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Principle of Maglev  磁浮列车原理

(2007-10-17 09:20:53)
分类: 随翻随译
 

Maglev is a system in which the vehicle runs levitated form the guideway ( corresponding to the rail tracks of conventional railways ) by using electromagnetic forces between superconducting magnets on board the vehicle and coils on the ground.

磁浮列车是一个系统 。在该系统中 ,车辆利用车载超导磁铁和地面线圈之间产生的电磁吸力或斥力从导轨 (相当于传统铁路的轨道 )上浮升起来 。

 

Different from the conventional wheel-on-rail system. The Transrapid accomplishes the functions of support, guidance, acceleration and braking by using non-contact electromagnetic instead of mechanical force. Because there is almost no mechanical contact. The transrapid can run with lower noise, but relative higher speed up to 500KM/h.

与传统的轮轨铁路不同,磁浮列车主要是依靠无接触的电磁力,而非机械力来实现支撑,导向,加速和制动功能。由于列车运行 中几乎没有机械接触,因而运行起来噪音小,时速却可高达500公里每小时 。

 

The magnetic levitation system is based on the power of attracting between the electromagnets in the vehicle and the ferromagnetic stator packs in the guideway. In contrast to conventional trains ,the propulsion system for the Transrapid is not mounted in the vehicle but in the guideway. The long-stator linear motor in the guideway is divided into segments which are individually switched on and off, with power only being supplied to the given segments as the train passes.

磁悬浮系统依靠列车上电磁铁导向和铁磁定子之间的吸力工作 。跟传统列车不同,磁浮列车的驱动系统不安装在车辆上,而是在导向轨上。导轨上的长定子线性点击被分成区段,各区段均有独立开关,只有列车通过该区段时才有电力供应 。

 

Electronically controlled support magnets located on both sides along the entire length of the vehicle pull the vehicle up to the ferromagnetic stator packs mounted to the underside of the guideway.

电子控制的悬浮磁铁贯穿车辆的两侧 ,这些磁铁使车辆被吸往安装在导轨下方的磁铁定子原件。

 

Guaidance magnets located on both sides along the entire length of the vehicle keep the vehicle laterally on the track. Electronic systems guarantee that the clearance remains constant( nominally 10 mm3). To hover, the Maglev requires less power than its air conditioning equipment. The levitation system is supplied from on-board batteries and thus independent of the propulsion system. The vehicle is capable of hovering up to 30 minutes without external energy. While traveling , the on-board batteries are recharged by linear generators integrated into the support magnets.

贯穿车辆两侧的导轨磁铁使车辆水平悬浮在轨道上。电子系统可确保空隙恒定(即10毫米)。列车浮升所需功量低于车辆空调设施所需。悬浮系统由车载电池馈电,因而与驱动系统无关。没有外部能量输入的情况下,车辆也能悬浮达30分钟之久。而在运行过程中,车载电池可由配备与悬浮磁铁中的线性发电机供电。

 

The maglev hovers over a single or double track guideway. It can be mounted either at-grade or elevated on slim columns and consists of individual steel or concrete beam up to 62m in length.

磁浮列车可采用单轨或是双轨运行。导轨既可水平铺设于地面,也可用细柱加以升高。导轨由钢或混凝土梁组成,每节导轨可长达62米。

 

To change tracks, bendable switches are used which consist of a continuous steel beam which is elastically bent by means of electro-mechanical setting drives. Low speed switches approx.78 m long, are used to change tracks near stations and can be passed over in the turnout direction at 100km/h ( in the straight direction at full operation speed). High speed switches,approx.150 m long, are used where higher turnout speeds are required(200km/h turnout speed and in the straight direction at full operation speed).

若要改道,可采用曲性道岔。这些曲性道岔由无缝钢条组成,通过机电制导装置,使其柔性弯曲。低速道岔(长约78米),用于列车临进站时改道。列车可沿查到方向以100公里/小时速度驶进(在直线方向不减速运行)。高速道岔(长约150米),用在那些需要列车快速通过道岔区段的地方,(道岔处时速为200公里,直线方向则不减速运行)。

 

The maglev is propelled by a non-contact, long-stator linear motor which is installed in the guideway and functions like a rotating electric motor with the stator cut open and stretched out below the guideway.

磁浮雷彻由非接触式长定子线性电机驱动,线性电机装载导轨内,作用类似于一个定子切开后展开装在导轨下方的旋转电机。

 

Electric current in the cable winding generates a traveling magnetic field which pulls the vehicle along without contact. The support magnets form the exciter( i.e. the motor). The speed is variable by controlling the frequency of the current. Changing the direction of the field of the traveling wave results in non-contact braking of the vehicle because the motor is converted into a generator. The braking energy can then be fed back into the power grid in the form of electric energy.

 通电螺线管里的电流产生里一个移动磁场,以非接触的方式驱动车辆。悬浮磁铁作用相当于励磁元件,即转子。通过调节电流频率可控制速度,而改变行波磁场方向可以非接触的方式对车辆进行制动,因为这时已将电动机转换成了发电机,制动产生的能量则以电能的性质溃入电网中。

 

Maglev vehicles comprises a minimum of two sections, each with approx.90 seats on average. According to application and traffic volume, trains may be composed of up to ten sections (two end and eight middle sections).

磁浮列车至少有两节车厢。每节车厢平均设座位约90个。根据实际情况及交通流量,列车可由多达十节车厢组成(前后两节类似于传统列车的机车和守车,中间还有8节)。

 

However, the maglev is suitable for transporting goods as well. For high-speed cargo transport, special cargo sections can be combined with passenger sections or assembled to form dedicated cargo trains( payload up to 18 tons per section). As the propulsion system is in the guideway, neither the length of the vehicle nor the payload affect the acceleration power.

事实上,磁浮列车也适宜从事货车运输。对于高速货车运输来说,可将货车专用车厢编入旅客列车,或者编组成货物专列(每节运货可达18吨0. 因为驱动系统置于导轨中,所以车辆长度和有效荷载都不会影响加速力。

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