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英语:Uint3:Computer Violence: Are Your Kids at

(2008-11-10 01:26:42)


分类: 在职研究生

Computer Violence: Are Your Kids at Risk?


Some video games are teaching children to kill for the thrill


Stephen Barr斯蒂芬·巴尔

1. Dinner was almost ready when the killing occurred. Don Wise wandered into the living room of his home in Leawood, Kan., one evening last September. His ten-year-old son, Mike, and a 12-year-old friend were sitting in front of a large-screen television set. They were playing a video game they had rented called Goldeneye 007, one of the top-selling titles of 1998.


2. Standing behind the boys, Wise saw that the video, rated T (Teen) for ages 13 and older, depicted the shooter’s point of view, with his large gun jutting into the bottom of the TV frame. After a few minutes Mike’s friend cornered an unarmed opponent and held the gun to his head at point-blank range. “You can’t get away!” the boy said with a maniacal sneer, taunting the character on the screen. “You’re mine!”

2. 怀斯先生站在孩子的身后,看到这套级别为青少年级(13岁以上少年)的游戏展现出枪手的视角,一把巨型手枪连线接在电视机的底部。没过几分钟,迈克的小伙伴将游戏中手无寸铁的对手逼到绝境,然后举起枪贴近对方的头部。“你跑不了啦。”男孩一边狞笑着,一边挑衅地朝电视机里的角色大叫,“你完蛋了。”

3. The boy pushed the button and shot the character in the face. Blood splattered the lab coat of the character as he whirled and fell. “You’re down!” the boy said, laughing.

3. 男孩按动扳钮,朝对方面部开枪。对方扭曲着身体应声倒地,鲜血溅满身上的白大褂。“你死定了!”男孩大笑着说。

4. Chilled by the child’s obvious glee, Wise ordered the boys to turn the game off. “This game is disgusting,” he said sternly. “I don’t want you to play with this anymore.” Explains Wise, “I’m not going to invite somebody into my house to teach kids to kill.”

4. 见到孩子开心的样子,怀斯不禁为之一震。他命两个孩子关掉游戏,并厉声说道:“这游戏太恶心了。你们以后不准再玩这种游戏了。”怀斯解释说:“我绝不会让任何人到家里来教孩子杀人。”

Murder and Mayhem谋杀与重伤)

5. Video games have become a pervasive form of entertainment in the 1990s. Today an estimated 69 percent of American families own or rent video and computer games. Most are harmless entertainment, but in far too many of the most popular ones, kids are acting out realistic violent experiences on their TV and computer screens. They are severing heads and snapping spines in Mortal Kombat IV. They are paying a go-go dancer to flash her breasts and then blowing her away in Duke Nukem 3D. They are scorching the high school band with a flamethrower until they burn to death in Postal.

5. 电子游戏自90年代起,已成为一种十分流行的娱乐。现在大约有69%的美国家庭购买或租借电子游戏和电脑游戏。其中大多数是无伤大雅的纯娱乐游戏。但在许多最流行的游戏中,青少年面对屏幕演绎着一幕幕真实的暴力场面。他们会在《龙争虎斗IV》中砍杀人头、断人脊骨;在《毁灭公爵3D》中花钱让艳舞女郎裸显胸部,然后将她毁掉;还会在《邮差》中用喷火器将学校乐队的成员烧死。

6. “These are not just games anymore,” says Rick Dyer, president of the San Diego-based Virtual Image Productions and an outspoken critic of titles with violent and sexual content. “These are learning machines. We’re teaching kids in the most incredible manner what it’s like to pull the trigger. The focus is on the thrill, enjoyment and reward. What they’re not learning are the real-life consequences.”

6. “这些已不再是游戏了。”圣地亚哥虚拟图像制造公司总裁里克·戴迪尔,一位严厉指责暴力和色情游戏的人士指出,“这些是学习机器。我们以令人难以置信的方式教孩子开枪杀人。游戏旨在给孩子带来刺激、兴奋和奖赏。但孩子们却不知道这对现实生活会产生什么样的后果。”

7. Interactive video games introduce kids to a fantasy world that features amazingly lifelike characters, detailed images of brutality, and an audio mix of heart-pounding music, macabre sound effects and authentic voices. Unlike movies and television, where you watch the violence, the game lets you feel the sensation of committing violent acts. When you’re into the game, you’re in the game.

