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研究:肥胖也传染

(2007-07-29 22:50:02)
 

超级大餐与缺乏锻炼也许不是肥胖在美国蔓延的仅有的原因。一项新的研究发现一个有肥胖朋友的人与其他人相比也出现凸起腰围的可能性高出57%.

该作用在亲密朋友间最强,而且如果朋友的朋友甚至自己的朋友发胖时也会发生,暗示肥胖正以一种社会蔓延方式传播,在《引爆流行》2000年版中宣传了相同的现象,这是一本为从卡车司机帽到管理哲学等各种潮流注解的图书。

Researchers say the contagion effect may occur because we mimic or adopt the behavior of people we hold in regard and that it should be taken into account when trying to counteract obesity.

研究者称因为我们模仿或接受我们所尊敬人的行为,所以会发生蔓延效应。当我们试图抵制肥胖时应该考虑以上因素。

 

Six in 10 adult Americans are overweight and 31 percent are obese, up sharply from 15 percent 30 years ago, according to a 2004 tally by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

根据美国疾病控制预防中心2004年的记录,每10个美国人中就有6个超重,31%的美国人属于肥胖,该比例相比30年前的15%急剧上升了。

Although a recent study found that a single gene mutation heightened the risk of obesity by up to 67 percent, genetics cannot explain the skyrocketing obesity trend. Lifestyle choices or other features of modern life must be contributing. Some researchers have even proposed that infections of gut bacteria account for some cases of obesity.

尽管最近的研究发现单基因突变使肥胖的风险增加高达67%,但是遗传不能解释飞涨的肥胖趋势。生活方式选择或其他现代生活特征必定参与其中。一些研究者甚至提出肠道细菌的感染是一些肥胖病例的原因所在。

"It has been fashionable to speak of the obesity epidemic, but we began to wonder if there was really an epidemic—was there really a person to person spread of obesity?" says Nicholas Christakis, professor of sociology at Harvard University and medical sociology at Harvard Medical School.

哈佛大学社会学教授、哈佛医学院医学社会学教授尼古拉斯"克里斯塔基斯说:“曾几何时说起肥胖流行是何等时髦,但是我们开始怀疑是否真有(肥胖)流行存在-真有人与人之间的肥胖传染?”

Christakis and political scientist James Fowler of the University of California, San Diego, analyzed 32 years' worth of recent records from 12,067 participants in the Framingham Heart Study, which has followed the health of residents of the small Massachusetts town and their offspring every four years since 1948.

克里斯塔基斯和加州大学圣地亚哥分校的社会科学家詹姆斯"福勒分析了来自福雷明罕心脏研究中12,067位参与者的最近32年来有价值的记录,福雷明罕心脏研究自1948年以来每四年随访马萨诸塞州小镇居民和他们的子女的健康状况。

Aside from listing their spouses and family members at each follow up, participants gave names of close friends who would likely know their future whereabouts; more than 70 percent of these were also included in the study, creating a dense social network suitable for identifying epidemic-like effects.

 在每次随访中除了列出他们的配偶和家庭成员外,研究参与者还提供可能知道自己未来状况的亲密朋友姓名,以上提及的人员中超过七层涵盖在福雷明罕心脏研究中,为确认流行病样的效应研究编织了一张密集社会网络。

The researchers found clusters of obese friends in the network, but the links did not seem to result from people of similar weight flocking to each other or from undetected causes, they report in the New England Journal of Medicine online.

研究人员在《新英格兰医学杂志》上报告称,他们发现社会网络中有许多肥胖朋友圈子,但是此联系看似不像是因为互相聚集的体重相似的人或其他未被注意的原因而发生。

When two people each listed the other as a friend and one packed on the pounds, the other's risk of obesity increased by 171 percent. However, if only one member of the pair considered the other a friend, obesity was more likely to spread only to the one calling the other a friend.

当互相将对方列为朋友的两个人中一方体重增加,另一方肥胖的风险增加171%。不过,如果两个人中只有一个人将对方考虑为朋友时,肥胖更可能仅传播向称对方为朋友的人。

A person whose friends had obese friends carried an added 20 percent risk of obesity, which fell to 10 percent for friends of the third degree. In comparison, a chunky sibling increased the risk by 40 percent and a spouse by 37 percent.

Geographical location had no bearing on the results: A portly neighbor had no effect, but a friend who gained weight and lived far away still appeared to raise the risk of obesity. People of the same sex also had a stronger impact on one another.

如果一个人的朋友有肥胖朋友,那么这个人肥胖的风险增加20%,而当第三方朋友为肥胖时此风险降至10%。作为对比,当有肥胖同胞和配偶时,此人肥胖的风险增加分别为40%、37%。地理位置对本结果无关:肥胖的邻居对此没有影响,但是一旦有超重的朋友并且居住的还很远仍然似乎增加肥胖的风险。人们对相同性别的人也有较强的影响。

Christakis says the finding fits with other studies that have shown the success of group-based weight loss programs such as running clubs and Weight Watchers. He adds that social networks effects should factor into decisions about the cost and potential for success of anti-obesity campaigns.

克里斯塔基斯说该发现与其他研究吻合,那些研究表明基于群体的减肥计划是成功的,例如跑步俱乐部和减肥中心等。他补充说通向抵制肥胖运动的成功之路上有关代价和潜力的决策应该考虑到社会网络作用的影响。

"This is a highly significant study. … To my knowledge, there is no other like it," says Barbara Entwisle, professor of sociology at the University of North Carolina and director of the Carolina Population Center.

北卡罗来纳州大学的社会学教授、卡罗来纳州人口中心主任芭芭拉"恩特威斯尔说:“这是个非常重要的研究―――据我所知,史无前例。”

Health research typically focuses on individual behavior, leaving the role of kin and friends more of a mystery, she says. "I see this as a very significant step in a huge program of research."

典型的健康研究着重于个体行为,使亲属和朋友的角色更成为个迷,她说:“我认为本研究是在庞大的研究计划中非常重要的一步。”

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