加载中…
个人资料
只喜欢真理
只喜欢真理
  • 博客等级:
  • 博客积分:0
  • 博客访问:47,086
  • 关注人气:18
  • 获赠金笔:0支
  • 赠出金笔:0支
  • 荣誉徽章:
相关博文
推荐博文
谁看过这篇博文
加载中…
正文 字体大小:

009B  加爾文,《基督教要義》,3.2.1-7:「信心」1

(2008-02-03 15:21:32)
标签:

教育

 

009B  加爾文,《基督教要義》,3.2.1-7:「信心」

John Calvin on “Faith,” from Institutes of the Christian Religion (3.2.1-7)

 

3.2 – 信仰(信心)的意義及其特性

Faith: Its Definition Set Forth, and Its Properties Explained

 

3.2.1 信心的對象是基督  The Object of Faith is Christ

 

 

我們對信心若有一個較明確的定義,這一切的事就很容易明瞭了,而讀者也可以瞭解它的性質和重要性。但讀者應當牢記以前所說過的,上帝賜祂的律法給我們作為行為的準則,假若我們對律法稍有違犯,我們將遭受祂所指定那可怕的永死懲罰。再者,要按祂所要求的去實行律法,不但困難,而且絕非我們能力所能做到,所以若我們僅看到自己和自己的過失,不得不認為自己乃是上帝所拋棄,而面臨著永遠沉淪的人。第三,我們已經說過,只有一個拯救釋放的方法,可以叫我們免於災難,那就是救主基督的出現,天父藉著祂就樂意以祂無限的良善與仁慈,憐憫我們這些以誠懇信心接受祂的仁慈,和以不變的希望寄託在祂身上的人。

 

But it will be easy to understand all these matters after a clearer definition of faith has been presented, to enable our readers to grasp its force and nature. We may well recall here what was explained before: First, God lays down for us through the law what we should do; if we then fail in any part of it, that dreadful sentence of eternal death which it pronounces will rest upon us. Secondly, it is not only hard, but above our strength and beyond all our abilities, to fulfill the law to the letter; thus, if we look to ourselves only, and ponder what condition we deserve, no trace of good hope will remain; but cast away by God, we shall lie under eternal death. Thirdly, it has been explained that there is but one means of liberation that can rescue us from such miserable calamity: the appearance of Christ the Redeemer, through whose hand the Heavenly Father, pitying us out of his infinite goodness and mercy, willed to help us; if, indeed, with firm faith we embrace this mercy and rest in it with steadfast hope.

 

但我們必須研究信心的性質,看看它怎能使我們以上帝之子的名份而承受天國,因為不是每一種意見,也不是每一種信念都能與信心這麼偉大的事相匹敵。我們研究信仰的本質,更要特別小心謹慎,以免陷入現代一般人所墮進的迷惑。世界上許多人在聽到 「信仰」一詞的時候,以為那不過是同意於福音的歷史而已。甚至經院主義對信仰之爭,也不過把上帝當做信仰的客體,(如我在其它的地方所發覺的)他們徒然引人誤入空想的迷途,而不是引人進入正軌。因為上帝既是「住在人不能靠近的光裏」(提前6:16),必須基督居間為中保,人才可以接近上帝。因此,祂自稱「是世界的光」(約8:12),又說祂「是道路,真理,和生命,」因為 「若不藉著我,沒有人能到」 生命之源的 「父那裏去」(約14:6);因為只有祂認識父,又把父顯現給相信的人(參路10:22)。

 

But now we ought to examine what this faith ought to be like, through which those adopted by God as his children come to possess the Heavenly Kingdom, since it is certain that no mere opinion or even persuasion is capable of bringing so great a thing to pass. Ad we must scrutinize and investigate the true character of faith with greater care and zeal because many are dangerously deluded today in this respect. Indeed, most people, when they hear this term, understand nothing deeper than a common assent to the gospel history. In fact, when faith is discussed in the schools, they call God simply the object of faith, and by fleeting speculations, as we have elsewhere stated, lead miserable souls astray rather than direct them to a definite goal. For, since “God dwells in inaccessible light” [I Tim. 6:16], Christ must become our intermediary. Hence, he calls himself “the light of the world [John 8:12], and elsewhere stated, “the way, the truth, and the life”; for no one comes to the Father, who is “the fountain of life” [Ps. 36:9], except through him [John 14:6] because he alone knows the Father, and afterward the believers to whom he wishes to reveal him [Luke 10:22].

