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KICK DRUM MIC/PLACEMENT

(2007-02-22 08:39:50)
底鼓麦及其摆位

A dynamic mic, which can handle loud sound pressure levels, is the typical choice. The Sennheiser 421 is popular, but try all the dynamic mics at your disposal. Some people use the Neumann 47 FET (condenser) mic. If you use any condenser mic, it is crucial to realize that the sound pressure may hurt the fragile condenser diaphragm. The rule of thumb regarding condenser mics is “use it only if you can put your ear in front of the sound source you will be miking without hurting your hearing.” Because the kick drum sound pressure and transient is strong, I highly recommend a dynamic mic.

一个可以对付大声压级的动圈麦克是通常的选择。Sennheiser MD421很流行,但是也要按照自己的安排尝试所有的动圈麦克。一些人用Neumann U47(文物)。不管你用任何一种电容麦,清楚大的声压会损伤电容麦的振膜是非常重要的。按经验来说,电容麦是“只有在把你的耳朵贴近音源而不会损伤听力的情况下使用的。”因为底鼓的声压和爆发力是非常强的,我极力推荐使用动圈麦。

If the mic you choose has a bass rolloff switch (bass attenuation), don’t use it! The rolloff (low end filter) might have choices like “music” and “voice” or “M” for music and “V” for voice. There may be more than these two options, like Voice 1&2. The voice mode is surely a low frequency rolloff, so use the lowest number music mode. When dialing in the sound, experiment with any switches to make sure that you are getting the mic’s full frequency range.

如果你选择的麦克有低频滚降开关,千万别用它!低频滚降(低切)或许有“Music”和“Voice”或者“M”(Music)和“V”(Voice)的选择。或许还有更多,比如Voice 1&2。“Voice”模式是一个完全的低频滚降,所以用最小级数的“Music”模式。当拨入信号时,尝试切换所有的模式以确定自己搞清楚了这个麦克的全频特性。

Kick options fall into three categories:

底鼓的拾音选择分成三个类型:

-If there’s no front kick drum head, position the mic inside the bass drum about a foot back from the point where the beater hits. Now move left half way to the side, and angle at 45% towards the left rim.

-如果底鼓前面没有鼓皮,那么就把麦克固定在鼓腔内距踩锤击打位置1英尺的位置。现在把麦克向左(个人认为这里指的是以鼓手的位置作标准)移动到距左腔壁1/4直径的位置,并且成45度指向左边的鼓圈。

-If the kick has two heads, with a hole for miking, place the mic about one foot in and angle slightly toward the left rim.

-如果有两面鼓皮,可以在鼓皮上挖一个孔用来拾音,把麦克深入鼓腔1英尺,并微微指向左边的鼓圈即可。

-If the kick has two heads and no hole for miking, place the mic about 6" back from the center, and slightly to the left.

-如果有两面鼓皮但是没有挖孔,那么可以把麦克放置在距鼓皮中心6英寸的位置稍稍向左转些即可。

All starting positions are just that. Finding the best mic position involves finding the best compromise between getting as much “natural bottom end” as possible without losing too much of the “point” (beater attack). Some like a boxy or boomy sound with or without “point.” For less point, move the mic farther away from the beater, meaning near the side of the shell and pointing away from the beater.

所有的起始位置就是这样了。寻找最佳的麦克摆位的过程,就是寻找如何在得到最多的“自然的底端频率”和在尽量少的失去敲击起始具有爆发力的鼓点声之间找到最折衷的办法的过程。

But also note that in these days of unlimited tracks, it’s very common to place more than one mic on the kick, and you’ll usually find a hole in the front head where you can stick a mic. Steve Sykes (a brilliant engineer) uses a dynamic mic inside the kick basically pointing at the beater. He also uses a Neumann U47 FET on the outside head a few inches back, and a Yamaha NS 10 woofer speaker as a mic! This adds the real lows (around the 60Hz range) in this era of home and car playback systems with extended low frequency response. He positions the woofer to taste on the outside head in which the low frequencies are thick — simply move around until you hear the most natural low frequencies.

