好一样轻而易举。华盛顿大学的研究人员发现,一位母亲长期的抑郁状态会改变她婴儿的大脑纽织,明显地降低婴儿脑部控制喜悦、高兴和好奇心等部位的活动。母亲和婴儿之间密切的相互影响,已经足以训练婴儿的神经网络。一个在恐惧或者被忽视的环境申长大的婴儿,容易受过量的生物化学压力荷尔蒙的支配,从而改变幼儿大脑的通路系统。

 

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