 

因為保羅說,除耶穌基督以外沒有別的是他值得他認識的,(參林前2:2);在使徒行傳第二十章中他說,他是勸人信靠基督;在另一處基督對他說:「我差你到外邦人那裏去……叫他們……因信我,得蒙赦罪,和一切成聖的人同得基業」(徒26:17,18)。這使徒告訴我們,上帝的榮光在基督身上向我們顯明,「叫我們得知上帝榮耀的光,顯在耶穌基督的面上」(林後4:6)。

 

    On this ground, Paul declares that he considers nothing worth knowing save Christ [I Cor. 2:2]. In the twentieth chapter of Acts he relates that he has preached “faith in… Christ” [v.21]. And in another passage he has Christ speak as follows: “I shall send you among the Gentiles…, that they may receive forgiveness of sins and a place among the saints through faith that is in me” [Acts 26:17-18]. And Paul testifies that the glory of God is visible to us in His person, or – what amounts to the same thing – that the enlightening knowledge of the glory of God shines in His face [II Cor. 4:6].

 

不錯,信心的對象是唯一真神,但也必須認識上帝所差遣的耶穌基督(約17:3)。假如我們不是被基督的光明所啟發,我們將完全無法認識上帝。所以上帝把一切榮華交付與祂的獨生子,好在子身上顯明祂自己;又使基督所賜的福可以表明父榮耀的真像。以前說過,我們必須為聖靈所吸引,激發我們尋求基督,同樣我們也應該知道,不能見的父只能從這個形像中去尋求。這問題奥古斯丁在論信仰之時說得好:「我們應該知道往何處去,和怎樣去法;」隨即又作結論說:「那避免一切錯誤的穩當的方法便是認識那位神人合一的基督,因為我們所要接近的是上帝,我們所藉以接近上帝的是人;而這兩者只能在基督身上找到。」保羅講到信上帝的時候,並無意破壞他平日對信心的教訓,這信心是全靠基督而得安定的。彼得更恰當地把兩者連為一,說:「我們因著祂而信上帝」(彼前1:21)。

 

    Indeed, it is true that faith looks to one God. But this must also be added, “To know Jesus Christ whom he has sent” [John 17:3]. For God would have remained hidden afar off if Christ’s splendor had not beamed upon us. For this purpose the Father laid up with his only-begotten Son all that he had revealed himself in Christ so that Christ, by communicating his Father’s benefits, might express the true image of his glory [cf. Heb. 1:3]. It has been said that we must be drawn by the Spirit to be aroused to seek Christ; so, in turn, we must be warned that the invisible Father is to be sought solely in this image. Augustine has finely spoken of this matter: in discussing the goal of faith, he teaches that we must know our destination and the way to it. Then, immediately after, he infers that the way that is most fortified against all errors is he who was both God and man: namely, as God he is the destination to which we move; as man, the path by which we go. Both are found in Christ alone. But, while Paul proclaims faith in God, he does not have in mind to overturn what he so often emphasizes concerning faith: namely, that all its stability rests in Christ. Peter, indeed, most effectively connects both, saying that through him we believe in God (I Peter 1:21).

 

3.2.2 信心是建立在知識上,不是在敬虔的無知上

Faith Rests Upon Knowledge, Not Pious Ignorance

(Faith involves knowledge; the true doctrine obscured by Scholastic notion of implicit faith, 3.2.2-5)

 

…這罪惡和其它數的惡一般,完全是生於經院派之將基督蒙上一層面紗,掩蓋了祂的真面目;其實,除非我們直接專一地注意祂,我們將永遠陷於迷宮。

 

    This evil, then, like innumerable others, must be attributed to the Schoolmen, who have, as it were, drawn a veil over Christ to hide him. Unless we look straight toward him, we shall wander through endless labyrinths.

 

他們不但以模糊的定義減削了,甚而幾乎是完全消減了信仰的一切重要性,而且虛構了「默信」之說,他們用默信這名詞來粉飾無知,以最烈的毒素迷惑一般可憐的人。老實說這觀念不但埋沒了信仰,而且完全毀滅了它。所謂信仰,竟是一無所知,而使認識徒然順從地屈服於教會嗎?信仰不是在於無知,乃是在於認識;不但認識上帝,還要認識上帝的旨意。因為我們得救,不是靠於承認教會所指示的偽真理,或在我們把我們所應當研討的都交給教會。當我們知道,由於基督所完成的復和,上帝對我們是慈祥的父,又知道父把基督賜給我們,為的是叫我們得著公義,成聖,和生命,我敢說,我們是由於這個認識,不是放棄認識,而得以進入天國。因為使徒所說:「人心裏相信,就可以稱義,口裏承認,就可以得救」(羅10:10)若是指人默信那自己所不瞭解,也不加以研究的事是不夠的;他必須對上帝的憐憫有明確的認識,因為我們被稱義是根據此憐憫

