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Of Studies 译文赏析

(2010-05-30 09:59:54)
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Of Studies

谈读书

1.     Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability.

东旭:读书是为了娱乐、装饰和增长才能。

王佐良:读书足以怡情,足以傅彩,足以长才。

2.     Their chief use for delight, is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgement and disposition of business.

东:其娱乐方面的主要用途在于独处和隐退之时;其装饰方面的主要用途在于言谈之中;其增长才能方面的主要用途在于对事务的判断和处理。

王:其怡情也,最见于独处幽居之时;其傅彩也,最见于高谈阔论之中;其长才也,最见于处世判事之际。

3.     For expert men can execute, and perhaps judge of particulars, one by one; but the general counsels, and the plots and marshalling of affairs, come best from those that are learned.

东:因为虽然有实践经验的人能完成特定工作,而且也许还能对个别的事情一一作出判断,但是宏观的建议,以及对事务的筹划和安排,绝大多数都是出自有学问的人。

王:练达之士虽能分别处理细事或一一判断枝节,然纵观统筹、全局策划,则舍好学深思者莫属。

4.     To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament, is affection; to make judgement wholly by their rule, is the humour of a scholar.

东:把时间过多地花费在学问上,是怠惰;把学问过多地用做装饰,是虚伪;完全按学问的规则来判断,则是书呆子的嗜好。

王:读书费时过多易惰,文采藻饰太盛则矫,全凭条文断事乃学究故态。

5.     The perfect nature, and are perfected by experience: for natural abilities are like natural plants, that need pruning by study; and studies themselves do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in experience.

东:学问能使天性完美,而经验又能使学问完善:因为天生的才能犹如野生植物,需要用学问加以修剪;而学问本身若不受经验的限制,则它们所作的指导就太泛泛了。

王:读书补天然之不足,经验又补读书之不足,盖天生才干犹如自然花草,读书然后知如何修剪移接;而书中所示,如不以经验范之,则又大而无当。

6.     Crafty men contempt studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them; for they teach not their own use; but that is a wisdom without them, and above them, won by observation.

东:狡诈的人蔑视学问,愚笨的人羡慕学问,聪明的人运用学问;因为学问并不传授它们自己的用法;这种运用之道是学问之外、并超乎学问之上的一种才智,只有通过观察才能获得。

王:有一技之长者鄙读书,无知者慕读书,唯明智之士用读书,然书并不以用处告人,用书之智不在书中,而在书外,全凭观察得之。

7.     Read not to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider.

东:读书不是为了闲谈和演说,而是为了权衡和思考。

王:读书时不可存心诘难作者,不可尽信书上所言,亦不可只为寻章摘句,而应推敲细思。

8.     Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention.

东:有些书可供品尝,有些书可以吞食,还有少数的一些书则应当咀嚼消化。那就是说,有些书只要读其中的一部分就行了;有些书虽然可以全读,但不必过细;还有少数的一些书则应当通读、精读、勤读。

王:书有可浅尝者,有可吞食者,少数则须咀嚼消化。换言之,有只须读其部分者,有只须大体涉猎者,少数则须全读,读时须全神贯注,孜孜不倦。

9.     Some books also may be read by deputy, and extracts made of them by others; but that would be only in the less important arguments, and the meaner sort of books; else distilled books are, like common distilled waters, flashy things.

东:有些书还可以请人代读,由别人替你作出摘录;但那只限于一些不太重要的议论,以及那种比较平庸的书籍;否则,经过删节的书就会像蒸馏水一样乏味。

王:书亦可请人代读,取其所作摘要,但只限题材较次或价值不高者,否则书经提炼犹如水经蒸馏,淡而无味矣。

10. Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man.

东:读书能使人充实;谈话能使人机敏;写作能使人精确。

王:读书使人充实,讨论使人机智,笔记使人准确。

11. And therefore, if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need have a present wit; and if he read little, he had need have much cunning, to seem to know that he doth not.

东:所以,如果一个人很少写东西,那么他就必须有很好的记忆力;如果他很少与人谈话,那么他必须有很灵敏的头脑;如果他很少看书,那么他必须非常狡猾,才可以不懂装懂。

王:因此不常作笔记者须记忆力特强,不常讨论者须天生聪颖,不常读书者须欺世有术,始能无知而显有知。

12. Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtle; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend. Abeunt studia in mores.

东:历史能使人聪慧;诗歌能使人灵秀;数学能使人精细;自然哲学能使人深沉;伦理学能使人庄重;逻辑和修辞学能使人善辩。“学问能陶冶人的性格。”

王:读史使人明智,读诗使人灵秀,数学使人周密,科学使人深刻,伦理学使人庄重,逻辑修辞之学使人善辩:凡有所学,皆成性格。

13. Nay there is no stond or impediment in the wit, but may be wrought out by fit studies: like as diseases of the body may have appropriate exercises.

东:不仅如此,凡精神上的各种障碍无不可由适当的学问加以消除,有如身体上的各种疾病无不可由相宜的运动予以矫治。

王:人之才智但有滞碍,无不可读适当之书使之顺畅,一如身体百病,皆可借相宜之运动除之。

14. Bowling is good for the stone and reins; shooting for the lungs and breast; gentle walking for the stomach; riding for the head; and the like.

东:滚球有益于睾肾,射箭有益于胸肺,慢步有益于肠胃,骑马有益于头脑,等等。

王:滚球利睾肾,射箭利胸肺,慢步利肠胃,骑马利头脑,诸如此类。

15. So if a man’s wit be wandering, let him study the mathematics; for in demonstrations, if his wit be called away never so little, he must begin again.

东:所以,如果一个人精力不集中,那就可以叫他研究数学,因为在演算的过程中精力稍不集中就会出错,还得从头算起。

王:如智力不集中,可令读数学,盖演题须全神贯注,稍有分散即须重演。

16. If his wit be not apt to distinguish or find differences, let him study the schoolmen; for they are cymini sectores.

东:如果一个人不善于辨别差异,那就可以叫他研究经院哲学家的著作,因为他们都是条分缕析、细致入微的人。

王:如不能辩异,可令读经院哲学,盖是辈皆吹毛求疵之人。

17. If he be not at to beat over matters, and to call up one thing to prove and illustrate another, let him study the lawyers’ cases.

东:如果一个人不善于调查问题,不善于用一件事情证明和阐释另一件事情,那就可以叫他研究律师的案卷。

王:如不善求同,不善以一物阐证另一物,可另读律师之案卷。

18. So every defect of the mind may have a special receipt.

东:所以,各种心智上的缺陷都有一种专门的补救办法。

王:如此头脑中凡有缺陷,皆有特药可医。

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