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Drilling process   钻井工艺

(2007-12-19 14:52:04)

Part I  Passages 

Once an area has been selected and the right to drill thereon has been obtained, actual drilling may begin. The most common method of drilling in use today is rotary drilling. Rotary drilling operates on the principle of boring a hole by continuous turning of a bit. The bit is the most important tool. The rest of the rig ( a derrick and attendant machinery) is designed to make it effective. While bits vary in design and purpose, one common type consists of a housing and three interlocking movable wheels with sharp teeth, looking something like a cluster of gears. The bit, which is hollow and very heavy, is attached to the drill stem, composed of hollow lengths of pipe leading to the surface.

 

As the hole gets deeper, more lengths of pipe can be added at the top. Almost as important as the bit is the drilling fluid. Although known in the industry as mud, it is actually a prepared chemical compound. The drilling mud is circulated continuously down the drill pipe, through the bit, into the hole and upwards between the hole and the pipe to a surface pit, where it is purified and recycled. The flow of mud removes the cuttings from the hole without removal of the bit, lubricates and cools the bit in the hole, and prevents a blow out which could result if the bit punctured a high pressure formation. The cuttings, which are carried up by the drilling mud, are usually continuously tested by the petroleum geologist in order to determine the presence of oil.

 

The final part of the hole is what the operating company hopes will be the production hole. But before long, the formation of interest (the pay zone, the oil sand, or the formation that is supposed to contain hydrocarbons) is penetrated by the hole. It is now time for a big decision. The question is, "Does this well contain enough oil or gas to make it worthwhile to run the final production string of casing and complete the well?"

 

Part II  Sentences 

The following is an example drilling procedure listing in sequential order the actions to be taken.

以下为钻井程序实例,在实际作业中一般按顺序实施。

1- Rig up drilling rig.  安装钻机。

2- Hammer 16'' conductor pipe.  下16''导管。

3- Cut conductor and nipple up flow lines to pit. 割导管,连接污管。

4- Spud in. 开钻。

5- Drill ±3,000 ft with 14-3/4'' bit, run survey every 500 ft.

    用14-3/''钻头打大约3,000英尺。

6- Run ±3,000 ft with 10-3/'' bit K-55 casing with guide shoe, float  

    collar, six centralizers.  用10-3/4''钻头通井大约±3,000英尺,下K-

    55套管,带引鞋、浮箍、6个扶正器。

7- Cement with 2,200 sacks(sks) Class H cement with 2% CaCI2.

    2,200袋 H级水泥(2% CaCI2.)固井。

8- WOC   候凝。

9- If no returns, one-inch the hole. 如果返高不够,开1英寸的小孔。

10- Cut casing. Weld on 10''1500 series casing head. 割套管。焊

    接10'' 1500系列套管头。

11- Test casing head to 1,000 psi for 15 minutes. 套管头试压 1,000

     psi 15分钟。

12- Nipple up BOPs, annular preventer choke manifold, and super

     choke. 连接BOP,环空防喷器节流管汇和高压截止阀。

13- Test BOPs 5,000 psi, annular preventer 2,500 psi, choke manifold

      5,000 psi.  BOP试压5,000psi,环空防喷器试压 2,500 psi, 节流

      管汇试压5,000 psi。

14- Make up BHA ,and 9-7/8'' bit without stabilizer. 组合钻具,用9-

      7/8''钻头,不带扶正器。

15- Trip in hole and tag cement, test 1,500 psi. 下钻,打水泥塞,试压

      1,500 psi。

16- Drill out float collar, test casing 1,500 psi.钻掉浮箍,套管试压

      1,500 psi。

17- Drill out guide shoe and 10 ft formation, test to 13.5 EMW. 钻掉引

     鞋,钻入地层10英尺,试压到 13.5 EMW。

18- Drill with 9-7/8'' bit until it wears out. Survey every 500 ft 用9-7/8''

     钻头钻进,知道钻头磨秃。每500英尺测一点。

19- Trip out of hole and pick up stabilizer. 起钻,装扶正器 。

20- Drill ±9,200 ft. 钻大约9,200英尺。

21- One degree deviation per 1,000 ft not to exceed 7º .每1,000英尺

     偏斜1度,完井不超过7度 。

22- Condition hole and run logs. 准备井眼,进行电测。

23- Plug and abandon or run pipe. 打水泥塞并放弃或继续下套管。

24- Run ±9,200 ft with 7” bit K-55 casing with guide shoe, float

    collar and 10 cenralizers.  用7”钻头通井大约9,200英尺,下K-55

    套管,带引鞋、浮箍和10个扶正器 。

25- Cement 280 sacks( sks) Class H cement with 2% CaCI2.用280袋

    H级水泥(2% CaCI2.)固井。

26- Cut casing, nipple down, and release rig.割套管,拆卸设施,放倒

    钻机。

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