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美韩女童性早熟急剧增加美国发现早熟儿童骨骼提前成熟

(2012-04-09 16:05:16)
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    美国女孩子的大约15%在7岁开始进入青春期,依据去年《小儿科》杂志发表的对1,239位女孩进行的一项研究。白人女孩子每10位就有一位7岁开始乳房发育 这是1997年进行的一项研究的两倍。韩国性早熟症儿童患者4年来翻两番。性早熟对女孩造成四方面危害。中国2004年研究发现:性早熟女童的骨骼发育加速、成熟提前,且病情越重,其加速、提前的程度越严重。中国足协2011年对3306名少年球员测骨龄:690名占大约20%球员骨龄超过实际年龄,最多超过实际年龄3.8岁。最多超过实际年龄3.8”与早熟女童提前成熟程度类似,是否揭示男童中早熟的实际比例比目前单纯以其他方面性特征检测出的早熟男童比例更高?国际权威性学术刊物2012年发表中国学者的研究,首次报道了肠道菌群参与性早熟的发病过程。一些奶厂在盲目提高奶牛产奶量的情况下,会使用激素药品。显然,哪些类“食品”对自然状态肠道菌群造成潜在干扰危害,或可能含激素或类激素成分,为了孩子们的健康,无论家里还是在学校,必须远离这些类“食品”!

 

    Precocious puberty causes four aspects of harms to girls. About 15% of American girls now begin puberty by age 7, according to a study of 1,239 girls published last year in Pediatrics. One in 10 white girls begin developing breasts by that age — twice the rate seen in a 1997 study. South Korea 2009 Report: Precocious puberty patients have four-fold in 4 years. A 2004 study: In girls with precocious puberty, bone development accelerated, matures in advance, and illness is more serious and accelerate with the more serious degree of puberty advance. China Football Association in 2011 examined bone age of 3306 youth players: Bone age of 690 players accounting about 20% exceeded their actual age, maximum exceeding 3.8 years of age. Bone age with greatest difference to actual age was 3.8 years”, is similar to the age advancement of early puberty girls, does this reveal the actual prevalence of early mature boys is higher than determined only by judgment from other aspects of sex characteristics? An international authoritative academic journal in 2011 published a study by Chinese scholars, was the first to report that an alteration in symbiotic gut microbial (gut flora) composition is involved in the development of CPP (Central Precocious Puberty) condition. It is obvious, what kinds of “food” cause potential disruption harm to the natural conditions of gut flora, or might contain estrogen or similar effect substance, for the health of children, at home as well as at school, should keep away from such kinds of “food”!

 

美国与韩国为何女童性早熟急剧增加而且儿童骨骼提前成熟

Why Does Precocious puberty Rapidly Increase in American and South Korean And Bone Age of Children Exceed Their Actual Age?

--  禁止抗草甘膦转基因作物原料进口、开发、种植、销售理由之221

编译者:陈一文(cheniwan@mx.cei.gov.cn

Translated & Edited by Chen I-wan

《转基因技术与人类安全》研究专家、80年代前全国青联委员

“GM Technology & Mankind Safety” researcher

《新浪网》“陈一文顾问博客”:http://blog.sina.com.cn/cheniwan

 

中国专家:女孩性早熟三大危害:[1]

Chinese Specialists: Three major harms of early puberty to girls: [1]

女孩性早熟危害一,

Early puberty harm No.1,

  卵巢发育有一定规律性,女性一生几个卵子是定的,生育能力只有三四十年,卵巢这么早就开始发育、排卵,以后卵巢会有早衰的问题。

    Ovarian growth have certain regularity, the total number of ovum for women over her life is definite, she also only has thirty to fourty years capable of fertility, if the ovarian develops and begins ovulation so early, her ovarian will also premature earlier.

