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新视野大学英语 第一册 U8

(2007-11-12 19:27:15)
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学习公社

分类: 好好学习
 Birth of Bright Ideas

No satisfactory way exists to explain how to form a good idea. You think about a problem until you're tired, forget it, maybe sleep on it, and then flash! When you aren't thinking about it, suddenly the answer arrives as a gift from the gods.
Of course, all ideas don't occur like that but so many do, particularly the most important ones. They burst into the mind, glowing with the heat of creation. How they do it is a mystery but they must come from somewhere. Let's assume they come from the "unconscious." This is reasonable, for psychologists use this term to describe mental processes which are unknown to the individual. Creative thought depends on what was unknown becoming known.
All of us have experienced this sudden arrival of a new idea, but it is easiest to examine it in the great creative personalities, many of whom experienced it in an intensified form and have written it down in their life stories and letters. One can draw examples from genius in any field, from religion, philosophy, and literature to art and music, even in mathematics, science, and technical invention, although these are often thought to depend only on logic and experiment. All truly creative activities depend in some degree on these signals from the unconscious, and the more highly insightful the person, the sharper and more dramatic the signals become.
Take the example of Richard Wagner composing the opening to "Rhinegold". Wagner had been occupied with the idea of the "Ring" for several years, and for many months had been struggling to begin composing. On September 4, 1853, he reached Spezia sick, went to a hotel, could not sleep for noise without and fever within, took a long walk the next day, and in the afternoon flung himself on a couch intending to sleep. Then at last the miracle happened for which his unconscious mind had been seeking for so long. Falling into a sleeplike condition, he suddenly felt as though he were sinking in a mighty flood of water, and the rush and roar soon took musical shape within his brain. He recognized that the orchestral opening to the "Rhinegold", which he must have carried about within him yet had never been able to put it into form, had at last taken its shape within him. In this example, the conscious mind at the moment of creation knew nothing of the actual processes by which the solution was found.
As a contrast, we may consider a famous story: the discovery by Henri Poincare, the great French mathematician, of a new mathematical method called the Fuchsian functions. Here we see the conscious mind, in a person of highest ability, actually watching the unconscious at work. For weeks, he sat at his table every day and spent an hour or two trying a great number of combinations but he arrived at no result. One night he drank some black coffee, contrary to his usual habit, and was unable to sleep. Many ideas kept surging in his head; he could almost feel them pushing against one another, until two of them combined to form a stable combination. When morning came, he had established the existence of one class of Fuchsian functions. He had only to prove the results, which took only a few hours. Here, we see the conscious mind observing the new combinations being formed in the unconscious, while the Wagner story shows the sudden explosion of a new concept into consciousness.
A third type of creative experience is exemplified by the dreams which came to Descartes at the age of twenty-three and determined his life path. Descartes had unsuccessfully searched for certainty, first in the world of books, and then in the world of men. Then in a dream on November 10, 1619, he made the significant discovery that he could only find certainty in his own thoughts, cogito ergo sum ("I think; therefore, I exist"). This dream filled him with intense religious enthusiasm.
Wagner's, Poincare's, and Descartes' experiences are representative of countless others in every field of culture. The unconscious is certainly the source of instinctive activity. But in creative thought the unconscious is responsible for the production of new organized forms from relatively disorganized elements.
出生的高见

没有令人满意的方式存在,以解释如何形成一个好的主意。你想想,一个问题,直到你累了,忘了,也许睡它,然后再闪光!当你想到的不是,这不是突然的答案来作为礼物从神。
当然,所有的想法没有发生一样,但有这么多这样做,特别是最重要的。他们闯入心,焕发出与热的创作风格。他们如何做,它是一个谜,但他们必须来自某处。让我们假定他们是来自"无意识" 。这是合理的,因为心理学家用这个词来形容心理过程是未知之数,以个人的。创造性思维取决于什么是未知之数,成为众所周知的。
我们都经历过这种突然到来的一个新概念,但它是最容易的,研究它在伟大的创造性人物,其中许多人有经验,它在加紧形成,并已写下来,在他们的生活中的故事和信件。其中一个可以借鉴的例子,从天才,在任何领域,从宗教,哲学,文学,美术和音乐,即使是在数学,科学和技术的发明,尽管这些往往被认为仅仅依靠逻辑和实验。所有真正的创造性活动取决于在一定程度上对这些信号从昏迷状态,以更高的高度洞察力的人,尖锐,更加富有戏剧性的信号变成。
以实例理查德瓦格纳创作的开幕,以" rhinegold " 。瓦格纳已经占领的思想, "环"数年之久,并为许多个月已经挣扎,开始创作音乐风格。于1853年9月4日,他游到spezia生病了,来到一间酒店,可以不睡,没有噪音和发热内,经历了不少步行第二天,在下午抛出自己的沙发打算睡觉。然后在此基础上的奇迹发生了,他的无意识记一直在探索了这么久。陷入sleeplike条件下,他突然觉得好像这是他被击沉,在浩浩荡荡的防洪水,并急于和轰鸣声很快成为音乐剧的形状与他的大脑。他认识到,管弦开放" rhinegold " ,而他必须有载客约万分,但从来没有能够把它变成形式,已在去年采取的,其形状万分。在这个例子中,有意识地记在目前的创作毫不知情的实际过程,由其中找到解决办法。
作为对比,我们可以考虑在一个著名的故事:发现由亨利庞加莱,法国伟大的数学家,一个新的数学方法,被称为fuchsian职能。这里,我们看到了有意识地记在一个人的最高能力,其实看着昏迷状态下工作。数周来,他就坐在他的桌上,每天花一,两个小时尝试了大量的组合,但他抵达毫无结果。有一天晚上,他喝了一些黑咖啡,相反,以他一贯的习惯,无法入眠。很多想法,不断涌动在他的头部,他几乎可以感受到他们推相互对抗,直到他们两个结合,以形成稳定的结合。当早晨来临时,他已确定存在的一类fuchsian职能。他只是要证明的结果,其中只有几个小时。在这里,我们看到的自觉牢记遵守新的组合,正在形成于昏迷,而华格纳音乐的故事,显示出突然爆炸的一个新的概念融入意识。
第三种类型的创作经验的例证就是梦想而来到笛卡尔,当时年仅23和决定了他人生道路。笛卡儿曾扎,苦寻确定性,在世界上首次的书籍,然后在世界上的男人。然后在梦中对1619年11月10日,他作出了重大发现,他也只能找到确定性,在他自己的想法,我思ergo森( "我想,所以我存在" ) 。这个充满梦想与他激烈的宗教热情。
瓦格纳的,庞加莱的,而笛卡尔的经验,是具有代表性的无数其他人在各个领域的文化。无意识是当然之源出于本能的活动。但在创造性思维的不自觉的,是负责生产新的组织形式,从比较松散的内容。

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