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前两章材料

(2011-03-23 21:30:52)
标签:

教育

分类: 课程:英汉互译

第一章

一, 翻译的定义:

贾公彦(唐朝618—907)在《义疏》中对翻译做了明确的界定:“译即易,谓换易言语使相解也。”

法云(1088)(宋代960—1279)在其所编《翻译名义集》自序中进一步指出:“夫翻译者,谓翻梵天之语转成汉地之言。音虽似别, 义则大同。”

翻译即将一种语言——派出语(the source language)转换成另一种语言——目的语(the target language)或接受语(the receptor language),而意义保持或大抵不变。

Dr. Samuel Johnson(1709—1784): To translate is “to change into another language, retaining the sense”.

Eugene A. Nida: Translation consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style.

奈达对此做了说明:(1)再现原文的信息(message)而不是保留原文的结构形式(formal structure);(2)对等(equivalence)不是同一(identity);(3)对等是最贴切 ﹑自然的对等; (4)意义是优先考虑的因素; (5)文体成分虽居其次, 但也十分重要。

黄龙教授: Translation may be defined as follows: The replacement of textual material in one language(SL) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL).

黄龙的说明:(1)文本材料(textual material)用以强调, 在通常情况下,替代的不是原语文本的全部成分, 如句法和词法的改变;(2)翻译实践的中心问题是在目的语中找源出语的对等物(equivalents. 翻译理论研究的中心任务是确定翻译对等的性质和条件。

 

从古今中外翻译家给翻译所下的定义不难看出,翻译是一种语言活动过程,又是该活动的结果。

 

翻译过程不仅涉及两种语言,而且还涉及两种文化。 语言是文化的载体。翻译是通过语言机制的转换连接或沟通自身文化和异国文化的桥梁;翻译是具有不同语言文化背景的人互相交际﹑ 交流思想  ﹑达到相互了解的媒介。

 

翻译是一项艰苦的创造性实践活动。

 

翻译属于交叉科学,正在发展成为一个自成体系的独立学科。

 

翻译是一门艺术。

 

二.翻译的标准

1.  泰特勒的三原则:18世纪末, 爱丁堡大学的Alexander Fraser Tyeler, 1749—1814)在《翻译的原则》一书中系统地提出了进行翻译和评判翻译的三条基本原则。

1A translation should give a complete transcript of the ideas of the original work

(2)The style and manner of writing should be of the same character as that of the original.

(3) A translation should have all the ease of the original composition.

2严复在《天演论﹒译例言》(1898)中, 提出了“信  ﹑达  ﹑雅”(faithfulness, expressiveness and elegance)三字标准: “译事三难:信  ﹑达  ﹑雅。求其信已大难矣,顾信矣不达,虽译犹不译也, 则达商焉。”

3.傅雷:所求的不在形似而在神似

4 钱钟书: 化境

三. 翻译必须兼顾两面-----忠实和通顺

1.    忠实

a.       Jane does not work hard because she wants to earn money.

因为简想赚钱, 所以才不下力。

简并不是因为想赚钱才下力干的。

b.       The president stands there, hat in hand, begging Congress for their votes.

总统站在那里, 手里拿着礼帽, 乞求国会投他的票。

总统站在那里, 必恭必敬地请求国会议员们投赞成票。

c.       Legislators often respond to the quiet and professional pressure of lobbyists.

议员们无时无刻不屈从游说者的压力。

议员们常常为游说者老谋深算的压力所左右。

d.       The French presidential campaign is beginning in earnest.

e.       More that twenty-five-million soldiers and civilians had died during the six years of fighting.

f.        He had the kindness to show me the way, but I took it for something else.

g.       Deliberate September---in its own time and tempo—begins to sum up another summer.

h.       Both “herb” and “herbalist”are misnomers. Materials used in the aromatic but often bitter brew are not limited to the vegetable kingdom. Minerals and animal substances are also ingredients.

2. 通顺

a.        Pindus Road was a long, wide, straight street that ran parallel with Bread Road.

原译: 平得斯路是一条与布莱德路平行的 长长的 宽宽的 笔直的大街。

推荐译文:平得斯路与布莱德路平行, 是一条又长又宽又直的大街。

b.       She not only laughs a lot but has a heart of gold.

