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Recording Acoustic Drums 声学鼓的录制

(2007-02-22 08:38:29)
By Jay Graydon | September 2006           译:Margindge

If you’re looking for a “one size fits all” solution to recording acoustic drums, forget it! When it comes to miking and EQing drums or anything else, every recording engineer has different opinions and techniques. While that may seem chaotic, it’s also liberating: Never be afraid to experiment in your quest for the ultimate sound, as there are no rules . . . and if there actually are, maybe you’ll discover some new ones.

如果你想找到一种通用的录声学鼓的办法,还是放弃这个念头吧!当提到鼓的拾音和频率均衡或者其他什么,每个录音师都有不同的见解和手法。虽然有些摸不着头脑,但也确实是个解脱:不要害怕在你寻找心中最终的声音的过程中不断摸索实践,因为根本没有一个规范……如果你发现确实有,可能你已经发现了一些新的东西。

BUT FIRST, SOME PROBLEMS

首先,说明一些问题


Recording acoustic drums defines the meaning of “give and take.” A common technique is miking each drum, so all the mics will pick up leakage from each drum/cymbal but with a slight time delay. This delay can cause “comb filtering” (phase cancellation and addition), which alters the miked signal’s tone. The less leakage the better, but it’s impractical to baffle other drums and cymbals within the set. A work-around to cut down on leakage is to use fewer mics, and try to capture the set with a couple mics on the set itself, and maybe some room mics.

声学鼓的录制很好的解释了“互相迁就,相辅相成”的含义。通常的手段是分别录每一个鼓,所以所有的MIC都会拾到其他各个鼓和镲的带着轻微延迟的串音。这些延迟会造成“梳状滤波效应”(相位的抵消和叠加),这会改变拾取信号的音质。虽然串音越少越好,但是要阻挡其他鼓或者镲的声音到拾音范围内是不切实际的。一个减少串音的较好的办法是使用较少的MIC,和尝试把一对MIC放在鼓组上方来捕获它们的声音,或者用一些Room Mics(房间麦克)。

Another problem is that the drum head tuning will likely change over a relatively short period of time, due to the constant hitting of the drums as well as temperature changes within the studio environment. Keep lighting and air conditioning consistent, as they’re the main causes of temperature variations. Remember to check tom and snare tuning throughout the session.

另一个问题是,由于对鼓持续的击打以及录音环境内的温度变化,鼓皮的音高将很可能在一个相对短的时间周期后改变。采光和通风作为温度变化的主要因素,要保持调节的一致。

Also note miking the full set leads to lots of mics, booms, and cables running around your studio. This multiplies the chances of an accident, like the mic stand falling over and killing your oh-so-expensive vintage tube mic. We’ll address this topic as well.

另外需要注意的是,在录制整个鼓组的时候会用到许多麦克,麦架,和线材,让你在录音棚里跑来跑去。这样就会增加事故发生的概率,比如碰倒麦架导致你非常昂贵的经典电子管麦克损坏。我们倒不如也作为一个话题谈谈。

ISOLATION AND AVOIDING REFLECTIONS

隔音和消除反射


Isolate the mics from the floor as much as possible so that they don’t pick up any rumbling noises. If your studio was not built with a floating floor (a second foundation over the first supported by rubber and styrofoam, as used in most pro studios; see Figure 1), a drum riser will help isolate the mics. Even if the studio has a floating floor, a drum riser may still be helpful. (When constructing a drum riser, make sure that it is solid and includes some type of rubber on the bottom of all surfaces that rest on the floor. Cover the platform with rugged, indoor/outdoor carpet.)

为了不拾到任何隆隆的噪音,要尽可能的把麦克和地板隔离。如果你的录音间不是建立在浮动地板上(第二基架是在首先被橡胶和泡沫支撑之上的,这办法同样用在很多专业工作室,见图1),鼓台(中空的台子用于抬高鼓组)也可以对隔离麦克有帮助。即使录音棚有浮动地板,鼓台也依然会有帮助。(在制作鼓台的时候,要确认它是坚固并且在和地板接触的所有底部的表面都有一些橡胶之类的填充。平台的表面要覆盖着粗糙的户内用或户外使用的地毯。)

If the drums will be set up on the floor itself, a carpeted floor cuts down on reflections; a hardwood floor will allow sound waves to bounce back up into the drums, possibly causing phase cancellations. Consider a floor tom mounted in a standard vertical orientation: With a hardwood floor, when the player hits the drum the bottom head vibrates sympathetically. This directs a waveform toward the floor, which bounces back up and interacts with the vibrating bottom head to cancel or emphasize certain frequencies.

如果鼓架在地板上,铺着地毯的的地板会阻止反射声;硬木地板会让声波向上反射回鼓组中,从而很可能引起相位消除现象。考虑到落地桶鼓是在标准垂直方向上:如用木地板,当鼓手击鼓,下面的鼓皮也要跟随着震动。这个直接向着地板去的声波将被反弹上来并且会对底面鼓皮的震动造成相消或加重某些频率的影响。

To minimize this problem, angle the floor tom slightly by lowering the triangular height rod (the one nearest the drummer) to taste; see Figure 2. This causes the waves to scatter somewhat.

为了解决这个问题,我们可以通过按习惯降低三角支架(靠近鼓手的一个)使落地桶鼓和地板形成轻微的角度;见图2,这会让声波反射稍微分散。

MIC CONSIDERATIONS

麦克的讨论


If the drums will be hit medium to hard, you’ll usually want to enable the mic’s built-in attenuation (“pad”) switch. This helps minimize the chance of distortion.

如果鼓被越来越有力度的击打,我们经常会希望把麦克内置的衰减开关打开,这样会帮助减少失真的机会。

Some condenser mics offer pattern choices. With an omni response, the mic hears everything — the front and back as well as on the sides. The figure 8 response allows the front and back of the diaphragm to be active but not the sides. Cardioid is directional on one side only, and is typically used for drums. Other patterns include “super cardioid” (very directional), which may be useful if you want to tighten up the sonic picture.

一些电容麦克提供模式选择。在全指向,麦克可以拾到前后左右所有声音。8字指向只能拾到振膜前后方的声音,而左右的不行。心形是单一的指向一个方向,非常适合用来录鼓。别的指向型包括“超心型”(超指向),假如你想缩紧声场可能会用得着。

Note that all of the following mic placement positions are my starting positions. When listening to the mics to dial in the sound, always move the mic around a bit to find the best sound.

需要注意的是,以下提到的所有麦克的摆位都是指起始位置。当一边听一边推高麦克的音量,总是要在很小的范围内移动麦克以得到最好的声音。

Regarding mics, there are so many, and the landscape has changed so much in the past few years with the advent of budget mics, that we won’t even attempt to recommend possible mics; I’ll just mention a few personal favorites and deal in generalities. One strategy for getting pointers on mics is reading interviews with producers and engineers whose work you admire, as they will often mention which mics they use for specific applications.

关于麦克的选择,总是有太多,而且随着几年后廉价麦克的出现,行情也会随之改变,所以我们也不做推荐合适的麦克的努力;我只会大概的说一些个人的喜好。另一个得到要点的途径是看你喜欢的工程师或制作人的专访,他们会经常提及哪些麦克是他们自己用来特殊运用的。

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