 

    But besides wearing down the whole force of faith and almost annihilating it by their obscure definition, they have fabricated the fiction of “implicit faith.” Bedecking the grossest ignorance with this term, they ruinously delude poor, miserable folk. Furthermore, to state truly and frankly the real fact of the matter, this fiction not only buries but utterly destroys true faith. Is this what believing means, to understand nothing, provided only that you submit your feelings obediently to the church? Faith rests not on ignorance, but on knowledge. And this is, indeed, knowledge not only of God but of the divine will. We do not obtain salvation either because we are prepared to embrace as true whatever the church has prescribed, or because we turn over to it the task of inquiring and knowing. But we do so when we know that God is our merciful Father, because of reconciliation effected through Christ [II Cor. 5:18-19], and that Christ has been given to us as righteousness, sanctification, and life. By this knowledge, I say, not by submission of our feeling, do we obtain entry into the Kingdom of Heaven. For when the apostle says, “With the heart a man believes unto righteousness, with the mouth makes confession unto salvation” [Rom. 10:10, cf. Vg.], he indicates that it is not enough for a man implicitly to believe what he does not understand or even investigate. But he requires explicit recognition of the divine goodness upon which our righteousness rests.

 

3.2.3羅馬天主教的信心觀(信心等於默認教會的教義)是虛假的

Roman Doctrine of “Implicit” Faith Basically False

 

我不否認,因我們的無知,現在有許多事還是模糊不清,將來也要如此,直等到我們擺脫了肉體的負擔,和上帝更加接近的時候。關於這些問題,最好是保留判斷,堅決地與教會保持一致。但在這個托詞之下,以信仰的雅號尊稱無知與謙虛的結合,是極端的荒謬。因為信仰在乎對上帝和基督的認識(約17:3),而不是在乎對教會的尊敬。我們知道,他們如何以這捏造的觀念構成一座迷官,以致一般無知淺見的人不知辨別,凡在教會名義之下所指示的,無不視為神諭,熱心接受;有時甚至連最大的錯誤也盲目接受。雖然這是終必毀滅的盲信,他們卻辯稱,那不是他們的確定信仰,乃是一種以教會是否如此信仰為條件的信仰。因此他們詭稱真理是在錯誤中,光明是在黑暗中,真知識是在愚昧中。

 

Indeed, I do not deny – such is the ignorance with which we are surrounded – that most things are now implicit for us, and will be so until, laying aside the weight of the flesh, we come nearer to the presence of God. In these matters we can do nothing better than suspend judgment, and hearten ourselves to hold unity with the church. But on this pretext it would be the height of absurdity to label ignorance tempered by humility “faith”! For faith consists in the knowledge of God and Christ [John 17:3], not in reverence for the church. We see the sort of labyrinth they have constructed with this “implication” of theirs! Anything at all, provided it be palmed off on them under the label “church” – sometimes even the most frightful errors – the untutored indiscriminately seize upon as an oracle. This headless gullibility, although it is the very brink of ruin, yet is excused by them; only on condition that “such is the faith of the church” does it definitely believe anything. Thus they fancy that in error they possess truth; in darkness, light; in ignorance, right knowledge.

 

我們不必多費時間駁斥他們,只勸告讀者把他們的教理和我們的教理作一番比較,因為真理的清晰性本身即足以駁倒他們。他們的問題不在乎信仰是否包括在無知的餘物中,但他們堅持說,對於未知的事物只要同意教會的權威和判斷,雖為無知所惑,甚而故意縱容無知,也是有真信仰的人,彷彿整個《聖經》並沒有告訴我們,知識是必須與信仰相結連的。

 

But let us not tarry longer over refuting them; we merely admonish the reader to compare these doctrines with ours. The very clarity of truth itself will of itself provide sufficiently ready refutation. For they do not ask whether faith is wrapped in many remnants of ignorance, but define right believers as those who go numb in their own ignorance, and even brag about it, provided they give assent to the authority and judgment of the church in things unknown to them. As if Scripture does not regularly teach that understanding is joined with faith!

