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怎样才能成为超级运动员(续3)

(2007-09-22 13:42:44)
标签:

人文/历史

 <DIV>&nbsp;
<P>"Everything neurons do, they do pretty quickly; it happens with the flick of a switch," Fields said. "But flicking switches is not how we learn a lot of things. Getting good at piano or chess or baseball takes a lot of time, and that's what myelin is good at." </P>
<P>“神经元可以做任何事情,并且做的非常快。它的这样就象开关打开与闭合那么快。”道格拉斯说。“但是,快速的反应不能帮助我们学习大量的东西。要成为优秀的钢琴家、国际象棋棋王以及垒球明星等都需要大量的时间,这就是髓磷脂在起作用”</P>
<P align=left>&nbsp;</P>
<P align=left>&nbsp;</P>
<P>To the surprise of many neurologists, it turns out this electrical tape is quietly interacting with the neurons. Through a mechanism that Fields and his research team described in a 2006 paper in the journal Neuron, the little sausages of myelin get thicker when the nerve is repeatedly stimulated. The thicker the myelin gets, the better it insulates and the faster and more accurately the signals travel. As Fields puts it, "The signals have to travel at the right speed, arrive at the right time, and myelination is the brain's way of controlling that speed." 2使神经科学家们都感到惊讶的是,髓磷脂产生电流静静地作用在神经元上。虽然其机理和道格拉斯团队的研究成果发表在2006年的“神经元” 杂志上,一个小香肠般大的髓磷脂在不断重复地刺激下会变厚。髓磷脂越厚,其绝缘性就越好。信号就传递得更快、更精确。道格拉斯指出:“信号传递必须是以正确的速度,到达在准确的时间节拍。大脑的髓磷脂就是这样控制速度的。”</P>
<P>It adds up to a two-part dynamic that is elegant enough to please Darwin himself: myelin controls the impulse speed, and impulse speed is crucial. The better we can control it, the better we can control the timing of our thoughts and movements, whether we're running, reading, singing or, perhaps more to the point, hitting a wicked topspin backhand. </P>
<P>他补充了两个产生动力的因素:优雅的达文自己说:“髓磷脂控制脉冲速度。脉冲速度是至关重要的。我能更好地控制脉冲速度,就能够更好地控制好意识和运动的节拍。不管我们跑步、读书、唱歌,或许更好地发挥去反手击中刁钻的上旋球。”</P>
<P align=left>&nbsp;</P>
<P align=left>Back at Spartak, the Little Group lined up outside the service box, rackets at the ready. Preobrazhenskaya stood at the net, a shopping cart of balls at her hip. She waited for silence, then started: forehand, backhand, back to the end of the line. One by one, the kids took their swings — to my eye, pretty nice-looking swings. But not to hers. Preobrazhenskaya frequently stopped them, had them do it over. More follow-through. More turn. Watch. Feel. </P>
<P><A href="http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/04/sports/playmagazine/04play-talent.html?pagewanted=5&amp;_r=1#secondParagraphsecondParagraph">Skip to next paragraph</A>回到斯巴达克,“小队”的成员们列队站在场外收拾包包和球拍。琴斯格亚站在网下,靠在一个出售网球的小车上。默默地看着场上,然后就开始了。正手击球。反手击球。退到底线区等。一个接一个,这些孩子挥拍击球。在我看来,是相当好看的挥拍姿势。但这不是说琴斯格亚想的。琴斯格亚经常让他们停下来重复做练习。更多的学习训练,更好地击球、判断和感觉。</P>
<P>Pravil'no, she said. Correct. </P>
<P>波若威尔,不。她说,改正。</P>
<P>Molodets. Good job.</P>
<P>&nbsp;莫尔代兹,好!干得好!</P>