女孩性早熟危害二,

Early puberty harm No.2,

  性征提早出现的同时,往往伴随有骨骼生长的加速,暂时看起来比同年龄的儿童长得快、长得高,但由于其骨骺提前融合,所以最终身高往往比正常人矮小,这对孩子的正常发育并不利。

    When sex characteristics appears early, it at the same time is often associated with bone growth acceleration, such children temporarily looks better than those of the same age, grow faster and taller during their childhood, but because of early fusion of epiphysis, such children at older ages  often are shorter than normal, causing negative effects to normal development.

女孩性早熟危害三,

Early puberty harm No.3,

  对孩子整个人生的成长道路都会产生非常大的影响。如会让孩子感到很自卑等。性早熟严重影响孩子的身心健康。由于其青春期提前,性征提早出现,在女孩往往还在上小学的年龄就出现乳房发育,甚至月经来潮,此时孩子的智力和性心理尚未成熟,生活上还不会完全自理,容易引发多种问题。而且性早熟的孩子,可能因自己在体型上与周围小伙伴不同,而产生恐惧和不安,影响其正常的生活与学习,因此也给家长造成精神上和照料上的负担。

    Early puberty has great impact on the growth and life of such children. Such as making them feel very inferiority, etc. Neoteny seriously influences the health of body and mind of such children. Because adolescence advance, sex characteristics, breast development, and even periods begin to appear with such girls at elementary school age when the child's intelligence and psychological are not mature and still can not completely take care of themselves, can lead to a variety of problems. Precocious puberty children, because finding themselves different to their friends around, in size and other aspects, tends to produce fear and upset among them, which affects their normal life and study, and causes burden to their parents mentally and additional care.

 

The 4th risk of "Early puberty" for girls: They have an increased risk of breast cancer and uterine cancer, … because these girls have more time to be exposed to the estrogen hormone. [2]

“青春期提前”对女孩子们第四项风险:成年后“她们患乳房癌与子宫癌的风险提高,因为这些女孩子更长时间暴露于雌激素。” [2]

Puberty starting earlier for many girls: study,

许多女孩子们青春期到来的较早:研究

Jennifer Ashton, CBS News, April 12, 2011

詹妮弗·阿什顿,美国CBS新闻, 2011-04-11

 

Girls are reaching puberty in life earlier than ever, research shows.

一项研究表明,女孩子们比过去早的多进入青春期。

 

About 15 percent of American girls now begin puberty by age 7, according to a study of 1,239 girls published last year in the journal Pediatrics. One in 10 white girls begin developing breasts by that age - twice the rate seen in a 1997 study. Among black girls, 23 percent hit puberty by age 7.

根据2010年《小儿科》杂志发表的对1,239位女孩子进行的一项研究,美国女孩子们大约15%7岁开始进入青春期。白人女孩子每10位就有一位7岁开始乳房发育 这是1997年进行的一项研究的两倍。在黑人女孩子中,23%7岁开始进入青春期。

 

On "The Early Show" CBS News Medical Correspondent Dr. Jennifer Ashton, an OB-GYN who specializes in adolescent care, said "early puberty," also known as "precocious puberty," has risks for girls.

CBS新闻医学记者、青春期专家詹妮弗·阿什顿说,“青春期提前”,也称之为“早熟青春期”,对女孩子们有风险。

 

"You have to remember, this is occurring at a time of childhood development where all girls and children want to do is fit in and look like the person sitting next to them," Ashton said. "It can generate a lot of fear. It's not cute. Adults can look at it and say, 'Oh, how cute.' It's really an adult body, a developing adult body in a child's age.'"

Ashton said the effects on girls can be emotional as well as physical.

“你必须记得,这发生在童年发育期间,所有的女孩与孩子都想合群,长的像旁边的人一样”,阿什顿说。早熟“能够造成很多恐惧。不是乖巧的事。有的成年人见到后说,‘奥,真乖巧’。她真的有一个成年人的身体,在童年发育了成年人的身体’”。阿什顿说,早熟对女孩子们的影响既是情绪上的,也是身体上的。

 

"We know that girls of that age can suffer from low self-esteem," she said. "They can be subjected to more peer pressure, increased risks of eating disorder, even depression. They are known to participate in sexual activity in an earlier age because of this. Also, they can be shorter because we know that estrogen is one of the key hormones in puberty closes off the growth plates and girls will not be as tall as if they went to puberty in a later age."

