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续  疑难句

(2007-05-03 10:49:27)
 

51. So welfare opportunities are a significant determinant of family instability in poor neighborhoods, but this is not the result of AFDC regulations that exclude most intact families from coverage.

  【译文】因此,获得福利补贴的机会,在贫穷阶层的人中是导致家庭破裂的一个重要决定因素,但是,这不是“救助有受抚养子女的家庭”政策所导致的,何况多数完好家庭也不属于补助范围。

  52. Rather, welfarerelated instability occurs because public assistance lowers both the benefits of marriage and the costs of its breach by providing a system of governmentsubsidized payments.

  【译文】相反,由福利制度导致的家庭破裂之所以发生,是因为公共救助计划提供了一种政府补助体制,它不仅减少了婚姻的利益,而且降低了破裂的代价。

  53. The warning signs can be difficult enough to recognize; but the problem of identifying major depression in teens is further complicated by the fact that even these ambiguous signs are not always present.

  【译文】警告信号可能很难辨认,但是,即使这些含糊的信号也不一定总是存在,这一事实使辨认青少年身上所表现出的重大消沉情绪的问题变得更加复杂。

  54. They are using what we know as signs, to communicate with each other about some situation that is present at that moment: gathering the group, alarm, hunting, mating.

  【译文】他们使用我们称做符号的东西,相互之间在谈论着此时此刻所发生的事情:如集合、警告、猎取、交配等。

  55. Is it possible to imagine something as highly refined and subtle as the cave paintings of 15,000 years ago without language to enable manipulation and transference of ideas?

  【译文】如果没有语言来构思和传达思想,怎么想像能创作出15 000年前如此精美细致的洞穴绘画呢?

  56. Possession of language is a defining mark of our humanity, and it has been faithfully accompanying us ever since our branch first emerged as a distinct species.

  【译文】拥有语言是我们人类的一个区别性标志,自我们作为一个特殊的物种存在以来,语言能力一直伴随着我们。

  57. In Prague, when Tomas and Tereza brought a new chair or moved a flower pot, Karenin would look on in displeasure. It disturbed his sense of time. Nonetheless, he soon managed to reestablish the old order and old rituals in the Zurich flat.

  【译文】在布拉格,当托马斯和特里萨买把新椅子,或移动花盆时,卡列宁会感到很不高兴。这搅乱了他的时间意识。但是,在苏黎世的公寓里,他很快就恢复了过去的秩序和旧礼节。

  58. In periods of despair, she would remind herself she had to hold on because of him, because he was weaker than she, weaker perhaps even than Dubcek and their abandoned homeland.

  【译文】在绝望时刻,她总是提醒自己要为他而坚持下去,因为他比她更脆弱,甚至也许比杜布切克和他们离开的祖国还要脆弱。

  59. When she said that Tomas wasn’t there and she didn’t know when he’d be back, the woman on the other end of the line started laughing and, without saying good-bye, hung up.

  【译文】当她说托马斯不在,不知道什么时候能回来时,电话另一端的那个女人大笑了起来,没说再见就挂断了电话。

  60. It was then that she realized she had lost the last bit of strength she had had at home; she was absolutely incapable of tolerating this absolutely insignificant incident.

  【译文】恰恰在那时,她意识到自己在家时曾拥有的力量已经消失殆尽;她根本无法忍受这件鸡毛蒜皮的小事。

61. The fact that they loved each other was merely proof that the fault lay not in themselves, in their behavior or inconstancy of feeling, but rather in their incompatibility; he was strong and she was weak.

  【译文】他们彼此相爱,这个事实只能证明他们本身没有问题,他们的行为或情感的摇摆也没问题。问题在于他们彼此不相容:他很坚强,而她太脆弱。

  62. They were no longer occasional practitioners of art, as the cave painters had been, but full professionals — i.e., men skilled in a specialized occupation, practicing it full-time and probably earning all of their livelihood from it.