 

 

 

3.2.4 甚至真正的信心,也常被錯誤和不信包圍

Even Right Faith Is Always Surrounded By Error and Unbelief

 

我們承認,當我們在世作客之時,我們的信仰是默從的,不但因為我們對許多事還不瞭解,而是因為錯誤如雲霧般地包圍我們,以致我們對一切事物的認識很不完全。那最完全之人的最大智慧是在於以忍耐溫順,努力向前,不住改善。所以保羅勸告信徒,若他們彼此意見有所不同,就要等待進一步的啟示(腓3:15)。經驗告訴我們,直到我們解除肉體的束縛,我們的知識與我們的心願相去不知多遠;我們每天讀經,常遇疑難,這就足以證明我們的無知。上帝用這界限約束我們,叫我們謙虛,給每人分配多少的信心,叫甚至飽學的教師也得學習

 

    We certainly admit that so long as we dwell as strangers in the world there is such a thing as implicit faith; not only because many things are as yet hidden from us, but because surrounded by many clouds of errors we do not comprehend everything. The height of wisdom for the most perfect is to go forward and, quietly and humbly, to strive still further. Therefore Paul exhorts believers that, if some disagree with others in any matter, they should wait for revelation [Phil. 3:15]. Experience obviously teaches that until we put off the flesh we attain less than we should lie. And in our daily reading of Scripture we come upon many obscure passages that convict us of ignorance. With this bridle God keeps us within bounds, assigning to each his “measure of faith” [Rom. 12:3] so that even the best teacher may be ready to learn.

 

我們可以基督的門徒在未蒙完全開導時作為這默信的榜樣。我們知道他們最初受教是如何的困難;他們甚至在最小的事上也躊躇猶豫;甚至在傾聽夫子訓誨之時,仍然沒有多大的長進;當他們得到婦女們的通報,跑到墳墓去之時,還是如在夢中。基督既已證明他們的有信,自不容我們說他們完全沒有信心;其實,假如他們不相信基督要從死裏復活,他們自然不會對萶祂再有關切。那些婦女並非因迷信而以香膏塗抹那死者的身體,以為祂復生是沒有希望的;不過雖然她們相信祂的話,知道那是真實可靠的,但那依然盤據在他們心裏的無知,使他們的信心陷在黑暗中,以致他們非常的駭異,不知所措。所以說,當他們看見基督的話業已為事實所證明,最後就相信了;這不是說他們的信仰在這時候開始,而是那在他們心裏好像死了,其實是潛伏著的信心種子,現在才生氣勃發地滋長起來。所以他們有了真實的,卻是默從的信心,因為他們尊基督為唯一的老師;他們既受祂的薰陶,就相信祂是他們的救主,他們相信祂是來自天上,好藉父的恩惠把祂所有的門徒帶到天上。其實每一個人的信心總混雜著一些不信的成份的,這一點我們毋須再尋找比這更熟悉的證據了。

 

    Remarkable examples of this implicit faith may be noted in Christ’s disciples before they attained full enlightenment. We see how with difficulty they taste even the first rudiments, halting over the slightest matters, and though hanging on their Master’s words, making but little progress. Indeed, when, warned by the women, they rush to the tomb, the resurrection of their Master seems to them like a dream [Luke 24:11-12; cf. John 20:8]. Since Christ previously bore witness to their faith, it is wrong to say that they were completely devoid of it. No, unless they had been persuaded that Christ would rise again, all zeal would have failed them. Nor was it superstition that prompted the women to anoint with spices the corpse of a dead man for whose life there would be no hope. But although they had faith in the words of him whom they knew to be truthful, the ignorance that as yet occupied their minds so enveloped their faith in darkness that they were almost dumfounded. Hence, also it is said that they finally believed after they themselves had discovered the truth of Christ’s words through the very fact of his resurrection. Not that they then began to believe, but because the seed of hidden faith – which had been dead, as it were, in their hearts – at that time burst through with renewed vigor! For there was in them a true but implicit faith because they had reverently embraced Christ as their sole teacher. Then, taught by him, they were convinced he was the author of their salvation. And finally, they believed he came from heaven that, through the Father’s grace, he might gather his disciples thither. We ought not to seek any more intimate proof of this man that unbelief is, in all men, always mixed with faith. 