原译:她不仅常常大笑, 而且还有一颗黄金之心。

推荐译文:她不仅笑口常开, 而且还有一颗金子般的心。

c.       Often, when we found ourselves up against a seemingly insuperable(无法克服的) difficulty, he would stand up, put his pipe on the table, and say in his quaint(奇特而有趣的,老式而别致的,odd or old-fashioned, English, “I will a little tink.”

很多次, 当我们遇到看似无法攻克的难题时, 他就总是站起身来, 把烟斗往桌上一放, 用带口音的英语道: “让我来晌(想)一晌(想)。”

d.       It is widely believed that the runoff (进行决赛)will be between President Jacques Chirac and Prime Minister Lionel Jospin. Neither of them wants to see a promising “third person.”

一般认为角逐将在现任总统希拉克与总理若斯潘之间展开。 他们谁都不原出现又一竞争强手。

e.        The operation may not succeed; it’s gamble whether he lives or dies.

原译:手术不一定成功, 就像赌博一样, 他是死是活还没有把握。

推荐译文:手术不一定成功, 是否能保住他的性命都很难说。

2.    忠实与通顺的关系。

   

 忠实与通顺既对立又统一。

 

Another star in the show industry fell yesterday.

A:又一颗明星昨天在娱乐业落了下来。(看似忠实, 可读性欠佳)

B:昨天, 又一艺人香消玉陨。(符合汉语习惯, 可读性较强, 但形式上与原文有差距。)

 

Jack is a fair-weather friend.

A: 杰克是一个好天气时的朋友。(强调字字对应, 译文的可读性欠佳)

B 你与杰克只能同欢乐而不能共患难。(文从字顺, 但与原句形式似有一定距离)

 

Translation Strategies

 

Literal translation (直译) and Free Translation (意译)

 

  Literal translation, also called word-for-word translation, is ideally the segmentation of the source language text into individual words and target language rendering of those word-segments one at a time. This ideal is often litereally impossible. For example, an inflected word in an agglutinative source language can almost never be replaced with a single word in an isolative target language, and, even when literally possible, the result is often unreadable. Hence most so-called literal translations are in fact compromises with the ideal: looser renditions that replace individual source language words with individual target language words wherever possible, and cling as closely as possible to the source language word order in the target language(Baker 2001: 125)

 

Free translation, also known as sense-for-sense translation, emphasizes transfer of the meaning or “spirit” of a soure text over accurate reproduction of the original wording. The prupose of sense-for-sense translation is to accommodate the needs of the target language reader by producing a text which conforms to the linguistic and textual norms of the target language and culture and which does not therefore sound “foreign” (Shuttleworth & Cowie 1997:151)

直译法: 把忠实于原文的内容放在第一位,把忠实于原文的形式放在第二位,把通顺的译文形式放在第三位。

如果译文和原文相同的形式能表达和原文相同的内容,可以直译,如wash one’s hands可以直译为“洗手”

如果原文的表达形式比译文精确、有力,可以直译,但要符合“忠实、通顺”的标准,如armed to the teeth可以直译为“武装到牙齿”。

如果不忠实于原文的内容,只忠实于原文的形式,那就不是直译,而是硬译,如鲁迅批评过的的把the Milky Way (天河,银河)译成“牛奶路”。 硬译是翻译中的形式主义。

 

 

意译(free translation)是指将一种语言所表达的意义用另一种语言做释义性解释, 在转换过程中不必拘泥于原文形式。

 

直译和意译不是绝对概念, 二者界限并非泾渭分明, 而是互补互助, 殊途同归。

 

The Italians are wise before the deed, the Germans in the deed, the French after the deed.

意大利人事前聪明, 德国人事中聪明, 而法国人事后聪明。(两种方法兼用)

 

Smashing a mirror is no way to make an ugly person beautiful, nor is it a way to make social problems evaporate.

直译: 砸镜子不能使丑八怪变漂亮, 也不能使社会问题烟消云散。

意译: 砸镜子并不能解决实际问题。

 

异化法和归化法

 

 

Foreignizing Translation and Domesticating Translation

 

While literal translation and free translation mainly deal with linguistic reproduction, foreignizing translation and domisticating translation are concerned more with cultural, linguistic and aesthetic considerations.