  【译文】他们不再像洞穴壁画的创作者一样是艺术品的偶然创作者,而是全职的职业创作者,即:他们擅长于某个特定行业,全职从事之,也许还以此为生。

  63. But even the relatively simple definition of a professional as a person receiving pay for carrying out a specialized occupation on a full-time basis is difficult to apply to the arts.

  【译文】但是,即使将职业者相对简单地定义为全职从事某个特定行业并从中取得报酬的人,这个定义也很难适用于艺术。

  64. Nearly everywhere and always, music, architecture, and poetry have been regarded as professions, while pottery making has been regarded as an art and granted the dignity of a profession only in some nonWestern cultures.

  【译文】几乎在每个地方,音乐、建筑和诗歌总是被看做是专业,而制陶只在某些西方以外的国家被看做艺术,并被冠以专业的名誉。

  65. The attempt to gain for some of the arts the status of learned or quasi-learned professions resulted in a distinction between “the fine arts" and “the applied arts", a distinction that has done harm to both.

  【译文】人们赋予某些艺术以有学问或半学问的专业地位,区分出“高雅艺术”和“应用艺术”,这种做法对彼此都有害无益。

  66. The gradual breakdown of the attitude that permitted such exclusive categories to be created and the general rejection of the false distinctions between art and utility are encouraging developments in the arts in recent times.

  【译文】这种彼此排斥的分类态度正在逐渐改变,人们普遍拒绝对艺术和实用做人为的区分,态度的改变目前正在促进艺术的发展。

  67. Michelson’s work is valuable, as a reflection of the day to day responsibilities of Mesquakie women, yet as is often the case with lifepassage studies, it presents little of the central character’s psychological motivation.

  【译文】迈克逊的著作是有价值的,反映了Mesquakie妇女的日常职责,但是,像其他生活过程研究一样,它对主人翁心理动机的描述甚少。

  

  68. For example, in Maria Campbell’s account of growing up as a Canadian Metis who was influenced strongly by the nonnative American world around her, one learns a great deal about the life of native American women, but Campbell’s individual story, which is told to us directly, is always the center of her narrative.

  【译文】例如,玛利亚·坎贝尔叙述了自己作为一个加拿大迈提斯人的成长过程,她深受周围的非本土的北美世界影响,她的故事使读者对本土美洲妇女的生活有了很多了解,但是,坎贝尔的个人故事是她亲自向读者讲述的,它始终是书的主线。

  69. As anthropologist Ralph Lonton said, “The last thing a fish would ever notice would be water." So it is with people: except in unusual circumstances, the effects of our own culture generally remain imperceptible to us.

  【译文】人类学家拉尔夫·兰顿说:“鱼根本注意不到水的存在。”人也是这样:除非在不同寻常的情况下,文化对我们的影响通常不为我们所注意。

  

  70. No longer could I count on people to stare only surreptitiously, to take precautions against invisible microbes, or to stand in an orderly way one behind the other on the basis of time of arrival to obtain a service.

  【译文】我再也不能指望人们仅仅偷偷地看,不能再担心看不见的细菌,或井然有序地按先来后到顺序一个个排队来获得某项服务。

  71. The aerospace industry is the complex of manufacturing concerns engaged in the production of flight vehicles, including unpowered gliders and sailplanes, lighter than air-craft, ground-effect machines, heavier than air craft of both fixed-wing and rotary-wing varieties, military missiles, space launch vehicles, and manned or unmanned spacecraft; propulsion systems and other thrusting devices; on board equipment essential to the design purpose of the flight vehicle; and ground-based support equipment needed for the operation and maintenance of the flight vehicle.