“我们知道这个年龄的女孩能够遭受低自尊的折磨”,她说。“她们受到被更多凝视的压力,饮食失调的风险更大,甚至因此感到沮丧。人们了解这样的女孩因此而更低年龄涉入性活动。而且,我们知道雌激素是青春期关闭生长面的关键激素之一,导致这些女孩成年后较矮,她们的身高不如迟些进入青春期那样高。”

 

So why is this happening?

为什么发生这样的情况?

 

It's not clearly understood why this occurs, Ashton said, but some point to the rise in obesity.

女孩子早熟为什么发生的原因不清楚,阿什顿说,但是有些人指向肥胖。

 

"Body fat generates the hormone estrogen, partially," Ashton said. "Estrogen is part of the hormones that triggers puberty. A lot more children are overweight and obese. Environmental exposures, things like BPA (Bisphenol A) that are ubiquitous in our environment can have hormone-like activity and research is ongoing as to whether that plays a role. And your family history - if your mother went through early puberty, you have a greater chance of going through early puberty, as well."

“体脂肪产生部分雌激素”,阿什顿说。“雌激素是触发青春期的激素。许多孩子过重与过度肥胖。环境暴露,例如BPA(双酚A)在我们的环境中无处不有,可以发挥激素样的获得,有关的研究正在了解它是否发挥这方面作用。还有你的家庭史 例如你的母亲是否早熟,如果是的话,那么你早熟的机会也较大。”

 

Early puberty could affect girls as they get older, Ashton said. They have an increased risk of breast cancer and uterine cancer, she said, because these girls have more time to be exposed to the estrogen hormone.

青春期提前可能在这些女孩年纪更大些时影响她们,阿什顿说。她们患乳房癌与子宫癌的风险提高,她说,因为这些女孩子更长世界暴露于雌激素。

 

"It's not a trivial thing by any means," Ashton said.

“无论从哪方面讲,这不是可以忽略的琐事”,阿什顿说。

 

She recommends talking to a pediatrician if parents notice signs of puberty at a young age.

如果父母注意到幼年进入青春期的迹象,她建议应当找小儿科医生咨询。

 

"This could be a very frightening process for a child as well as a parent," Ashton said.

“对于孩子以及父母来讲,这都可能是一个令人可怕的过程”,阿什顿说。

 

Ashton is the author of "The Body Scoop for Girls."

詹妮弗·阿什顿是《身体早熟的女孩子们》的作者。

 

美国情况:

USA situation:

 

美国女孩子的大约15%7岁开始进入青春期,依据去年《小儿科》杂志发表的对1,239位女孩进行的一项研究。白人女孩子每10位就有一位7岁开始乳房发育 这是1997年进行的一项研究的两倍。在黑人女孩子中,23%7岁开始进入青春期。“过去30年,我们将女孩子们的童年缩短了大约1年半”。“青春期提前可能在这些女孩年纪更大些时影响她们她们患乳房癌与子宫癌的风险提高。”美国研究者们不完全知道为什么青春期在提前。

About 15% of American girls now begin puberty by age 7, according to a study of 1,239 girls published last year in Pediatrics. One in 10 white girls begin developing breasts by that age — twice the rate seen in a 1997 study. Among black girls, such as Laila, 23% hit puberty by age 7. "Over the last 30 years, we've shortened the childhood of girls by about a year and a half. " "Early puberty" has risks for girls: They have an increased risk of breast cancer and uterine cancer, … because these girls have more time to be exposed to the estrogen hormone. Researchers don't completely understand why the age of puberty is falling

 

Laila's parents never expected their baby to hit puberty at age 6 [3]

莱拉的父母没有料到他们的娃娃6岁进入青春期 [3]

美韩女童性早熟急剧增加美国发现早熟儿童骨骼提前成熟

Girls hit puberty earlier than ever, and doctors aren't sure why

女童比过去更早进入青春期,医生不知道为何?