 

Foreignization is a strategy in which a target text is produced which deliberately breaks target conventions by retaining something of the foreignness of the original. This method is “an ethnodeviant pressure on target-language cultural values to register the linguistic and cultural difference of the foreign text, sending the reader abroad” to have alien reading experience Venuti 1995:20(异化译法受到译入语文化价值观的民族偏离主义压力,注意到外语文本的语言和文化差异,把读者带入外国情景,体验外国人的阅读感受)

  换言之,异化译法要求译者向原文作者靠拢,采取原文作者使用的表达方式传达原文的内容,如吧to kill two birds with one stone 译为“一石两鸟”, All roads lead to Rome译为“条条大路通罗马”等都是异化译法。

 

Domestication is a strategy in which a transparent, fluent style is adopted in order to minimize the strangeness of the foreign text for target language readers. This method is “an ethnocentric reduction of the foreign text to target-language cultural values, bringing the author back home” (Venuti 1995: 20) (归化译法采取民族中心主义的态度,使外语文本符合译入语的文化价值观,把原作者带入译入语文化)。

换言之,归化译法要求译者向译文读者靠拢,采取译文读者习惯的译语表达方式传达原文的内容,如把to kill two birds with one stone译为“一箭双雕”、“一举两得”, to grow like mushrooms译为“雨后春笋”。 All roads lead to Rome”译为“殊途同归等都是归化译法。

 

 

 

 

异化法: 是接受原文与译文的语言 文化等差异, 忠实传达原文内容, 把读者带入异国情景。 该方法要求译者向原文作者靠拢, 力争采取相应于原语的表达方式, 即鲁迅先生提及过的“异国情调”和“洋气”。异化法的使用往往能够更加准确充分 原汁原味地传达出原文的意义。

 

It gives me very great pleasure to see Chinese children shooting up like bean sprouts, full of vitality and energy.

我非常高兴地看到华裔小孩像豆芽一样冒出来, 充满生机和活力。

 

There never was a good war or a bad war.

从来没有好战争, 也没有坏和平。

 

It was as if a band of Italian days had come from the south, like a flock of glorious passenger birds, and lighted to rest them on the cliffs of Albion.

仿佛有一群意大利天气, 像欢乐的过路鸟从南方飞来, 栖息在阿尔比恩的悬崖上。

 

This organization is today collapsing on its clay feet. Its organs have been cut out, dissected and reshaped so that they may perform the way the puppet masters want.

今天这个泥足支撑的组织正在崩溃。 它的器官被割掉肢解和整形,以使其按照木偶操纵者所要求的方式行事。

 

归化法: 要求译者向译语读者靠拢, 采取读者关照的态度, 使原文符合译语的文化价值观,把原文作者带入译语文化之中。

 

Things Go Better With Coke.

可口可乐, 顺心顺意。

 

He, of course, was proud of his success. But to his disappointment, few people would buy his book.

面对着自己的成功, 那股自豪之情自不待言。 然而令他沮丧的是: 他的那本新书几乎无人问津。

 

 

Endless African plain. The sun is bright, the trees are green and the animals live happily.

一望无际的非洲大草原, 阳光灿烂, 树木青葱, 动物们幸福地生活着。

 

Thousands of lives were suddenly ended by evil, despicable(可鄙的,卑劣的) acts of terror.

数千人在恐怖分子的卑劣行径下顷刻间失去了宝贵的生命。

 

 

 

 

 

Christ knows he can’t have gone,”…Thank God he is traveling and not going down.”…”God let him jump,” the old man said. (Hemingway, 1965: 25 27 33)

 

2a. “耶稣知道它不会走的。”  “幸而它只是航行,并没有往下面去---感谢上帝。”  “上帝让它跳吧,”老人说。(张爱玲译《老人与海》,1954293137

 

2b. “绝对不会溜走的。”   “谢天谢地,它还在游着,没钻到海底去。” “让它跳起来吧,”老头儿说。(海观译《老人与海》1957252733

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