<P align=left>If Preobrazhenskaya's approach were boiled down to one word (and it frequently was), that word would be tekhnika — technique. This is enforced by iron decree: none of her students are permitted to play in a tournament for the first three years of study. It's a notion that I don't imagine would fly with American parents, but none of the Russian parents questioned it for a second. "Technique is everything," Preobrazhenskaya told me later, smacking a table with Khrushchev-like emphasis, causing me to jump and reconsider my twinkly-grandma impression of her. "If you begin playing without technique, it is big mistake. Big, big mistake!"</P>
<P>如果琴斯格亚来到你的跟前,她总是用激昂的言词讲话,这些话都是技术术语。这些话有钢铁般法令的强迫力。不允许她的学生参加世界锦标赛,除非第一次受到为期三年的学习。这个理念我想美国的家长们不能接受,而俄罗斯则没有问题。“技术是一切。”琴斯格亚稍后告诉我。并且她用力敲了一下桌子吓了我一跳,使我回想起我的双胞胎奶奶的模样。“如果你开始打网球没有技术是大的错误,大大的错误。”</P>
<P>I thought of something Dr. Fields had said: "You have to understand that every skill exists as a circuit, and that circuit has to be formed and optimized." To put it in Spartak terms, myelin is a slave to tekhnika — and so, in turn, was the Little Group. Preobrazhenskaya didn't instruct them on tactics or positioning or offer any psychological tips; rather, every gesture and word was funneled to teaching the elemental task of hitting the ball clean and hard. Which they did, one by one. A few of the kids had located that magical-seeming burst of leverage that makes the ball explode off the strings with a distinctive thwock. 我回想起道格拉斯说过的话:“你必须明白每一个技术象一个电路图那样存在着,这个电路图必须形成并且需要优化。”把这句话放到斯巴达克,髓磷脂是技术的载体。斯巴达克“小队”的孩子们也是沉迷于髓磷脂的人。琴斯格亚不教战术、站位以及心理教育,相反每一个姿势和每一句话被灌输到完成基本技术的学习,使得他们击球非常干净而硬朗。小队员们一个接着一个地练习,一少部分队员已经掌握了魔术般的杠杆原理,用特殊的拍击方式打爆用线绳悬挂的网球。</P>
<P>"What do good athletes do when they train?" George Bartzokis, a professor of neurology at U.C.L.A., had told me. "They send precise impulses along wires that give the signal to myelinate that wire. They end up, after all the training, with a super-duper wire — lots of bandwidth, high-speed T-1 line. That's what makes them different from the rest of us." 3</P>
<P>“在训练时,好的运动员是怎样做的呢?”神经学教授乔治告诉我。“他们会送一个精确的脉冲信号给髓磷脂去处理。随着训练的结束,神经系统就变的象如今的网络宽带一样有高速的传输能力。着就是他们与我们普通人的不同之处。”</P>
<P>&nbsp;</P>
<P>As the Little Group continued its lesson, I found myself picturing myelin. I'd seen a highly magnified image on one of Fields's computer screens, and it looked like a deep-sea photograph: bright colors against a field of black. The oligodendrocytes — oligos, in lab lingo, are the cells that form the myelin — resembled glowing green squids, their tentacles reaching toward a set of slender nerve fibers. Once they seize hold, each tentacle begins to curl and extend, as the oligo squeezes the cytoplasm out of itself until only a cellophane-like sheet of membrane remains. That membrane proceeds to wrap over the nerve fiber with machinelike precision, spiraling down to create the distinctive sausage shape, tightening itself over the fiber like a threaded nut. 在小队员们继续上课的时候,我发现了我自己的髓磷脂。我已经看到一个非常奇妙的图象好象在电脑的显示屏中。它好象一副深海的:照片黑底色上映衬着明亮的颜色。少突细胞——用实验室的行话来说——是形成髓磷脂的细胞——象生长的绿色乌贼,它的触须伸向一组纤细的神经纤维。一旦被它抓住,每个触须就会卷曲和延伸。象少突细胞挤压细胞质那样直到变成一张象玻璃纸那样薄的隔膜。这层隔膜就象机器操作那样的精确包裹在神经纤维上,并旋转缠绕成特殊的香肠形状。就象螺母那样紧紧地包在神经纤维上。</P>