By Liz Szabo, USA TODAY, 2011-04-14

作者:利孜·斯扎伯,今日美国,2011-04-14

 

Even so, Laila's parents never expected their baby to hit puberty at age 6.

尽管如此,莱拉的父母没有料到他们的娃娃6岁进入青春期。

 

They first noticed something different when Laila was 3, and she began to produce the sort of body odor normally associated with adults. Three years later, she grew pubic hair. By age 7, Laila was developing breasts.

他们开始注意到莱拉出现某种差别时她才3岁,身上开始闻到成年人通常有的某种体味。三年后,6岁时,开始生长阴毛。7岁时,莱拉的乳房开始发育。

 

Without medical treatment, doctors warned, Laila could begin menstruating by age 8 — an age when many kids are still trying to master a two-wheeler.

如果不进行治疗,医生们警告,莱拉8岁时可能开始来月经,其他的孩子这时还在努力学骑双轮车。

 

About 15% of American girls now begin puberty by age 7, according to a study of 1,239 girls published last year in Pediatrics [4]. One in 10 white girls begin developing breasts by that age — twice the rate seen in a 1997 study. Among black girls, such as Laila, 23% hit puberty by age 7.

美国女孩子的大约15%7岁开始进入青春期,依据去年《小儿科》杂志发表的对1,239位女孩进行的一项研究[4]。白人女孩子每10位就有一位7岁开始乳房发育 这是1997年进行的一项研究的两倍。在黑人女孩子中,23%7岁开始进入青春期。

 

"Over the last 30 years, we've shortened the childhood of girls by about a year and a half," says Sandra Steingraber, author of a 2007 report on early puberty for the Breast Cancer Fund, an advocacy group. "That's not good."

“过去30年,我们将女孩子们的童年缩短了大约1年半”,Sandra Steingraber说,“这不是好事”。她是2007年为乳房癌基金会完成对于青春期提前问题研究报告的作者。

 

Researchers don't completely understand why the age of puberty is falling, Herman-Giddens says. Most agree that several forces are at work, from obesity to hormone-like environmental chemicals. There's no evidence that boys are maturing any earlier, says Paul Kaplowitz, author of Early Puberty in Girls.

研究者们不完全知道为什么青春期在提前,Herman-Giddens说。大部分人同意这是多项因素作用的结果,从肥胖到激素类的环境化学品。目前没有证据说明男孩子也在早熟,Paul Kaplowitz说,他是《女孩子们中提前进入青春期》的作者。

 

But data clearly show that girls once matured much later, probably because poor diets and infectious diseases left them relatively thin, Steingraber says. Girls' lack of body fat may have sent a message to their bodies that they weren't yet ready to carry a pregnancy, she says.

但是数据清楚表明,女孩子们过去成熟的晚的多,或许由于差劣饮食与感染性疾病使她们较瘦,Sandra Steingraber说。

 

Maturing too quickly

成熟太快

 

When Laila's parents took her to a doctor, he had disturbing news.

莱拉的父母带她去看医生时,他告知了令人烦扰的信息。

 

Although scans showed that Laila did not have a tumor, tests did find that she was maturing at an alarming rate, with the skeletal development of a child several years older. Yet her early maturation was likely to cut short the total amount of time she spent growing, so Laila — who was tall, athletic and slim — probably would wind up much shorter than many of her friends, her father says.

