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史蒂夫乔布斯的经验之谈:艺术与科技教育息息相关

(2011-10-19 11:51:50)
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A Lesson From Steve Jobs: Arts and Technology Education Are Related

 

As the eulogies for Steve Jobs pour in, his commencement address to Stanford University graduates in 2005 has been heard millions of times over the last two days. I knew from a younger generation of relatives, students and friends that it was an address worth hearing, but had never really listened to it all the way through. I finally did yesterday, and what stuck me was how fondly and centrally he talked about his calligraphy class at Reed College. For him, that class had a profound influence on the design of the Mac.

随着给乔布斯的悼词的大量涌现,在最近的两天里,他在斯坦福大学05届毕业典礼上的讲话已经被播放了几百万次。从年轻一代的亲戚、学生和朋友那里得知,这是一场值得听的演讲,但却从来没能被听透彻。昨天我终于听了,感触最深的是他谈论在里德学院上书法课时的喜爱和集中。对于他来说,MAC的设计深受那节课的影响。

If you have not heard this address, Mr. Jobs says that when he dropped out of college, he took only classes he wanted to take and calligraphy was one of them. To this class, he credits the fonts, the spaces and the keyboard design of the first Macs. I assume that he was also alluding to the elegance of design that became a hallmark of the Apple products, which provided not only the aesthetic pleasure but also a pleasure, ease of use and connection with consumers. The Apple products were remarkable in how they innovated through design, and this design aesthetic created a following that few products and companies can claim.

如果你还没听过这个演讲,乔布斯说当他从学院退学,他只上他想上的课,书法就是其中之一。就这节课来说,他将一代MAC的空格和键盘设计归功于字体。我认为他同样暗指设计的简洁成为苹果产品的标志,这不仅提供了审美的享受,同样使用简单,简化了与顾客之间的联系。苹果产品在设计方面的创新是卓越的,设计的美观创造了一批很少有产品和公司能要求的追随者。

I am stuck by the centrality and importance Mr. Jobs gave to this class because we hear it at a time when universities are cutting back on the arts and humanities in favor of courses in science and technology. Arts and Humanities, we are told, are useless for the making of technological innovation. They might provide aesthetic pleasure that is personal, but do not do more than that. They are certainly not assumed to be central to productivity in the economic sense, or provide economic leadership in the global economy.
让我受到触动的是乔布斯在演讲中的重点,因为我们只在大学缩减艺术与人文学科,取而代之科学与技术学科时听过。我们被教导说艺术与人文对于技术革新是无用的。它们可能会提供个人审美享受,但除此之外别无它用。自然也不会被认为会是经济意义上的生产力的中心,或者在全球经济中提供经济领导的才干。
Now some of this argument can be easily refuted by any measure of looking at what we can call the "culture industries" in which US global leadership is undoubted. Movies, television, music, the art world, museums, fashion, Internet content (whatever its measure of quality), are produced by writers, musicians, artists, and designers. They do so in collaboration with technology and scientific innovation. But these are "industries" as well, whose content is not machines and products and health, but "culture" in the multiple and broad definition of the term. These industries are an important part of the US as a global economic power.

如今,能够很容易驳斥这种说法,通过观察在美国是全球领导地位的,勿庸置疑是我们可以称之为的“文化产业”。电影、电视、音乐、艺术世界、博物馆、时尚、网络内容(不管质量如何),都是由作家、音乐家、艺术家和设计师创作的。他们做这些是与科技革新合作。这些同样也是“产业”,只是不是机器、产品和健康,而是广义上的“文化”产业。这些产业在美国全球经济力量中占重要地位。

My sense from hearing Mr. Jobs' commencement speech and from the products he created was that for him, arts and humanities were integrally related to science and technology. They were part of one world. In fact, listening to Jobs, it is the humanities and arts education in US universities that provided technology with that innovation, leadership and critical thinking skills that became the distinctive hallmarks of the Mac. This integration is also a distinctive aspect of an education that is integrated rather than separated into knowledge silos.

听了乔布斯毕业典礼上的演讲以及通过他创造的产品,我感觉对他而言,艺术与人文与科技有整体的联系。它们是世界的一部分。事实上,通过听乔布斯,是美国大学中人文与艺术教育造就了这种创新,领导能力以及批判性思维能力,成为Mac的鲜明标志。这种综合同样是教育的独特面,是知识的集成,而不是分离。

Calligraphy is both aesthetic and technical and these two facets cannot be separated. It is also a lesson in history, where Chinese scrolls, Islamic arts and the Illuminated manuscripts of the European Middle Ages can all be examined together. It provides a history of power of religion, monarchies and of communication and technologies at different periods of time. It also suggests that laborious and meticulous writing has its pleasures and can also be used as innovation. For Jobs, it was in his recollection of the Calligraphy course in his commencement address that made the difference that marked the Mac from other computers, and this difference was what millions of people and consumers‹appreciated.
书法是艺术,同样也是技术,这两方面是无法分离的。在历史上同样也是一个教训,中国纸卷轴,伊斯兰艺术和中世纪欧洲的手稿阐释本是可以一起研究的。它提供了在不同时期,宗教的权力,君主制的历史,同样也提供了通讯和科技史。同样也说明了努力创作的乐趣,并且可被创新。对于乔布斯而言,是他在毕业演讲中提到的书法课回忆使Mac与别的电脑不一样,这种不同得到了上百万受众的喜爱。
There is no doubt at all that we need our students to be proficient in the languages of the world as well as in the language of numbers as of computer languages. But in the eagerness to push math and science, what is often forgotten is that arts and humanities and social sciences are all integral to a good education. Humanities and arts cannot be pigeonholed as unnecessary or extra, as luxuries that we cannot afford now, as simply being about pleasure rather than about productivity. They are central to innovation, and to separate these is to the detriment of all of us.

毫无疑问,我们需要学生精通世界语言,同样也要熟悉数字语言和计算机语言。但在急于推进数学与科学时,常常被人遗忘的是,艺术与人文以及社会科学同样也是不可或缺的。人文与艺术不能因被认为是多余的而被束之高阁,就好比是我们现在买不起的奢侈品,就好比是最普通的乐趣而不是生产力。他妈是创新的核心,如果将之分离,对我们而言是一种损失。

——来自·译言

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