7. 互动式游戏将孩子们带到一个神奇的世界。那里有逼真的人物、详尽的残暴画面、令人心跳的音乐、让人毛骨悚然的音响效果和真人原音的声响。与电影和电视中的暴力不同,游戏让玩者体会到实施暴力行为的真切感受。一旦开始玩游戏,玩者就会完全置身于其中。

8. “The technology is becoming more engaging for kids,” says David Walsh, president of the National Institue on Media and the Family (NIMF), a watchdog group in Minneapolis, “and a segment of games feature antisocial themes of violence, sex and crude language. Unfortunately, it’s a segment that seems particularly popular with kids ages eight to 15.”

8. “现在的游戏技术越来越吸引孩子,”明尼亚波利斯市的一家监管机构——全国媒体与家庭研究所的负责人大卫·瓦尔士说,“有一部分游戏宣扬暴力、色情和脏话。不幸的是,这部分游戏对8到15岁的青少年尤其具有吸引力。”

Action Games动作游戏

9. With the rapid evolution of game technology comes a generation of titles portraying three-dimensional, 360-degree environments that are virtually real. “We are moving very close to a real cinematic experience, pushing the boundaries of what a TV set or computer monitor can deliver,” says Steve Grossman, chairman and CEO of ASC Games. “In the next five years there will be nothing you cannot portray.”

9. 随着游戏制作技术的发展,现在的游戏能够以三维的角度和360度的视角虚拟真实的场景。“我们制作的画面很快就可以与电影院的效果媲美,目前是电视和电脑屏幕所能达到的极限,”ASC 公司主席兼首席执行官斯蒂夫·格罗斯曼说,“五年之后,没有什么我们做不了的。”

10. Grossman makes no apologies for the uptick in blood and gore, saying these features are a way to “get people to talk about the game.” In Grand Theft Auto, a 1998 ASC release, kids get to assume the role of a low-level mobster and perform various murders and other felonies to impress their boss. Because of the cartoonlike design, Grossman insists the game is a spoof. “If anyone takes Grand Theft Auto seriously,” he says, “they have a real problem separating fantasy from reality.” (The game has been taken seriously by officials in France and Great Britain, who have condemned it; the Brazilian government has banned it.)

10. 格罗斯曼对游戏中越来越多的血腥主题并不觉得有什么不妥。他说这些场面是人们“谈论游戏”的关键所在。在1998年该公司推出的一套名为《汽车大盗》的游戏中,孩子们充当低级暴徒的角色,以一系列的枪杀和犯罪行为取悦于上司。格罗斯曼坚持认为由于采用卡通人物设计,这是一个无任何伤害性的游戏。他说:“如果有人指责《汽车大盗》的话,那么他真是分不清现实和虚拟世界。”(此游戏已引起法国及英国政府部门的关注并受到指责,另外巴西政府已明令禁止该游戏。)

11. During Christmas 1997, Postal was another title that generated controversy. In that game kids control a character known among players as The Postal Dude who “goes postal” when the bank forecloses on his house. On their rampage, players gun down anything that moves, including parishioners leaving a church. One victim wails, “My eyes! I can’t see anything!” The Postal Dude occasionally mutters, “Only my gun understands me.”

11. 1997年圣诞节发行的《邮差》是另一套颇具争议的游戏。在这套游戏中,孩子充当的是一个名为“邮差王”的角色,每当银行来查封他的住所时,邮差王就会“怒气冲天”。在肆意杀戮的过程中,玩者只要看到走动的人就狂加扫射,包括刚刚走出教堂的教徒。在游戏里会听到受害者惨叫:“我的眼睛!我什么都看不见了!”而邮差王则偶尔低声嘀咕一句:“只有我的枪理解我。”

12. Makers of the more violent games are pushing the outer limits of savagery and depravity. One of the most hotly anticipated videos is the sequel to Carmageddon, in which the player racks up points for mowing down pedestrians. In Carmageddon 2: Carpocalypse Now, your victims not only squish under your tires and splatter blood on the windshield, they also get on their knees and beg for mercy, or commit suicide. If you like, you can also dismember them.