<P>"It's one of the most intricate and exquisite cell-cell interactions there is," Fields said. "And it's slow. Each one of these wraps can go around a nerve fiber 40 or 50 times, and that can take days or weeks. Imagine doing that to an entire neuron, then an entire circuit with thousands of nerves." “这是一个非常复杂、非常精致的细胞与细胞之间的交互作用。”道格拉斯说。“这个作用比较缓慢。是一个40到50次的包裹神经纤维的过程,它会持续几天或几周。想象一下整个神经系统这样做,那么会有成千上万的神经电路图。”</P>
<P align=left>&nbsp;</P>
<P>So each time Alexandra or Denis or Gunda swings the racket properly — or, for that matter, each time we practice a chip shot or a guitar chord or a chess opening — those tiny green tentacles sense it and reach toward the thousands of related nerve fibers. They grasp, they squish, they make another wrap, thickening the sheath. They build a little more insulation along the wire, which adds a bit more bandwidth and precision to the circuit, which translates into an infinitesimal bit more skill and speed. Myelin is both practice and mastery, cause and effect. As Bartzokis had said: "Myelin is our Achilles strength, and it's our Achilles' heel. It's what makes us human." 4</P>
<P>象亚历山大、丹尼斯和昆德的每次恰当的挥拍击球——就象我们练习削球、弹吉他和下一步棋一样——这些微小的绿色触角都会有感觉并传到成千上万的相关神经纤维。髓磷脂再次抓住,咯吱吱地缠绕、再细微地加厚神经纤维</P>
<P>的绝缘层。这些细微的增加会使神经系统的电路更宽、更精确。更宽、更精确的神经系统的电路会转化成无限小的技巧和速度的加快。髓磷脂不但可以经得起实践而且十分神秘,互为原因和结果。正象巴兹克斯所说的那样:“髓磷脂是我们的阿基里斯的力量,它是我们的脚跟。它是我们人类所独有的。”</P>
<P>……</P>
<P align=left>&nbsp;</P>
<P align=left>All this myelin talk, combined with jet lag, left me feeling slightly changed. I wandered Moscow as if I were seeing the world through myelin-colored glasses. Emerald-green squids and snowy white sausages were everywhere I looked. A TV highlight of a Ronaldinho goal? Pure myelin! That violinist playing <A title="More articles about Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart." href="http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/m/wolfgang_amadeus_mozart/index.html?inline=nyt-per">Mozart</A> in the subway? What incredible oligodendrocytes that guy must have! A poster for the 2008 Olympics? An international myelin cultivation contest! My repeated ability to get lost within a few blocks of my hotel? Myelin again! (Rather, my lack of it.)</P>
<P align=left>&nbsp;所有这些髓磷脂相互联系,或快速或迟缓地结合起来,使人们感到有轻微的变化。斯巴达克使我感到吃惊的是通过髓磷脂颜色的眼镜,我好象看透了这个世界。在我的眼里到处都是翡翠乌贼般的和雪白香肠般的东西。电视上的足球明星罗拉里奥?有纯粹的髓磷脂!小提琴演奏家莫扎特则次之。真让人难以置信这些人具有的少突细胞。2008年的奥运会的广告将是什么样呢?它将是全球培养髓磷脂的全部内容。我的重复能力在旅馆这块地方失去了,需要重塑我的髓磷脂(真的,我缺乏髓磷脂)。</P>
<P>The handbook runs to 901 pages, so, in the interest of time, allow me to sum up. Every talent, according to Ericsson, is the result of a single process: deliberate practice, which he defines as "individuals engaging in a practice activity (typically designed by teachers) with full concentration on improving some aspect of their performance." In a moment of towering simplification, "The Handbook" distills its lesson to a formula known as the Power Law of Learning: T = a P-b . (Don't ask.) A slightly more useful translation: Deliberate practice means working on technique, seeking constant critical feedback and focusing ruthlessly on improving weaknesses. 在这一段有趣的日子里,我翻阅了一本901页的手册然后总结了一下。按艾里可森的话说,每一个天才是一个单独培育成长的过程。包括有计划的实际训练等。艾里可森是这样定义的:“在训练活动中集中力量去改善他们在场上表现的状况要根据每个人的情况去做。”随着简化的时代潮流,这本手册把他们的课程提炼成一个公式——著名的学习之权威定律:T=ap-b.(不需要问)。译成稍微有用之处是:有计划的训练意味着依靠技术,寻求持续不断的改进和集中力量去克服弱点。</P>