 

3.2.5默信﹕信心的準備

“Implicit” Faith as Prerequisite of Faith

 

有時我們所稱為默信的,若嚴格地說,無非是信心的準備。福音書說有很多人相信,可是這些人雖然欽敬基督的神蹟,對福音的教理卻沒有多大的認識,所以最多只有相信祂是彌賽亞而已。那種引他們樂意順服基督的尊敬之心,雖被稱為信仰,其實不過是信仰的開端而已。例如,那相信基督關於他兒子可得醫治的大臣,按照福音書的見證,當他回到家裏的時候,他又再相信了(約4:50-53)。這就是說,他最初把基督的話當做神諭;不過,以後他專心致志地順服祂的權威,接受祂的教義。我們應該知道,他是順從和勇於學習的;那第一個「信」是指一種特殊的信心;第二個「信」是指把他列在那(刪﹕以自己的名字)奉獻與基督的門徒中的。約翰以撒瑪利亞人為例;他們因相信那婦人的報告就急切地跑到基督跟前,又在聽了基督說話以後,就對那婦人說:「現在我們信,不是因為你的話,是我們親自聽見了,知道這真是救世主」(約4:42)。這樣看來,那些還沒有進入信仰的最初境地,僅傾向於順從的人,也可以被稱為信徒這不是按照嚴格的意義來說,乃是因為上帝仁慈地把這偉大的榮譽歸給敬虔的心但這種求進步的順從之心,與那些因受羅馬教徒所捏造的默信之影響而麻木了的人,是有很大差別的。如果保羅嚴厲責備那些「常常學習,終久不能明白真道」的人(提後3:7),那末,那些專事研究而故作無知的人,又是何等的可恥!

 

    We may also call that faith implicit which is still strictly nothing but the preparation of faith The Evangelists relate that very many believed who, caught up into wonderment by the miracles only, did not advance farther than to believe Christ the Messiah who had been promised, although they had not been imbued with even a trace of the gospel teaching. Such reverent attention, which disposed them to submit themselves willingly to Christ, is graced with the title “Faith”; yet it was only the beginning of faith.  Thus, the court official who believed Christ’s promise concerning the healing of his son [John 4:50], having returned to his house, as the Evangelist testified, believed anew [John 4:53] because he first received as an oracle what he had heard from the mouth of Christ, and then submitted to Christ’s authority to receive the teaching.  Yet we must know that he was so teachable and ready to learn that in the first passage his admission of belief signifies a particular faith, while in the second passage he is counted among the disciples who had enlisted with Christ.  John sets forth a like example in the Samaritans who so believed the word of a woman that they eagerly rushed to Christ, but spoke to her, when they heard him, as follows; “Now we do not believe on account of your speaking, but we have heard him and we know that it is the Savior of the world” [John 4:42].  From these instances it is clear that even those who are not yet imbued with the first elements but are still inclined to hearken are called “believers”; not in an exact sense, indeed, but in so far as God in his kindness deigns to grace that pious affection with such great honor.  But this teachableness, with the desire to learn, is far different from sheer ignorance in which those sluggishly rest who are content with the sort of “implicit faith” the papist invent.  For if Paul severely condemns those who “are always learning but never arrive at a knowledge of the truth” [II Tim. 3:7], how much greater ignominy do those merit who deliberately affect complete ignorance!

 

3.2.6 信心依靠上帝的話語

Faith Rests Upon God’s Word

 (Relation of Faith to the Word and Brief Definition of Faith, 6-7)

 

因此,對基督真正的認識,在乎接受祂為父之所賜在福音裏認識祂;祂既是我們信仰的物件,若沒有福音的指導,我們就不能正當地接近祂。福音給我們開了無限恩惠的寶藏,若沒有那些寶藏,基督對我們便沒有多大的益處,保羅把信仰與教理看為不可分開的,所以說,「你們學了基督,卻不是這樣;如果你們聽過上帝的道,領了祂的教,學了祂的真理」(弗4:20,21)。

 

    This, then, is the true knowledge of Christ, if we receive him as he is offered by the Father: namely, clothed with his gospel.  For just as he has been appointed as the goal of our faith, so we cannot take the right road to him unless the gospel goes before us And there, surely, the treasures of grace are opened to us; for if they had been closed, Christ would have benefited us little.  Thus Paul yokes faith to teaching, as an inseparable companion, with these words: “You did not so learn Christ if indeed you were taught what is the truth in Christ” [Eph. 4:20-21 p.].

0

阅读 评论 收藏 转载 喜欢 打印举报/Report
  • 评论加载中,请稍候...
发评论

    发评论

    以上网友发言只代表其个人观点,不代表新浪网的观点或立场。

      

    新浪BLOG意见反馈留言板 电话:4000520066 提示音后按1键(按当地市话标准计费) 欢迎批评指正

    新浪简介 | About Sina | 广告服务 | 联系我们 | 招聘信息 | 网站律师 | SINA English | 会员注册 | 产品答疑

    新浪公司 版权所有