12. 暴力游戏开发商将野蛮与堕落的主题发挥到极至。目前市场上翘首以待的其中一套游戏是《恶车杀手》的续集。在这套游戏里,玩者以杀死行人的数目来积分。在《恶车杀手2》中,受害者不但死于车轮之下,鲜血溅满挡风玻璃,而且还要跪下求饶或自杀。如果玩者乐意的话,还可以肢解受害者的尸体。

Immoral Kombat 不道德的争斗

13. In 1993 Sen. Joe Lieberman (D., Conn.) and Sen. Herb Kohl (D., Wis.) held Congressional hearings on violent video games.

13. 1993年参议员乔·利博曼(康涅狄格州)与赫博·克尔(威斯康星州)主持了有关暴力游戏的国会听证会。

14. They successfully pressured the video-game industry to adopt a rating system to inform parents of games featuring violent and sexually oriented content. Started in 1994 by video-game developers, the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) divides games into five categories: EC for players in early childhood, E for everyone, T for teens 13 and older, M for mature players (17 and above) and AO for adults only. The rating appears on the front of every game box, while on the back are three or four words that describe the content.

14. 他们成功地敦促电子游戏业采用定级制度,以便知会家长含有暴力和色情内容的游戏。从1994年开始,由游戏开发商组成的娱乐软件定级委员会将游戏分为五个等级:幼儿级代表幼童适宜,普通级代表全家适宜,青少年级代表13岁以上青少年适宜,成人级代表17岁以上成人适宜,只限成人级代表只适宜于成年人。游戏包装盒的封面会标明有关的级别,封底印有游戏内容简介。

15. In its four-year existence the ESRB has rated over 4000 titles, 70 percent of which are rated E. But the system is not designed to keep mature games away from children, says ESRB executive director Arthur I. Pober. “Our role is not to dictate taste,” he explains. “We give parents the tools to determine what they do or don’t want for their children.”

15. 在该委员会四年内所审定的4000多套游戏中,有70%被定为普通级。但是此定级制度并不能完全杜绝青少年不接触到成人游戏。委员会执行董事阿瑟·蒲伯解释说:“我们的任务不是限定人们娱乐欣赏的取向,我们只是向家长提供一种工具,让他们能够决定什么游戏适合或不适合孩子。”

16. In 1996 the Minneapolis watchdog group NIMF developed a video game report card to help parents make informed choices about the games their kids played. The latest annual report reflects the opinions of parents who evaluate the games based on violence, sexual content and language. Out of 90 titles reviewed, parents concluded that one-third, or 31 in all, deserved a more restrictive rating than the one given by the ESRB.

16. 1996年明尼亚波利斯的全国媒体与家庭研究所推出一种游戏记录卡,旨在向父母提供有关孩子所玩游戏的资料。该机构最近一年的记录中记载了父母对暴力、色情和污秽语言内容游戏的评价意见。在90套已经定级的游戏中,父母们表示起码有三分之一,或者说有31套游戏的定级应该更严格一些。

17. Asked about the discrepancy, the ESRB’s Pober says that “every group will have a different mind-set. They’re entitled to their views.” He adds that the ESRB has not received any complaints that the “rating was inaccurate.”

17. 当问及这类评级标准的出入时,娱乐软件定级委员会的蒲伯说:“不同的机构有不同评定观点,而且都有各自的理据。”他说娱乐软件定级委员会至今还未收到有关“评级不准确”的投诉。

Easy Access 易得的渠道

18. As with the R rating on movies, youngsters are quite astute and know that an M rating on a video game means blood and gore. Moreover, they find they can easily obtain mature games—as long as they elude parental supervision.

18. 青少年很清楚,成人级别的游戏同限制级别的电影一样通常含有血腥暴力的场面。而且他们也可以轻而易举地得到成人游戏——只要避开家长的监视。

19. There is no penalty for renting or selling M-rated titles to kids, and according to an NIMF survey, only 20 percent of stores have ratings policies that explain to cashiers which customers can and can’t buy games.

19. 目前还没有对向青少年出租或售卖成人游戏进行惩罚的条例。根据全国媒体与家庭研究所的一项调查,只有20%的影音商店制定了租售限制的条例,告知收银员哪类顾客可以或不可以租买有关的游戏。

20. With his father’s permission, I enlisted the help of a ten-year-old boy to see if he could rent and buy M-rated video games. At Blockbuster Video, which has corporate policies about game rentals, it was a cinch for him to take out Mortal Kombat IV. At Super Software, a video-game and software retailer, he bought Resident Evil II and Mortal Kombat IV, while at KB Toys he got Parasite Eve, a new release that contains, according to the box, mature sexual themes. “Yeah, sweet game,” the cashier told the boy. “It’s really cool.”