  【译文】航天工业是一个综合制造行业,从事各种飞行器的生产,包括:各种无动力滑翔机,轻于空气的飞行器,地面效应机械设备,重于空气的各种固定和旋转机翼飞行器,军用导弹,太空发射器,载人或无人飞行器,推进系统或其他助推设备,对飞行器的设计至关重要的舱内设备,控制和维护飞行器的地面设备。

  72. Russia, France, and the United Kingdom, as well as the European Space Agency, also have achieved a high degree of aerospace sophistication and have the ability to manufacture home designed systems including the entire range of aerospace vehicles.

  【译文】俄罗斯、法国、英国以及欧洲航天局也在航天技术上取得很高的成就,能够制造包括各种航空飞行器在内的本国自身设计的系统。

  73. In the United States, nonaerospace systems, primarily for state and municipal governments, utilities, surfacetransportation companies, hospitals, and other segments of the medical community, represent a significant portion of total sales.

  【译文】在美国,非航空设备的主要客户是各州和市政府、公用事业公司、地面运输公司、医院和其他医疗机构,这些设备的生产占总销售量的很大一部分。

  74. Between 1940 and 1980 in the United States, for example, per-acre yields of corn tripled, those of wheat and soybeans doubled, and farm output per hour of farm work increased almost 10 fold as capital was substituted for labour.

  【译文】例如,美国在1940~1980期间玉米的亩产量增加了2倍,小麦和大豆增加了1倍;换算为现金计算,每工时的农业产量增加了近9倍。

  75. This is an opportunity for some of us to suggest to Hollywood where that boundary of consumer tolerance is. Especially those of us who have not yet convinced Hollywood to cease its descent into everlower levels of desensitization of our young.

  【译文】现在是个机会,我们应该告诉好莱坞消费者的忍耐力所能达到的限度。特别是对我们这些还没有说服好莱坞,阻止他们使我们的年轻一代变得越来越冷漠的人来说。

  76. Producers like Aaron Sorkin of “The West Wing" planned to keep pushing hard. He was quoted as saying: “There’s absolutely no reason why we can’t use the language of adulthood in programs that are about adults."

  【译文】像亚伦·索金(《西楼》的制片人)这样的制片人准备穷追不舍,有报道引用他的话说:“在反映成人生活的节目中,绝对没有理由不能使用成人语言。”

  77. At this moment of crisis in our nations history, thought has become more contemplative, prayerful, and spiritual. It may be the time to tell the entertainment industry that we want not a temporary pause in the flow of tastelessness, but a long-term cleanup.

  【译文】在目前我们国家历史上这个危机时刻,人们在思想中反思、祈祷、冥想。也许是我们该告诉娱乐业的时候了:我们要的不是暂时停止制作那些低级趣味的东西,而是永远清除它们。

  78. Richard Nixon’s intense interest in sporting events was well known during his time in the White House, and it went far beyond the ceremonial events, such as throwing out the first pitch of the season for professional baseball and calling the winning team’s locker room after the Super Bowl.

  【译文】在入主白宫期间,理查德·尼克松对体育竞赛的浓厚兴趣是众所周知的,它远远超出了只参加一些礼节性活动,如在垒球赛季的职业比赛前投出第一个球,在超级杯比赛以后访问获胜球队的更衣室等。

  79. He repeatedly stunned reporters, athletes, and coaches that met him with his detailed knowledge about sporting events, and made a surprise visit to a Washington Redskins practice to give the team an inspirational boost after a difficult loss.

  【译文】他以其对体育竞赛项目的详尽知识,一次又一次地让与他会面的记者、运动员和教练们感到惊奇。他有时出乎意料地来到Washington Redskin的训练场,给奋力拼搏但输了球的队员们打打气。

  80. In some cases it was quite intentional, such as the effort of the White House staff to arrange a photo opportunity on the front lawn of the executive mansion with race car driver Mario Andretti, so Nixon could develop some popularity among race fans.

  【译文】有时这是特别有意识安排的,例如:白宫工作人员在白宫前的草坪上安排总统与赛车手马里奥·安德列蒂合影,以赢得赛车迷们的欢心。

81. Others were less intentional, such as his habit of attending baseball and football games and watching the game from the stands with all the other fans, presenting himself as a man of the people, rather than viewing from a luxury box with the team owner.

