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What’s in a “Nym”?

(2010-05-30 09:44:11)




分类: 我的日记

0528: What’s in a “Nym”?
Have some fun with “nyms”!
How many “nyms” do you know? While you may not know the actual word, you probably know many words that belong to several kinds of “nyms.” Words ending in “-nym” often describe different groups of words and the relationship between those words. The suffix “-nym” literally means “name.” Let’s look at a few:
Synonyms (同義字)
English would be so simple if there were only one word for one meaning. But then language would also be extremely boring, so we have many synonyms or words that have the same or nearly the same meanings. Roget’s Thesaurus lists 50 synonyms for the word beautiful, all with slight variations in meaning.
Antonyms (反義字)
These are pairs of words that have opposite or nearly opposite meanings. Some examples would be slow and fast, nervous and calm, and abundant and scarce.
Acronyms (首字母縮略字)
An acronym is formed from the first letter of each word in a phrase. For example, NATO comes from North Atlantic Treaty Organization or PIN for personal identification number. Acronyms are one kind of abbreviation, but not all abbreviations are acronyms. Dr. for doctor and km for kilometer are abbreviations – shortened forms of words.

While you may not know…, you probably know…
*While you may not know who your speaker is today, you probably know her father who is a famous actor.
*While you may not know to read the commands, you probably know many of the icons on the computer screen.

Thesaurus (n.) 同義辭典。它和字典一樣是按照alphabetical order (字母順序)排列的,雖然thesaurus會提供許多同義字,但是不同的單字往往都會有不同的connotations (特別的含意,言外之意)。所以最好還是使用有聽過的單字,以免誤用。
Suffix (n.) 後綴,詞尾。<->prefix 前綴。
Abundant (adj.) 1. 豐富的,充裕的。2. ~ in sth 富有某事物,富於某事物。~ abundantly (adv.)
*We have abundant proof of his guilt.
*He’s made his views abundantly clear.
Scarce (adj.) 1. 缺乏的,不足的。2. (= rare) 稀有的,珍貴的。
Make oneself scarce (口) If you make yourself scarce, you quickly leave the place you are in, usually in order to avoid a difficult or embarrassing situation. 走開,溜走,不露面。
*Something, usually a thing in daily use, is scarce when it is hard to get because it is in short supply.
*He’s in a bad mood, so I’ll make myself scarce.
Literally (adv.) liter這個字根指文字。1. 照字面上地,2. 實在地。
*The Interpreter didn’t translate the speaker’s words literally, because it would be kind of offensive.
*The flood literally caused over $ 5 million worth of damage.
Variation (n.) 差異,變化。
*The research team recorded variations in temperature at the North Pole during the last ten years.
*There are wide variations in babies’ responses to this kind of music.
Abbreviate (v.) 縮寫。
Abbreviation (n.) 縮寫。
*”U.S.A.” is the abbreviation for “The United States of America”.
*”The United Nations” is abbreviated as “UN”.

Eponyms (名祖,名字被用於命名地方的人)These interesting words have their origin in the proper name of a real or fictional person or thing. Examples include sandwich from the Earl (伯爵) of Sandwich, who is credited with the food’s invention. And boycott comes from Charles Boycott (1832-1897), an Irish land agent.
Homonyms (同形/音異義字)
This is one of two or more words that have the same spelling or pronunciation but differ in meaning. For example, some homonyms are buy, bye and by or peek, peak and pique. Homonyms with the same spelling but different meanings would be bank – a place to keep money, and bank – the side of a stream or river. These are also called heteronyms (同形異義字).
Exonyms (外來語地名)
Exonyms are place names foreigners use that differ from the place names in the original language. For example, English speakers use the exonym Vienna for the Austrian Wien. Chinese use the exonym Mei Guo for the United States.
Metonyms (換喻詞)
A metonym is a common word or phrase that also has an associated meaning. For example, the White House means the American executive branch of the government. Tongue is a metonym for a language or dialect 
Eponym 人名名詞,指的是源自於人名的名詞。Narcissism就是一個eponym他是來自於希臘神話中的美少年Narcissus,他因為長的太俊美了,當他看到水中自己的倒影的時候,就被倒影所迷住了。因此narcissist就是指一個自戀的人,narcissism就是指自戀、自我陶醉、自我中心。
Fiction (n.) 1.[U] type of literature (eg novels, stories) describing imaginary events and people 小說。2.[C] thing that is invented or imagined and not strictly true 虛構的或想像出的事,並非完全真實的事。
Fictional (adj.) 小說的,虛構的。
*Truth is often stranger than fiction. 事實往往比小說離奇。
*a polite fiction 冠冕堂皇的應酬話。
*a fictional account of life on a farm 描述農場生活的虛構情節。
Credit (v.) 1. ~ sb/sth with sth; sth to sb/sth (a.) believe that sb/sth has sth; attribute sth to sb/sth 認為某人[某事物]有某事物; 把某事物歸功於某人[某事物]。(b.) record an amount as being paid into sb's bank account 把金額記入某人銀行帳戶的貸方。2. (主要用於疑問句及否定句) believe (sth) 相信(某事物)。
*Until now I’ve always credited you with more sense.
*credit 8 to a customer / an account 在客戶/帳戶的貸方記入8英鎊。
*I can barely credit what she said. 我簡直不能相信她的話。
Boycott (v.) (usu of a group of people) refuse to have social or commercial relations with (a person, company, country, etc) (通常指一群人)抵制。
*People are boycotting beef products imported from the foreign country.
*The union boycotted the private meeting between the owner and some of the workers.
Pique /piːk/ (n.) (v.) hurt the pride or self-respect of (sb); offend (通常指自尊心受到傷害)生氣,激怒。(當動詞時通常用被動式)
*He left in a fit of pique, demonstrating that he was treated unfairly.
*She was piqued by her husband’s harsh words.
Dialect (n.) (區域性)方言,ex: Cantonese 廣東話。而language是指一個國家或是民族所使用的語言,ex: Mandarin 國語。
*Timothy can speak the regional dialect fluently.


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