虽然扫描表明莱拉没有肿瘤,检测发现她以令人警觉的速度成熟,她的骨骼比她年龄的孩子们老数年。而且,莱拉的早熟看来将把她的生长期缩短,所以莱拉 此时具有高挑运动员般的身材 最终可能比她的许多同龄朋友们矮许多,他的父亲说。

 

Doctors told the family that monthly hormone shots could stop her breast development and prevent Laila from getting her period. Typically, girls get their periods at around the same ages that their mothers did. Claudia says she didn't begin menstruating until 12.

医生们告诉莱拉的父母,如果每月注射一种激素的话,可以停止她的乳房发育病防止莱拉来月经。通常,女孩子们来月经的年龄与她们的母亲一辈当初差不多。

 

韩国情况:

South Korea situation:

 

韩国性早熟症儿童患者4年来翻两番 [5]

South Korea 2009 Report: Precocious puberty patients have fourfold in 4 years [5]

2009-09-28,韩国大国家党籍国会议员孙淑美公开的《性早熟状况调查报告》显示,去年韩国性早熟症儿童患者为14751人,比2004年的2795人增加了428%2004年至2008年出现的39422名韩国性早熟症儿童中,女孩为36111(91.6%)占绝大多数,男孩仅为1085(8.4%)

   The “Precocious puberty condition investigation report” announced by South Korean national congress-women Sun Shu-mei shows, in 2008 South Korea’s precocious puberty children patients reached 14, 751, increased by 428% over the 2795 children patients in 2004. During 2004 to 2008, South Korea diagnosed 39,422 children with precocious puberty disease, in which majority were girls 36,111 (91.6%), boys accounted for only 1,085 people (8.4%).

  这是因为女孩的乳房发育等症状容易被发现,而男孩的性器发育、出现变声期、长青春痘等症状较难以被发现所导致的。

    This is because the apparent symptoms such as breast development is easy to be identified in girls, and in boy's sexual development, symptoms like voice changing period, puberty whelks etc. are more difficult to notice.

 

中国学者2004年的研究:性早熟女童的骨骼发育加速、成熟提前,且病情越重,其加速、提前的程度越严重。[7] 中国足协2011年对3306名少年球员测骨龄:690名占大约20%球员骨龄超过实际年龄,最多超过实际年龄3.8岁。[8-9] 最多超过实际年龄3.8与早熟女童提前成熟程度类似,是否揭示男童中早熟的实际比例比目前单纯以其他方面性特征检测出的早熟男童比例更高?国际权威杂志2011发表中国学者研究:首次报道了肠道菌群参与性早熟的发病过程[14-15]

 

Chinese scholars 2004 study: In girls with precocious puberty, bone development accelerated, matures in advance, and illness is more serious and accelerate with the more serious degree of puberty advance. China Football Association in 2011 examined bone age of 3306 youth players: Bone age of 690 players accounting about 20% exceeded their actual age, maximum exceeding 3.8 years of age. [8-9] Bone age with greatest difference to actual age was 3.8 years”, is similar to the age advancement of early puberty girls, does this reveal the actual prevalence of early mature boys is higher than determined only by judgment from other aspects of sex characteristics? International authoritative journal 2011 publish Chinese scholars study: For the first time report gut flora participate the illness course of precocious puberty [14-15] EU considers that feeding-bottles containing bisphenol A (or BPA for short) induce precocious puberty, from March 1, 2011 forbid production of feeding-bottles containing BPA. [19] To blindly increase milk production, some farms will use hormones drugs to the cows. [20]

 

2004年的研究论文:结论(1)性早熟女童的骨骼发育加速、成熟提前,且病情越重,其加速、提前的程度越严重。(2)中药具有明显减慢患儿骨骼发育,延缓骨骼成熟的作用。[7]

A study published in 2004: “Conclusion: (1) Girls with precocious puberty, bone development accelerates, matures in advance, and illness is more serious and accelerate with the more serious degree of puberty advance. (2) Traditional Chinese medicine has obvious slowing effect on children skeleton growth, and delays bone mature development.” [7]

 