  【译文】其他活动则是无意识的,例如:他习惯到现场观看垒球和橄榄球比赛,像一个普通人一样与其他球迷一道在普通看台上观看,而不是与球队老板们一样坐在豪华包厢内观看。

  82. Unlike his hero Theodore Roosevelt, who helped create the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) while in office, Nixon repeatedly backed away from opportunities to use the prestige of his office to have an influence in the world of sport, such as preventing the relocation of the Washington Senators baseball team to the Dallas Ft. Worth area. He did, however, attempt to use sport as venue to shape cultural values.

  【译文】西奥多·罗斯福总统是他崇拜的人物,在执政期间帮助创立了全国大学生体育协会。与罗斯福不一样的是:尼克松多次拒绝利用总统威望来影响体育界的机会。但是,他的确想将体育运动当做树立文化价值观的手段。

  83. While the percentage of the world’s population living on less than $1 per day has

  fallen from 28.3% to 24.0% between 1987 and 1998, population growth (815 million) has kept the absolute number of poor steady at some 1.2 billion.

  【译文】虽然世界上每天靠不到一美元生活的人的比例在1997~1998年间从28.3%下降到24%,人口的增长(8.15亿)使穷人的绝对数量保持在12亿左右。

  84. Nor do World Bank projections lend undivided hope for the future. Under the “business as usual" scenario, the number of poor on the $1 per day scale will not change during the projection period up to 2008.

  【译文】世界银行的预测数字也没有给未来带来毫无争议的希望。如果现在的经济形势“保持不变”,每日靠一美元生活的人的数量到2008年在预测的时段内将不会改变。

  

  85. However, should policy measures be taken to boost economic growth and make the growth process more inclusive to the poor, the World Bank reckons that 500 million people could be brought out of extreme poverty by 2008.

  【译文】但是,如果制定政策措施促进经济的发展,使经济的增长更多地涵盖到贫困人口,世界银行预测,到2008年,5亿人口可能摆脱极度贫困状态。

  86. Indeed, such concerns have been vented with increasing frustration, including at the Ministerial Conference of the WTO in Seattle last year, and more recently at the joint spring meeting of the IMF and the World Bank.

  【译文】事实上,人们越来越多地以沮丧的心情表达这样的担心,无论是在去年西雅图的世界贸易组织部长级会议上,还是在最近世界货币基金组织和世界银行的春季联席会议上。

  87. One problem facing governments in povertystricken countries, civil society, and international organizations is that poverty is a multidimensional problem with no simple solution — not least because of its sheer scale.

  【译文】贫困国家政府、文明社会和国际组织面临的一个问题是:贫困是一个多方面的问题,没有简单的解决方案——由于涉及面广更是如此。

  88. The causes and expressions of poverty are not the same everywhere, although some common terms can often be found, including a lack of access to education, basic health care, and unequal distribution of productive assets (land, livestock, credits, etc.).

  【译文】造成贫困的原因和贫困的表现形式各地不尽相同,虽然我们经常可能从中找出一些基本特征,如教育落后、基本医疗条件缺乏、生产资料(如土地、牲畜、信用等)分配不均等。

  89. The existence of both racial and sexual discrimination in employment is well documented, and policy makers and responsible employers are particularly sensitive to the plight of the black female employee on the theory that she is doubly the victim of discrimination.

  【译文】大量文献证明,就业中存在着种族和性别歧视;政策的制定者和有责任心的雇主对黑人女职员的境遇特别敏感,因为,从理论上来说,她们遭受着双重歧视。

  90. Moreover, State distribution of residence is important because blacks are overrepresented in the South, where wage rates are typically lower than elsewhere and where racial differentials in income are greater.

