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English Around the World

(2009-06-20 17:46:02)
标签:

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文化

分类: 我的日记
全世界的各式英语
这是“正确”的方法讲英语吗?
English Around the World
Is there a “right” way to speak English?
June 19 2009

SC: What is a dialect?
空英:什么是英语的方言?
CM: Dialects are usually thought of as being different version of one language. Dialects may be characterized by unique pronunciations, grammar patterns and vocabulary words.

教授:方言一般来说被视为一种语言的版本。方言的发音,语法,句型和词汇都具有其独特性。

SC: How many different dialects of English are spoken around the world?
空英:全世界有多少英语存在方言的差异?

CM: English is comprised of many different dialects, not just in the United States and the United Kingdom, but also in places like India, Kenya and Singapore.There are even different dialects of American English. Depending on where you are in the United States, you might hear different words, phrases and sounds. In the South, you might hear people say “y’all” instead of “you” (plural). They also call carbonated beverages “soft drinks” rather than “soda” or “pop”
Another important dialect is spoken by many African Americans. Sometimes this dialect is called “Ebonics,” but linguists call it “African-American English.” This dialect is very important to American culture. Many cultural terms and popular phrases like “cool,” “jazz” and “chill out!” came from African -American English.

教授:总的来说,英语包含许多不同的方言,不仅有英国和美国的,还有其他地方的,例如;印度,肯尼亚和新加波。而美式英语也有不同的方言存在。这要取决于你生活在美国何处,你会听到不同的词汇,句型和发音。在美国的南方,你可能听到人们说;“y’all” 用于代替说;”you”。他们还说二氧化碳饮料,叫“软性饮料”或叫“不含酒精的饮料”。不叫“苏打水”或“啵”。

另一个很重要的非洲美国人的口语方言,有时候这种方言叫做“黑人英语”,不过语言学家把它称之为“非洲美式英语”。这种“非洲美式英语”对美国的文化发展来说是很重要的。美国有很多文化术语、流行语都是来做“非洲美式英语”;例如;“cool” (酷)” “jazz”(爵士) “chill out!”(冷静下来)等等。

SC: Which dialect is the most common?
空英:那么,那一种方言最为普遍?

CM: British English was spoken most often around the world, but over time that dominance has eroded. As American culture became popular so did American English. Now, many people want to sound “American.”

教授:英式英语曾在全世界广为流行,但它已受到美式英语的挑战,逐渐少讲。因此,说美式英语(文化)已成为流行时髦的语言。现在,很多人(包括你和我)都想学或听“美国的“。
SC: Can people who speak different dialects understand each other?
空英:说不同方言的人能互相沟通明白吗?

CM: Often people who speak different dialects can understand each other easily. For example, Australian English speakers can generally understand what American English speakers are saying.
Within other languages, dialects are comparatively more difficult for speakers of different dialects to understand. Speakers of Mandarin, for example, may not be able to understand speakers of Cantonese even though Mandarin and Cantonese are dialects and not separate languages. For this reason, linguists usually say that the difference between a dialect and a language is not clear-cut.

教授:一般来说,说不同方言的人可以容易互相了解和明白。举例;澳大利亚人一般来讲都会明白美国人所讲的英语。
对于其它的语言,不同的方言是比较难以明白说话人的意思。举例来说;讲普通话的人就难以理解讲粤语的人。即使普通话与广东话同是一种语言,而非不同的语种,基于这种理由,语言学家通常认为;方言与语言之间的不同,是无法说清楚的。

SC: If you are an English student, does it matter which dialect you study?
空英:如果你是一名英语学生,你介意学那个国家的英语吗?

CM: People often have differing perspectives on this, but linguists do not believe that any one dialect of English is best. Right now, American English is popular and prestigious. In just a few years, though, non-native English speakers will outnumber native English speakers. As a result, there may be less demand for people to speak a certain type of English, like American English. What may be more important is how well a person can use English to communicate with people from very diverse cultural and international backgrounds.

教授:在这个问题上,人们持有各种不同的观点,语言学家不相信那个国家的英语(方言口音)为之最好。从目前的情况来看,美式英语广泛流行与受人推崇。在数年后,非英语国家的人说英语在数量上远远超过本土说英语的人。其结果,就少点要求学生非要学那个国家的英语,象美式英语那样。而更重要的是;一个人如何熟练运用英语这个工具来与不同文化和国际背景的人士进行沟通就是了。

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