中国足协2011年对3306名少年球员测骨龄:690名占大约20%球员骨龄超过实际年龄,最多超过实际年龄3.8 [8-9]

China Football Association in 2011 examined bone age of 3306 youth players: Bone age of 690 players accounting about 20% exceeded their actual age, maximum exceeding 3.8 years of age [8-9]

 

   足协召开了全国青少年联赛赛区申办工作及骨龄测试会议,根据最新数据,目前接受骨测的3306名球员中,骨龄超标球员有690人。足协竞赛部副部长唐峰昨天表示,这690名球员中多数是身体发育较早,年龄作假的情况只是少数。依据北京体育大学公布的骨测数据,骨龄比实际年龄相差最大为3.8岁。

    The football association has held a national youth league bid and bone age testing conferences, according to the latest data, among the 3306 players accepting the bone age test, those of which bone age exceeds actual age players accounted to 690 people. Tang Feng, vice minister of competition of the football association, said yesterday, most of the 690 players experiences earlier body development, with only a few false age cases. According to the bone age examination data, the bone age with greatest difference to actual age was 3.8 years.

 

陈一文顾问评论:最多超过实际年龄3.8与早熟女童提前成熟程度类似,是否揭示男童中早熟的实际比例比目前单纯以其他方面性特征检测出的早熟男童比例更高?是否揭示应当将骨龄提前成熟程度作为男童是否早熟重要判据之一?男童骨龄提前的机制与原因与女童早熟的机制与原因是否有差异?】

Advisor Chen comments: “Bone age with greatest difference to actual age was 3.8 years”, is similar to the age advancement of early puberty girls, does this reveal the actual prevalence of early mature boys is higher than determined only by judgment from other aspects of sex characteristics? Does this reveal that should also consider advance extent of bone age as one of the important criterions for determining early mature boys? Is the mechanism and course of advance bone age for early mature boys the same as the mechanism and course of advance puberty of girls?

 

国际权威杂志2011发表中国学者研究:首次报道了肠道菌群参与性早熟的发病过程 [14]

International authoritative journal 2011 publish Chinese scholars study: For the first time report gut flora participate the illness course of precocious puberty [14]

    上海中医药大学中医方证与系统生物学研究中心张永煜教授、贾伟教授,上海交通大学附属儿童医院的科研人员合作研究,发现性早熟女童的代谢模式与正常女童存在明显差异,且体重偏重,进一步研究发现女童性早熟发病过程与色氨酸、酪氨酸、三羧酸循环等多条代谢通路发生改变直接相关。

    Prof. Zhang Yongyu, Jia Wei, Chinese Traditional Medicine Prescription Examination & Systems Biology Research Center of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, jointly with science research members of the Children’s Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, found obvious difference metabolic patterns between precocious puberty girls to normal girls, the former tend to have heavier bodies, and through further study found that the course of precocious puberty disease is directly related to alteration of three major perturbed metabolic pathways, catecholamine, serotonin metabolism and tricarboxylic acid cycle.

  实验中还检测到6种与性早熟发病相关的激素,尤其是催乳素(prolactin)、促黄体生成素(luteotropic hormone, LH)、卵泡刺激素(follicle-stimulating hormone, FSH)、雌二醇(Estradiol, E2)与健康女童相比分别增高了0.71.51.611.5倍。并首次报道了肠道菌群参与性早熟的发病过程,以及代谢组学方法在疾病诊断方面的应用前景。这些研究结果还为剖析中医药治疗性早熟提供了潜靶点。

    The study identified 6 kinds of hormones related to development of precocious puberty disease, especially prolactin, luteotropic hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2increases 0.7, 1.5, 1.6 and 11.5 respectively compared to healthy control groups. The study was also the first to report that an alteration in symbiotic gut microbial (gut flora) composition is involved in the development of CPP (Central Precocious Puberty) condition, and the application prospect of metabonomics in disease diagnosis method, these results of the research analyzed potential targets for precocious puberty treatment by traditional Chinese medicine.