20. 在征得一位10岁男孩父亲的同意之后,我们请这位男孩帮忙,想看一看他是否可以租买到成人游戏。在贴有租售限制条例的宏影音像店,男孩很轻易地就买到《龙争虎斗4》。在一家游戏和软件零售店——超级软件店,他又买到《活恶神2》和《龙争虎斗4》。而在KB玩具店,他买到了新发行的《寄生夏娃》,从封面上看,这是一套含有成人色情内容的游戏。收银员还对男孩说:“这游戏不错,很酷。”

Potential for Harm潜在的危害

21. When it comes to the effects of video games on children, there’s a double standard in the industry: While publishers trumpet about educational games in helping to develop kids’ learning skills, they discount that violent games can have baser influences on behavior and attitudes. “There has been no evidence to show that video games increase violence in children,” says Pat Becker of Electronic Arts, the industry’s largest publisher.

21. 在涉及电子游戏对孩子所产生影响的问题上,业内一直有双重标准:一方面,游戏开发商大肆宣传教育游戏有助于培养孩子的学习技能;另一方面,他们但却很少提及暴力游戏对孩子行为和态度可能产生的影响。“并没有迹象表明电子游戏会增加青少年的暴力行为。”游戏业最大的一家开发商电子艺术公司的帕特·贝克尔说。

22. Video-game developer Rick Dyer, whose company makes only E-rated titles, says the effects on children are “one of the dark secrets that this industry does not want to talk about, and for one reason: they’re making money from it.” It’s the same kind of attitude that has allowed the tobacco industry to contend for so long that nicotine is not addictive. “There’s no concern for the potential price we may pay in society,” Dyer says. “It’s strictly the dollar.”

22. 只开发普通级游戏的里克·戴迪尔说,游戏对孩子的影响是“游戏业不愿提及的一个秘密,因为业界靠此赚钱。”这同烟草业一直争辩尼古丁不会使人上瘾是同一种态度。戴迪尔说:“(业内)根本没有考虑这会令社会付出多大的代价,只是一心想着赚钱。”

23. For decades the public has decried the increasing violence in Hollywood movies and on prime-time television. Researchers conclude there is a measurable increase of three to 15 percent in an individual’s aggressive behavior after watching violent television.

23. 几十年来,公众一直呼吁反对好莱坞电影和电视黄金时段节目中越来越多的暴力内容。有研究者得出结论,当观众看完暴力电视节目后,其攻击性行为会上升3%到15%。

24. “With a video game kids don’t just observe an aggressor rewarded, they experience the direct reward,” says Stanford communication professor Donald Roberts. “Engaging in these activities rather than watching them increases the potential for the negative effects to take hold.”

24. “孩子们玩游戏时,不只是看到攻击者受到奖赏,而且也直接体会到这种奖赏。”斯坦福大学传播学教授唐纳德·罗伯特说道,“参与而不仅仅是观看这类游戏会造成潜在的负面影响。”

25. Indeed, soldiers trained to kill in combat use the same brutalization and desensitization techniques now used to entertain children. Lt. Col. Dave Grossman of Jonesboro, Ark., a military expert on the psychology of killing, notes: “Every time a child plays a point-and-shoot video game, he is learning the exact same conditioned reflex skills as a soldier or police officer in training.”

25. 事实上,游戏中为娱乐儿童所采用的残忍和冷血的格斗技巧与部队战斗训练演习中所使用的技巧完全一样。阿肯色州琼斯泊洛的陆军上校大卫·格罗斯曼是一位枪杀心理研究专家,他注意到:“孩子们每次玩积分射击游戏时,其实都在学习军人或警员训练时所用的同样的条件反射技能。”

26. “The media are probably more powerful than we realize,” says the NIMF’s David Walsh. “And if parents are responsible for caring for their children, then our definition of caring has to keep pace with a changing media world.”

26. “媒体的影响力可能远远超出我们的想象,”全国媒体与家庭研究所的大卫·瓦尔士说:“如果父母要对所照料的孩子负责,那么我们对‘照料’一词的定义必须赶上不断发展变化的媒体世界。”




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