<P align=left>&nbsp;</P>
<P align=left><A href="http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/04/sports/playmagazine/04play-talent.html?pagewanted=7&amp;_r=1#secondParagraphsecondParagraph">Skip to next paragraph</A> <B></B></P>
<P align=left>&nbsp;</P>
<P>"It feels like you're constantly stretching yourself into an uncomfortable area beyond what you can quite do," Ericsson told me. It's hard to sustain deliberate practice for long periods of time, which may help explain why players like Jimmy Connors succeeded with seemingly paltry amounts of practice while their competitors were hitting thousands of balls each day. As the tennis commentator Mary Carillo told me, "He barely practiced an hour a day, but it was the most intense hour of your life." </P>
<P>“我感到他们正在持续不断地锻炼自己达到了超出他们能力之外的不舒服的程度。艾里可森告诉我,长期的、有计划的训练非常艰苦。这样有助于我们去理解象吉来克劳尔这样成功的运动员表面上做一些不重要的训练,其实他们的对手正在每天做打几千次球的训练呢。”象网球评论员卡里欧所说:“他几乎一天不到一个小时的训练,但是这是他最有激情的的一个小时。”</P>
<P>Ericsson also discusses the Ten-Year Rule, an intriguing finding dating to 1899, which shows that even the most talented individual requires a decade of committed practice before reaching world-class level. (Even a prodigy like the chess player Bobby Fischer put in nine hard years before achieving his grandmaster status at age 16.) While this rule is often used to backdate the ideal start of training (in tennis, girls peak physically at around 17, so they ought to start by 7; boys peak later, so 9 is O.K.), the Ten-Year Rule has more universal implications. Namely, it implies that all skills are built using the same fundamental mechanism, and that the mechanism makes physiological demands from which no one is exempt.</P>
<P>&nbsp;艾里可森同样关注“十年法则”。这个问题要追溯到1999年,即使最天才的运动员要达到世界一流水平需要十年的技术培训(即使天才般的国际象棋运动员鲍比花了九年的艰苦训练在16岁时成为象棋大师)。虽然这个法则常被用来回顾确定一个理想的开始阶段(在网球方面,女孩子的体力峰值在17岁,因此她们应该从7岁开始训练。男孩子的体力峰值晚一些,应该从9岁开始训练)。十年规则牵扯许多方面,即:它的含义在于所有技术的掌握遵循这个基本原理。这个原理表明是生理的需要,任何人不能免除。</P>
<P>This is not to suggest that the only difference between an average Joe and <A title="More articles about Michael Jordan." href="http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/j/michael_jordan/index.html?inline=nyt-per">Michael Jordan</A> is a few thousand hours of deliberate practice. Almost all of the scientists I spoke with agreed that inheritance is a huge factor in potential, if perhaps not in quite the way we've commonly assumed. (Perhaps, as George Bartzokis suggests, Jordan's greatest natural gift was his powerful oligodendrocytes.) </P>
<P>但这不能用来说明乔和乔丹之间仅有的不同是几千次的计划性训练。我所提到的,大多数科学家同意这个观点,天赋是潜能的相当大的因素。或许可能没有一个可以被普遍采用的一个十分完美的方法(也许,象巴兹克斯所说的那样,乔丹极好的天赋是他高效率的少突细胞。)</P>