  该研究得到国家自然科学基金和上海市教委“085”学科内涵建设经费资助,研究成果于20111025在国际权威期刊《Molecular and Cellular Proteomics》杂志上在线刊出,受到业内高度关注和评价。[15]

    This study was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation and the Shanghai Education Committee “085” subject connotation construction supporting fund. The study was published on Oct. 25, 2011 by the international authoritative journal “Molecular and Cellular Proteomics”, and received strong attention and appraise within the concerned academic field. [15]

 

参考文献:

References:

 

[1] 北京京海中医医院,女孩性早熟三大危害 你知道吗,2012-01-05

    http://www.xingzaoshu.com/xzsweihai/20120105207.html

 

[2] Jennifer Ashton, Puberty starting earlier for many girls: study, CBS News, April 12, 2011

   詹妮弗·阿什顿,许多女孩子们青春期到来的较早:研究,CBS新闻,2011-04-11

http://www.cbsnews.com/2100-500172_162-20053084.html

 

[3] Liz Szabo, Girls hit puberty earlier than ever, and doctors aren't sure why, USA Today, 2011-04-11

   Liz Szabo,女童比过去更早进入青春期,医生不知道为何?,今日美国,2011-04-11

http://yourlife.usatoday.com/parenting-family/story/2011/04/Girls-hit-puberty-earlier-than-ever-and-doctors-arent-sure-why/45989054/1

 

[4] Frank M. Biro at el., Pubertal Assessment Method and Baseline Characteristics in a Mixed Longitudinal Study of Girls, Pediatrics Review. 2011; 32:7 281-292

   Frank M. Biro at el.,对于女孩子们的混合纵向研究中青春期评估方法与基准线特征,小儿科评论,2011; 32:7 281-292

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2010/08/09/peds.2009-3079.abstract

 

[5] 韩国性早熟症儿童患者4年来翻两番 女孩占9成,浙江在线健康网,20090929

    South Korean precocious puberty patients have fourfold in 4 years, girls account for 90%, Zhejiang Online Health Website, 2009-09-29

http://health.zjol.com.cn/05zjhealth/system/2009/09/29/015875012.shtml

 

[7] 李嫔at el.,性早熟女童骨骼发育异常的规律及滋阴泻火中药治疗的作用,中国中西医结合杂志 200411

   Li Bin at el., Girls precocious puberty abnormal skeletal development law and treatment effect by traditional Chinese medicine which moisture Yin and purges heat within the body, Combine Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine Journal, 2004(11)

http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTotal-ZZXJ200411005.htm

 

[8] 孙永军,足协称多数骨龄超标青少年球员系身体发育较早,京华时报,2012-02-25

   Sun Yong-jun, China Football Association claimed that most youth players with exceeding bone age are due to body early development, Jinghua Times, 2012-02-25

http://www.fjsen.com/p/2012-02/25/content_7896456.htm

 

[9] 北京体育大学,中国足协全国青少年足球联赛骨龄检测结果公示,2011-07-16

   Beijing Sports University, China Football Association national youth football league bone age examination results is announced, 2011-07-16

http://slide.sports.sina.com.cn/n/slide_2_18983_13939.html#p=2

 

[14] 金恒,我国内地女童性早熟发病率上升至5%新民晚报,2011-11-22

    Jin Heng, China’s inland girls early puberty prevalence increased to 5%, Xinmin Evening News, 2011-11-22

http://news.xinmin.cn/t/xmwbtj/2011/11/22/12764120.html

 

[15] Ying Qi et al., Urinary metabolite markers of precocious puberty, Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, Epub 2011 Oct 25.

    Ying Qi et al.,早熟青春期的尿代谢标记,分子与细胞蛋白质组学杂志,在线出版,2011-10-25

http://www.mcponline.org/content/early/2011/10/25/mcp.M111.011072.short?rss=1

 

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