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How Sunburns Work

(2009-06-18 19:13:17)
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分类: 我的日记
太阳如何灼伤人的皮肤
今夏好好享受阳光
How Sunburns Work
Enjoy the sun this summer
June 12, 2009

Now that we are getting into the thick of summertime activities, sunburn is something that you have to think about. How is it that light can cause such intense pain?

既然我们现正热衷于夏天的各项活动,日晒这个事你必须要好好考虑一下。太阳光线是如何引发人们强烈的灼痛?

日晒
Getting sunburn
The easiest way to get sunburn is to stay inside for a month or two and then spend a day outside. When you go out in the sun, ultraviolet light penetrates into living skin cells, and it starts damaging and killing those cells.

要想很容易晒到黑,最容易的方法;就呆在屋里一两个月的时间,然后在户外呆上一天的时间。在阳光照耀下外出,紫外线就渗透到人体里的皮肤细胞,它就开始伤害及杀死皮肤的细胞。

The repair process starts when damaged cells release chemicals. The first thing the chemicals do is set off pain signals in your skin’s pain sensors. Those same chemicals also tell your body to send in white blood cells to eat all the damaged and dead cells. Your body dilates all the capillaries in the damaged area to increase blood flow. Sunburned skin turns red and hot because of all of those dilated capillaries bringing in the white blood cells, And your skin stings because every pain sensor in your sunbruned skin is sounding the, "Hey, there is damage here" alarm.

皮肤开始复原的过程是,当受伤害的细胞释放出化学物质时。首先是在你的皮肤痛感处,引发化学物质疼痛的信号。这些相同的化学物质告诉你身体释出白血球细胞去吞噬受伤害和坏死的细胞。你体内所有的毛细血管得到扩胀,特别是在受灼伤的皮肤增加血的流量。经受灼伤的皮肤就转变成红色和有灼热感,这是由于毛细血管的扩胀带来白血球细胞所致。同时你的皮肤有刺痛感,是你受灼伤的皮肤传导痛楚所致而发出警告,它们在告诉你,“喂,伙计这里受伤啦”
避免嗮伤
Avoiding sunburn
There are three ways you can avoid sunburn. One is to stay inside or cover all your skin with clothing. The second way is to use a sunscreen. Sunscreen contains chemicals that absorb ultraviolet light. The third way is to go out in the sun a little bit each day and get a tan. The tan will protect your skin from sunburn.

这里有三种途径可以避免嗮伤。第一,是呆在屋里或带上有衣服(布)遮盖你的皮肤。第二,使用防嗮油。防嗮油内含化学物质,它可以吸收紫外线(光)。第三种方法,每天在阳光天的时候外出一小段时间,就会得到古铜色的皮肤。这种古铜色的皮肤有利于防止太阳灼伤你的皮肤。

更多有关古铜色皮肤之说
More about tans
Here's how a tan works. If you look at a cross section of your skin, you have the outer layer called the stratum corneum. This layer contains the dead skin cells that you actually see covering your body. Below the stratum corneum is the granular layer, and below that is the basal layer. Tanning happens in the basal layer, which contains special cells called melanocytes. When a melanocyte detects ultraviolet light, it creates a brown pigment called melanin. Melanin, like sunscreen, absorbs ultraviolet light and protects your skin from damage. If people spent all their time outdoors, their skin would naturally tan and "suntan" with the seasons. You would never get
a sunburn.

在这里谈谈棕色(古铜色皮肤)的来由。如果你细心看一遍你身上的皮肤,你的皮肤外层叫角质皮层,这层皮肤包含有坏死的皮肤细胞,因此你可以看到它覆盖着你的身体。再下一层的角质皮层是有小粒而成的,再下一层角质皮层是最基本的皮层。棕色的皮肤形成就发生在这一层,它包含有一种特别的细胞,叫黑素细胞。一旦黑素细胞察觉有紫外线(光)照射,它就产生出一种棕色,叫黑色素。这种黑色素象防嗮油,吸收紫外线(光)从而保护你的皮肤免遭伤害。
如果人们过多地在户外受到太阳的照射,他们的皮肤会自然地变为棕色(或称之为古铜色皮肤)由于季节性的变化,棕色皮肤或非/淡棕色皮肤而已,你就永远不会被太阳灼伤了。
How <wbr>Sunburns <wbr>Work

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