<P>All in all, Ericsson's theory sounds logical and appealing, but part of me rises up in rebellion. What about geniuses? What about young Mozart's famous ability to transcribe entire scores on a single hearing? What about Shakespeare or Leonardo or those 14-year-old Ph.D. candidates? What about savants, who walk up to the piano or a Rubik's cube and are magically brilliant? </P>
<P>总而言之,艾里克斯的理论似乎合乎逻辑和易懂,但在我有点不赞成他的观点。那么什么是天才呢?为什么年轻的莫扎特有听一次演奏会就会抄写出整个乐章的特殊才能呢?还有莎士比亚、达芬奇以及一些年轻的(14岁左右)哲学博士后人选呢?怎样解释象萨温茨在研究钢琴、茹贝克在立方体等这些学者们所取得的魔幻般的辉煌呢?</P>
<P>”</P>
<P align=left>&nbsp;</P>
<P align=left>T = a P-b would be the reply. In his 1999 book, "Genius Explained," Michael Howe of the University of Exeter speculates that Mozart studied some 3,500 hours of music with his instructor father by his sixth birthday, a number that places his musical memory into the realm of impressive but obtainable party tricks. Savants, it is pointed out, excel within narrow domains that feature clear, logical rules (classical piano, math, occasionally art ?as opposed to, say, jazz clarinet). Furthermore, savants typically possess prior exposure to those domains, such as listening to music around the home. Savants' true expertise, the research suggests, is in their ability to practice obsessively, even when it doesn't look as if they're practicing. As Ericsson succinctly put it, "There's no cell type that geniuses have that the rest of us don't."</P>
<P align=left>&nbsp;T=ap-b也许会回答这些疑问。在艾里克斯1999年出版的书;书里写到“天才的解释”。英国埃克塞特大学的豪先生推测,莫扎特在他6岁的时候接受了他父亲大约3500小时的音乐教育,音乐的节拍和技巧带他进入音乐的王国。莎温茨,人们称他,远远超出这个易懂得、有逻辑的公式(古典钢琴、数学、偶尔的艺术品?象反对着说的,爵士单簧管。)。此外,莎温茨具有在这个领域特殊的才能,例如,在学习音乐方面。莎温茨是真正的技术专家。有些学者认为,很明显他的训练不象其他人的训练。象艾里克斯指出的那样:“象这样的细胞我们普通人则没有。</P>
<P>So let's return to the initial question: how does Spartak do it? If the new science is right and myelination is to talent as photosynthesis is to plant growth, then Spartak makes it abundantly clear that photosynthesis alone is never enough; you also need soil, water, air, sunlight, luck. The question becomes, which variables are helping Spartak's myelin grow to such riotous abundance? Four factors stand above the rest:</P>
<P>&nbsp;让我们回到最初的问题当中。斯巴达克是怎样做的呢?如果新科学是正确的,髓磷脂对天才来说就象植物生长的光合作用那样,那么斯巴达克在这方面是丰富的。很明显,仅有光合作用是不够的。我们还需要土壤,水,空气和阳光。很幸运,这个问题变的明朗起来,很多方面可以帮助我们去了解斯巴达克髓磷脂培养的如此丰富。以下四个因素可以帮助我们去理解:</P>
<P align=left>1. Driven Parents. The hunger and ambition of Russian parents is uniquely strong, particularly when one considers how hard life is in Russia right now and also that the patron saint of Russian tennis parents is the ex-Siberian oil-field worker Yuri Sharapov, who came to America with less than $1,000 and his 7-year-old daughter, Maria, who now earns an estimated $30 million a year in endorsements. On the other hand, while they are intense, Russian parents aren't all that different a group from the parents in Serbia, the Czech Republic or Mission Viejo, Calif. </P>
<P>&nbsp;</P>
<P>1、着魔的家长。俄罗斯的家长们野心勃勃和渴望成功的心理是独一无二的如此强烈。在当今的俄罗斯,人们的生活还是很艰苦的。有一个被称为俄罗斯网球的保护人的一位家长,他来自西伯利亚油田,是一位工人,名叫沙诺夫。</P>
<P>他至少花了1000美圆和他7岁的女儿玛利亚到了美国。他的女儿现在已签订了一年可赚3000万美圆的合同。另一方面,这些家长非常热衷于网球。俄罗斯的家长们与塞尔维亚、捷克共和国、以及加利福尼亚的家长们大不相同。</P></DIV>

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