但是仍然要注意的是,在轨道无限的今天,用多只麦克对底鼓拾音已经是很普通的事情,而且很容易就可以找到一个在前鼓皮挖了孔的鼓让你把麦克伸进去。Steve Sykes(一个非常有才气的工程师)用一个动圈麦伸入鼓腔指向踩锤敲击位置。他还用一个Neumann U47电容麦放置在鼓腔外距前鼓皮几英寸的地方,和一个用Yamaha NS 10的低音单元做成的麦克!在这个家庭和汽车播放系统的时代,这个办法确实增加了一些真实的低音(在60Hz左右的范围)和扩展了低频范围。 他把低音单元按“口味”放置在鼓皮外低频比较有密度的地方 — 简单的移动直到你听到最自然的低频为止。

When using multiple mics, though, slip the track for any mic set at some distance from the head so that its phase lines up with the dynamic mic inside the kick. This is important to maintain the fullest possible sound.

当使用多个麦克时,我们要把每一个麦克按照固定的轨迹移动来调整距鼓皮的距离,以防止它们与鼓腔内的麦克产生相位上的偏差。这对保持一个最完整而饱满的声音是非常重要的。

After experimenting with the kick drum mic placement, when you feel that it sounds good, reset the levels (if needed) and EQ to taste. Try adding around 60–100Hz to bring up the bottom end. If the sound is kind of “boxy,” try cutting the EQ response a bit at around 300–500Hz. To add more point, add a boost at 5kHz or so.

在底鼓麦摆位的试验好以后,当你觉得声音不错可以按“口味”重新调整电平大小(如果觉得需要)和均衡。尝试增益60—100Hz周围来提升一些底端频率。如果声音有点像“矮胖子”,就尝试在300—500Hz周围稍微切掉些。要加些敲击的“鼓点”声,就对5KHz左右的频率提升些。

The kick drum may have a pillow resting up against the inside bass drum head. Typically, the pillow rests equally between the bottom of the bass drum and the inside head. This stops the bass drum from ringing (reverberating) like a tom. The amount of pressure of the pillow against the head defines the sound’s “dwell.” During the ’70s pop music era, the pillow was packed against the head but these days, there are no rules — the kick sound can go from a totally dead sound to wide open, with no pillow or padding. When using padding, anchor the pillow down with a sand bag or a non-reflecting heavy object so it doesn’t move.

底鼓里可能会有一个鼓枕靠着鼓皮放在鼓腔中。通常来说,鼓枕要平均的放在鼓腔底部和鼓皮之间。这会防止底鼓出现像桶鼓般(带混响似的)响亮声。鼓枕靠着鼓皮的压力值决定着声音的“驻留”特性。在70年代的流行乐的时代,鼓枕会被填满靠在鼓皮上,但在今天却没什么定则了—底鼓的声音可以从完全的死板到彻底的开放,在没有鼓枕和填充物的情况下。当使用填充物的时候,要用沙袋或者不会有声反射的重物把它压着,这样它就不会移动。

Drum tuning is crucial. If using padding, pull back the padding and ask the drummer to get the tuning “even” and as low as possible without making the head too loose for the beater. This is a touchy area. The drummer needs to be comfortable with the feel of the beater hitting the head. The experienced drummer should know the sweet spot for the tuning. The room sound may help dictate the best tuning if you don’t use a pillow.

鼓的调节是很重要的。如果你用填充物,把填充物一边往后移一边问鼓手,以得到一个合适的、一个在为了踩锤而没有把鼓皮调节的过分松弛的情况下尽可能多的低频下潜的调节。这是一个难以处理的区域。鼓手需要一个非常舒适的踩锤击打鼓皮的感觉。有经验的鼓手会知道对于调音来说最佳的听音位置。房间的声音可能会对帮助你完成最佳的调节有所指示,如果你不用鼓枕的话。

If the kick drum has one head, after getting the kick drum sound to taste acoustically, put a packing blanket or any thick blanket over the bass drum’s outer shell. This helps isolation. Tape the blanket on the drum near the center of the shell with duct tape or any strong tape, and let it hang on the floor over the outside of the kick. If you’re not using a pillow, and will be using room mics, you may not want to use the packing blanket.

如果底鼓只有一面鼓皮,在听觉上得到自己喜欢的底鼓声之后,用一张包装塑料布或者任何厚的覆盖物覆盖在底鼓鼓桶上。这样会有助于隔离。用duct tape或者其他结实的胶带把塑料布粘在鼓外壳大概中间的位置,并且一直这样粘到地板上以完全把底鼓覆盖住(没有鼓皮的一面)。如果你使用鼓枕或者将要使用房间麦克拾音,那么你或许不愿意使用这个包装塑料布。

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