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傅蘭姆﹕「范泰爾論上帝的啟示」5

(2008-02-03 15:44:41)
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教育

 

《基督教知識論》裏的這段話很具啟發性,但是卻有幾分誨澀難懂。不過這兩段話的要旨乃是﹕除非上帝在時間、空間裏曾經賜下無謬誤的啟示,而且這個啟示原則上可以為人所認識(例如﹕透過文本批判);否則,我們就不可能接近上帝純粹的話語;更不可能對救恩、甚至對任何事物有把握。誠然,若沒有上帝無謬誤的話語,我們就會知道《聖經》中的上帝並不存在。因為,《聖經》中的上帝確確實實是一位用權威向我們說話的上帝;這是上帝曉諭祂僕人的唯一方式。

    The passage in A Christian Theory of Knowledge is suggestive, but somewhat obscure.  The upshot of these two passages, however, is that unless the infallible revelation has been given somewhere in space and time, and thus is accessible in principle to human knowledge (e.g., by textual criticism), then we have no access to the pure Word of God.  And without that, there can be no certainty about salvation, or, for that matter, about anything else.  Indeed, without such a Word, we would know that the biblical God does not exist.  For the biblical God is one who does address us authoritatively.  That is the only way in which the Lord can address his servants. 

 

    因此,若沒有這樣無謬誤的話語,就沒有上帝。若沒有上帝,就沒有所謂「合理的可靠」的事物。沒了上帝,萬物就是偶然與混沌。

    Therefore, if there is no such Word, there is no God.  And if there is no God, there is no such thing as “reasonable reliability.”  Without God, all is chance, chaos.

 

《聖經》的範圍

THE SCOPE OF SCRIPTURE

 

    如果(一位掌權的)上帝確實存在,並且藉著祂無謬誤的話語啟示了自己,那麼,宇宙中所有的意義與可知性 (intelligibility) 都來自祂。祂的話─《聖經》-和宇宙中所有的意義都會有關連。這裡的意思是﹕《聖經》的啟示範圍是宇宙性的,雖然「有限無誤論者」 和其他人士不願承認。《聖經》「論及萬事」 (speaks of everything) 。范泰爾解釋道﹕

    If that God does exist, revealing himself by his infallible Word, then all meaning and intelligibility in the universe is due to him.  And his Word, Scripture, is relevant to all meaning in the universe.  This means, contrary to “limited inerrantists” and others, that the scope of Scripture is universal.  It “speaks of everything.”  Van Til explains:

 

我們的意思不是說《聖經》直接論及了足球比賽、原子…等事物;不過我們堅持,《聖經》直接或間接地論及了萬事。《聖經》不只向我們啟示了基督和祂的救贖大工,也告訴我們上帝是怎樣的一位上帝、宇宙從那裏來。《聖經》不只寫下歷史,也給我們一套歷史哲學。不但如此,《聖經》在這些問題上所提供的資料,也被編織成一個不可分割的整體。除非你拒絕《聖經》是上帝的話,否則你不可能把《聖經》中所謂「宗教」和「道德」的教導,與其他方面-例如:物質的宇宙-的教導分開。 (DF2, 8.) 

We do not mean that it speaks of football games, of atoms, etc., directly, but we do mean that it speaks of everything either directly or indirectly.  It tells us not only of the Christ and his work but it also tells us who God is and whence the universe has come.  It gives us a philosophy of history as well as history.  Moreover, the information on these subjects is woven into an inextricable whole.  It is only if you reject the Bible as the Word of God that you can separate its so-called religious and moral instruction from what it says, e.g., about the physical universe.  (DF2, 8.) 

 

《聖經》「屹立在我們面前,有如一道光,使得被造宇宙中所有的事實,都必須根據它來解釋。」  (DF2, 107; 參 CA, 23-29.) 

The Bible “stands before us as the light in terms of which all the facts of the created universe must be interpreted.”  (DF2, 107; cf. CA, 23-29.)

 

    正如我前文指出的,很多神學家基於自己對《聖經》信息本質的看法,而試圖證明《聖經》的範圍只限於狹窄的所謂「宗教關懷」。范泰爾在這方面對教會作出了巨大的貢獻。他重新思想《聖經》信息的本質,並且得出結論﹕當《聖經》的信息被正確理解時,我們就必定會在上帝的話語裏,看到一個沒有範圍限制的信息;同時也會看見《聖經》是終極的權威。范泰爾的結論誠然是正確的。 

    As I indicated at the beginning of this section, many theologians tried to show, based on the nature of Scripture’s message, that the scope of Scripture is limited to certain areas of narrowly religious concern.  Van Til has done the church a great service here: he has rethought the nature of Scripture’s message and has concluded, rightly, that when that message is properly understood, it will require us to find in God’s Word a message of unlimited scope, together with ultimate authority.

 

    因此范泰爾釋放了凱伯的偉大異象﹕將人生的一切範圍服在基督的統管之下。(參林前10﹕31;林後10﹕5。)畢竟,《聖經》確實論及了心理學、邏輯、數學、歷史、科學、藝術、政治、經濟……等,而不是只講論狹義的神學課題。很不幸的是,許多凱伯的跟隨者認為,《聖經》的範圍相當狹窄,因此我們改革社會的希望,基本上必須忽略《聖經》的教導-雖然《聖經》能激勵我們朝著正確的方向前進。相反地,范泰爾卻揭開了《聖經》的偉大能力,不只使人們重生,還教導他們如何改變社會與文化。

    Thus Van Til unleashes the great vision of Kuyper, to bring all areas of human life under the sway of Christ (see I Cor. 10:31; 2 Cor. 10:5).  Scripture does, after all, talk about psychology, logic, mathematics, history, science, art, philosophy, politics, economics, etc., as well as the narrowly theological disciplines.  Many of Kuyper’s followers have unfortunately argued that Scripture has a narrow scope and that our desire to reform society must therefore largely ignore the teachings of the Bible, although Scripture may motivate us in a useful direction.  Van Til, on the contrary, opens up the great power of Scripture, not only to regenerate people, but also to instruct them for social and cultural change.

 

    這並不意味著范泰爾是一位狹隘的聖經主義者。我們已經看見,對范泰爾來說,上帝的啟示是一個有機體,特殊啟示和普遍啟示必須連在一起理解。我們也看到,范泰爾不相信人的解釋可以相對化上帝話語的權柄。確切地說,上帝呼召我們使用我們最好的恩賜,去將祂的話語應用在一切事物上;祂也應許,若我們致力於謙卑的服在《聖經》-這《聖經》是我們試圖去應用的-之下,這樣的努力必定會結實累累。

    This does not mean that Van Til is a narrow Biblicist.  We have seen that for Van Til, revelation is an organism, that special and general revelation must be taken together.  Van Til, as we have seen, does not believe that the presence of human interpretation relativizes the authority of the Word of God.  Rather, God calls us to apply our best gifts toward applying his Word to all matters, and he promises that such efforts, humbly subject to that very Word we seek to apply, will be fruitful.

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