  【译文】而且,居住在哪个州也很重要,因为南部黑人比例大,工资通常比其他地方低,种族之间的收入差别较大。

  91. Recently, there have been some imaginative attempts to make polycrystalline and ribbon silicon which are lower in cost than high-quality single crystals; but to date the efficiencies of these apparently lower-cost materials have been unacceptably small.

  【译文】最近,有些人试图研制多晶硅和带状硅,这些材料比高质单晶硅成本小,但是,迄今为止,这些成本明显小的材料的效能低得不实用。

  92. Although many scientists were aware of the very low cost of amorphous solar cells, they felt that they could never be manufactured with the efficiencies necessary to contribute significantly to the demand for electric power.

  【译文】许多科学家虽然已经认识到非晶硅太阳能电池的低成本,但是他们也感到,要生产出这样的电池并使之产生足够的功效、在很大程度上满足对电能的需要,是不可能的。

  

  93. Already, solar cells with efficiencies well above 6 percent have been developed using amorphous materials, and further research will doubtlessly find even less costly amorphous materials with higher efficiencies.

  【译文】用非结晶体材料研制的太阳能电池的使用功效已经远远超过6%,未来的研究必将找出成本更低的但功效更高的非结晶体材料。

  94. This imaginary task gives some idea of the challenge facing biologists in the United States and elsewhere as they embark on a monumental project: deciphering all the coded information in the human genome, all the genes in a human cell.

  【译文】美国和世界各地的生物学家面临一项重大工程的挑战,这个假想的任务使人们对这个挑战的强度获得一些认识,这个挑战就是:破译人体基因组中的编码信息。

  

  95. They predict that a complete understanding of the human genetic code would provide untold benefits for humanity, for example, those abilities to diagnose, cure, and eventually prevent many diseases caused by faulty genes.

  【译文】他们预计,对人体基因编码的全面认识将给人类带来无法言喻的利益,例如,使人类能够诊断、治疗并最终预防基因缺陷造成的很多疾病。

  96. Not only has the Government refused to consult with the people of Australia on this issue of prohibition of free communication between individuals, they have also refused to consult with industry, and ignored all technical evidence and reports on the issues.

  【译文】在禁止人们之间的自由交流这个问题上,澳大利亚政府不仅没有征求其人民的意见,也没有征求产业界的意见,对这方面的技术论据和报告都置若罔闻。

  97. And not only is it technically impossible to censor current content of the Internet, but the Internet is set to explode exponentially in the indefinite future, with there being literally millions of changes and additions to web content on a daily basis.

  【译文】而且,不仅从技术上无法审查因特网目前的内容,而且因特网的设立意味着信息内容在未来会以指数激增,每天改变或增加的网络信息内容简直将达几百万条。

  98. In order to make economic development agreements more attractive to investors, some developing countries have attempted to strengthen the security of such agreements, specifying that the agreements will be governed by “general principles of law recognized by civilized nations"—a set of legal principles or rules shared by the world’s major legal systems.

  【译文】为了使经济开发协议对投资者更具吸引力,有些发展中国家企图提高协议的安全性,规定这些协议受“文明国家公认的总法律原则”的约束,这些原则由世界几个主要法律体系所共有的一套原则和规范组成。

  99. Moreover, even in the case of administrative contracts, French law requires that in the event that the government modifies the terms of the contract on its own side, it must compensate the contractor for any increased burden resulting from the government’s action.

  【译文】而且,即使在行政合同中,法国的法律要求:如果政府单方面更改合同条款,它要承担由此增加的负担,向签订合同方做出赔偿。

  100. In both the United States and the United Kingdom, government contracts are governed by the ordinary law of contracts, with the result that the government can reserve the power to modify or terminate a contract on its own side only by writing such power into the contract.

  【译文】 在美国和英国,政府合同受普通合同法的约束,因此,政府只能通过将自己的权力写进合同的方式,来保留单方面更改或终止合同的权力。

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